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Most experts have the same opinion that there are five prime functions all mangers execute, planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling. In entire, these activities indicate the management process.
Planning: under this concept managers have to establish goals and standard, giving set of laws and measures, developing policy and forecasting.
Organizing: It is the responsibility of a manager to organize the things in an organization. This is very important that the power scheme of any organization should be well organized. There should be network of communication, and managers are the responsible person for all these.
Staffing: They know what type of people should he appointed, recruiting prospective employee, selecting employee, setting performance standard, compensating employee, evaluating performance, counseling employees, training and developing employees,
Leading: getting others to get the job done, maintaining morale, and motivating subordinates.
Controlling: In this concept manager are setting standards such as sales targets, quality standard, or production levels, checking to see how actual performance compares with these standards, taking corrective action as required?
"Human resource management is process of acquiring, training, appraising, and compensating employees, and attending to their labor relations, health and safety, and fairness concerns. Here we will discuss the concepts and techniques every manager need to perform the" people" or personnel aspects". (Gerry Dessler)
Conducting job analysis(determines the nature of each employee's job)
Planning labor needs and recruiting job candidates
Selecting job candidates
Orienting and training new employees
Managing wages and salaries (compensating employees)
Providing incentive and benefits
Communicating(interviewing, counseling, disciplining)
Training and developing mangers
Building employee commitment.
And here we discuss what a manager should know about:
Equal opportunity and affirmative action
Employee health and safety
Handling grievances and labor relations
Now we have question that why are these concepts and techniques important to all managers Perhaps it's easier to answer this question by listing some of the personnel mistakes you don't want to make while managing.
Hire the wrong person for the job
Experience high turnover
Have your people not doing their best
Waste time with useless interviews
Have you company taken to court because of discriminatory actions
Have some employee's thing that their salaries are unfair and inequitable relative to others in the organization.
Commit any unfair labor practices
A manager himself is a person who is hired by the organization for the betterment of the organization. So if there is already a bad team existing in the organization then there should be a charm in the manager's personality to good or have well from even the bad workers and co-workers. Like they say in English "Dutch courage", a courage gained by wine, so managers should not be a man who has the Dutch courage, rather he is consistent person who is also a capacity builder and a user of the potential of persons to its full extent. So there is always a need for a HR manager.
HUMAN RSOURCE MANGER'S DUTIES.
In providing this specialized assistance, the human resource manager carries out three distinct functions.
1-A line function. An organization works like a chain, so it is the responsibilities of a human resource manger to strengthened and fix any missing or working unit of this chain.
2- A coordinative function. An organization has multiple things to do. There should be a coordinator like HRM manager.
3- Staff functions Sometimes there is a need to reach or access the psychology of a worker which sometimes can be done by the HRM. It helps in dealing with the workers.
It is the responsibility of the manger that he uses the maximum potential of the company to compete the other companies which are in the market so that the company concerned has the leading edge. In very high competitive market it is also necessary for manger to use all available resources to remain in the market.
Strategic Human Resource Management:
"Strategic human resource management means formulating and executing human resource Policies and practices that produce the employee competencies and behaviour the company needs to achieve its strategic aims. Strategic human resource management can be defined as the linking of human resources with strategic goals and objectives in order to advance business performance and develop organizational culture that promote innovation, flexibility and competitive advantage. In an organization SHRM means accepting and linking the HR function as a strategic partner in the formulation and implementation of the company's Strategies through HR activities such as recruiting, selecting, training and rewarding personnel".(Gerry dessler)
"Wisconsin based signicast corp.'s president, Terry Lutz, and his board decided to build a new, computerized plant. Sigicast produces metal parts from a casting process. The basic process is ancient, although Signicast has improved it dramatically. To complete, the firm needed the new, automated plant. Mr. Lutz and his team understood that in the real world, new automation technology requires a new kind of employee. They knew the computerized plant was useless without employees who could work in teams, manager their own work, and run the plant's computerized equipment. Lutz and his management team relied on sinicast's human resource management unit to select, train, and organize the teach-friendly people the new plant requirement. By formulating and executing the hiring and other personnel practices signicast needed to make the plant success".
"In practice, human resource managements' strategic role means several things. Ritz-Carlton and Signicast, human resource managers today are involved in partnering with their top managers in both designing and executing their companies' strategies. Today's focus on competitiveness and operational improvements also means that human resource managers must express their departmental plans and accomplishment in measurable terms. Top management wants to see, precisely, how the human resource manager's plan will make the company more valuable, for instance by boosting factory skill levels, and, thereby, improving performance". (Gerry Dessler)
There are airlines in the world that compete each other in their prices and services and make millions as the travel industry is one of the most developing industries of the world. An example can be given in this regard of the southwest airline. The flights of the said company are at the lowest price. It is not because they buy the fuel that is cheaper in the market or they are paying less for the staff. Southwest have a great HR management policy and strategy and so that's why they are growing.
The essence of Dell's competitive strategy has always been to be a low-cost leader. Dell's human resource managers use various HR strategies to support Dell's low-cost aims. For example, Dell delivers most of its human resources services, not through a conventional Human Resources department, But via the web. A Manager Tools section Dell's intranet contains about 30 automated web applications. This allows managers to perform human resource tasks that previously required costly participation by human resource personnel. The internet also check job posting, and monitor their total compensation statement. This reduces the number of human resource people required to administer these activities, and thus the cost of doing so. That in turn supports Dell's low cost strategy.
Dell has stated to use the internet as a useful tool for their HR management. This internet based has reduced the cost for Dell. There have been introduced the application on the net which have been low cost and headaches for the Dell. By doing so there have been decrease in the cost that was first paid to managers in the form of high salaries
Strategic Human Resource Challenges:
Now a day's human resource managers face three strategic challenges.
1- One (as at Dell) is the need to support corporate productivity and performance improvement efforts.
2- Employees play an expanded role in employer's performance organizations like Toyota's-- such a high technology team-based production are largely useless without extraordinary high level of employee competence and commitment.
3- The third challenge is that employers see that their human resource units must be more involved in designing not just executing the company's strategic plan.
Today's stress on going competitive advantage through people renders such arrangements inadequate. Instead, top management needs the input of the human resource team in designing the strategy, since it is the team charged with hiring, training, and compensating the firm's employees. Human resource managers will therefore need a basic functional understanding of how the firm makes money. What activities and process are most critical for value creation as defined by customers and capital markets? Human resource professional need to understand the basis of strategic planning and of the basic business functions such as accounting, finance, production, and sales, so they can take their "seat at the table" when top management is crafting the firm's strategic plan.
What factors should management consider in HRM?
Recruitment is the process of searching for prospective employee and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization.
Internal existing employee
Using Existing Contracts
Existing Employees Contracts.
Private Selection Consultants
This is the process of getting detailed information about job. Here we give the importance of job analysis according to HRM.
The Importance of job analysis to HR Manager.
Job analysis has been called the building block of everything that the personnel department does.
Some of the human resource activities that use job-analysis information includes selection, performance, appraisal, training, and development, job evaluation, career planning, work redesign and human resource planning.
The Importance of Job Analysis to Line Manger:-
Manager must have detailed information about all the jobs in their work group to understand the work-flow process.
Managers need to understand the job requirements to make intelligent hiring decision.
Since the Manager is responsible for ensuring that each individual is performing his or her job manager must clearly understand the satisfactorily, the task required in every job.
Job Analysis Information
A job description is a list of the tasks, duties and responsibilities (TDRS) that the job entitles.
A job specification is a list of the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAO) that an individual must have to perform the job.
3- Training and Developing Employees.
The process of teaching new employees the basic skills they need to perform their jobs. This might mean showing a new web designer the intricacies of your site, a new salesperson how to sell your firm's products, or a new supervisor how to fill out the firm's weekly payroll sheets.
Here I again quote an example of Wisconsin-based Signicast Corp. Decided to build a new, high- tech plant, or computerized plant. Terry Lutz, the firm's president, know signicast would need a new type of employees to run that plant, and new screening and training programs to hire and train them.
The U.S armed Forces are taking army developed video- game-type training programmers called Full-Spectrum Command and Full- spectrum Warrior for training troops in urban warfare.
"When Honda decided to build a new plant in Alabama, it had to hire thousands of new employees in an area where few people worked in manufacturing. Honda and the Alabama state employment agency first screened the applications by eliminating those who lacked the education or experience. And then gave preference to applicants near the plant. About 340 applicants per six-week session received special training at a new facility about 15 miles from the plant, two evening a week. It included classroom instruction, watching videos of current Honda employees in action, and actually practicing particular jobs. Finally HR department do the final screening. They interview the candidates, review their training record, and decide which ones to hire". (Gerry Dessler)
4- Performance and pay/Motivation and Incentives:
Achievers in their previous organization should always be given preferences. There is famous quote" I work for money, if you want loyalty then find another one. In doing jobs the basic motive is money so incentives should always be there in form of cash or a healthy pay checques.
British Gas Example,
British gas is largest company in gas sector. The success behind the company is the workers high performance because of the incentives along with commission offered to the employees for the benchmark performances. Now a days there are a lot of companies working in this sector but British gas is still on the top because of it always motivates their employees and gives new packages along with attractive incentives
5-PROBLEM SOLVING GROUPS
Being a good manager, he should make some department or group which can help employee's problems. These problems can be helping new employees or helping the old staff with legal stuff or work issue. It can be personal issues as well. Like sometimes employees are having bad time in domestic life and cannot concentrate on their work. So these groups can help and guide the employee with more broad vision.
6-IMPLEMENTATION OF EMPLOYE 'S SUGGESTIONS
In SHRM this factor is very important to listen to the all employee's suggestions, whether the employee is new in the company or working in it for long. New comers sometimes bring new ideas with them; it might be from their previous work place or educational institute. And the old worker can help with their experience in the same work place. Good management always keeps on having employees meetings to keep them up to date and listen to all their new and good ideas.
Co-operative Store Example:
Co-operative is the largest consumer owned based retail store in the super market industry. In cooperative staff have monthly based meeting for the new suggestions. Like they have recently introduced new way of time recording for staff's working hours. Now the staff has biometric system of clock in and clock out. Before this effective way of time recording system, staff had problem with wages. And this new system has been suggested by one of the manager who has come from ASDA, where he used to do this.
7-Benefits and Services:-
"Indirect financial and non-financial payments received by the employees for continuing their employment with the company. They include things like health and life insurance, pension, time off with pay, and child care assistance".(Gerry dessler)
Verizon communication, facing strong competition and the need to reduce its employees after several managers, needed a way to convince thousands of its employees to take early retirement. In this case, Verizon required a plan that was economically sensible, as well as one that complied with different laws that apply to retirement and other benefits.
8-Coaching / Mentoring:-
No new techniques, No progress for the company. There have been introduced the degrees in the modern universities that offer a degree in innovation and also in R and D that us research and development. The research and development is based on the experiences of the managers of other organization so nothing matches with experience. The new research should be told to the workers so to enable them to match the other progress making organizations. Tesco Example:
Tesco is one of leading brand in supermarket industry; recently Tesco had introduced self checkout tills. This is a big innovation in supermarket industry and due to that customer who buys only few things has been no need to stand in a long queue he just use these tills, but some time customers don't know how to use it that's why Tesco trained their employees about this innovation for the better service provided to the customers.
Creating a Mentoring Culture
Build a Mentoring Culture
Coaching for Improved Performance
Leadership Success Secrets: Leadership Inspiration
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What Do You Mean My Company
9- Team Building / Work Teams
"Employee contribution, teams, and employee empowerment allow people to make decisions about their work. This employee involvement, teambuilding approach, and employee empowerment increases loyalty and fosters ownership. These ideas tell you how to do team building and effectively involve people. In this concept good or experienced managers built teams in which old and experienced employee's leads these teams and these peoples know system of the company and know as well how to do smart work that's why new comers follow these peoples and done better job in few days".
They say nothing is more powerful than a simple idea, so can be true for innovation as the speed of progress for humans have been many folds as compared to the 19th century. So there still remains the chances to be the best as they say "Top is always empty". Sony has invaded in US with the same idea and may have totally different story in after few years to come.
Strategy Human resource management is relatively a new term in the management but has very important implications. By the introduction of SHRM the organizations have managed to improve their potentials. The employees and the organizations are connected to each other through SHRM. It has been the want of the organizations to formulate new ways to produce goods and services. It is the duty of the SHRM to find the right person for the right job for the growth of any company.
It is the responsibility of the HR department to find the goal achieving people from the market and also train them to gain excellence. There have been introduced new techniques in SHRM which are useful for the HR managers for the uplift and perfection of the organizations. It is the responsibility of the HRM department to find and know the problems of employees and then to solve them. By this way they can retain low employ turnover, attract new employees and also improve of the employ development. In the modern world it is important for each organization to use its full potential. SHRM helps the organization to move forward and move forward quickly. In every leading industry HR department works as backbone. Because it does the SWOT analysis, recruitment, job analysis and make new laws for the employees, which benefits the employees and company as well. Now a day's no one can become the leader without competitive HR department, who knows the strategies and how to use these in the favor of their employees and company.