The practices that Human Resources uses

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The report has done in the regarding of HR practice of an organization. The main purposes of this project are how an organization practice the human resource management in terms of company policy and Government Legislation. How a big organization manage their large number of Human capital to ensuring social responsibilities. The most important seem to be is high supportive people for company who are already working and who are looking for the work. In my project I choose a small food company called '' EAT LTD.'' Founded 13 years ago. I am an ex-employee of this company. They have about 100 shop around the London which is contain a large number of employee. In my essay I will explain what function they do in terms of HR practice on the basis of my job experience, and interviewing current employees. My essay is also include with what they do, and how they can improve on the basis of the relation of theory and practice.

PLANNING :

Human resource planning is the process of anticipating and moving the people in the organization into, within, and out of the organization. Planning is a function of human resource management by which organization can achieve its structural organization goals. In modern business HR planning is the most important part of an organization. Proper managing human capital is hardest part in the business world. Because organizational goals is mainly depends on its employees workforce, ability, behaviour, and effectiveness. Human resource planning assists organizations to recruit, retain, and proper size of employee number which is needed to meet business objectives and avoid to negative impact of changes in the external environment. Skills analysis of the existing workforce, perfect manpower forecasting, and taking action to ensure that supply meets demand is involve in the process of Human resource planning. This process also include the development of training and retraining strategies. There are many ways to define HR planning, or explain what it is: ''Rigorous HR planning links people management to the organization's mission, vision, goals and objectives, as well as its strategic plan and budgetary resources. A key goal of HR planning is to get the right number of people with the right skills, experience and competencies in the right jobs at the right time at the right cost.'' ( Government of Canada human resources site). Right person in right position with right number at the right time is the main goal of HR planning. HR Planning is continues process. Forecasting the manpower will need in future in the organization, making an inventory of present manpower resources and assessing the extent of minimum and maximum level of all the department, recognizing manpower problem by projecting present resources into the future on the basis of demand and supply , Planning the necessary program like recruitment, selection, development, and training. This process can be use for improving the utilization of human resources, future organizational objectives, hiring new worker by achieving economy, coordination between various HR programmes. Now a days HR planning is much more important to ensure optimum use of man and woman. To save the organization economy by downsizing and expanding of required level of employee. HR planning is much more important. It is also very important to develop the existing employees skills and workforce. There are three key element of HR planning is :

Forecasting the labour demand.

Analyzing the supply of labour.

Supply and demand balancing.

HR planning is necessary to analyzing the determine the rate of influx and output of employee, calculate the numbers of persons required for various jobs with reference to planned out, job analysis to finding the ability or skilled required.

JOB DESIGN :

'Job design is an organizational development (OD), work design is the application of Socio-Technical Systems principles and techniques to the humanization of work'.

Job design is a work arrangement or rearrangement by reducing job dissatisfaction and employee isolation which is comes from boring and mechanistic task . By offering financial rewards an organization try to increase its productivity. Increasing challenge and personal responsibility of an individual bring the greater satisfaction. Job design are exactly involve this type of activity by which organizational goals can achieve. There are various technique of job designing like job enrichment, job simplification Job enlargement, and , job rotation. The explanation of the techniques are as bellows :

Job Enrichment : Job enrichment is a technique which can adds new sources of job satisfaction. This is also called as job enhancement. This is a vertical reconstructing method. In this process job satisfaction can increased by adding the new level of responsibility of the employee. In this process employee has been given additional authority, autonomy, and control over the way job is accomplished.

Job Simplification : In this techniques an organization try to gain greater productivity by reducing application of mental or physical effort. In this process jobs are broken by relative simple task.

Job enlargement : This is a horizontal reconstructing method. In this process job is increased to add variety of activities, which is reduced employees boringness. Greater workforce flexibility can gained by this process.

Job rotation : The main objective of this process is to increase the ability of employees different type of task . And the result is employee become more variety of experienced and skills. In this process employees are transferred from one department or changes in the responsibility.

But there is some problem on job design. It is believed that if Job design approach is wrong the consequence will be bad. Management should follow some approaches in terms of taking disadvantages of job designing. Different approaches are explain as below :

Engineering Approach : By this approach every employee should be inform before the day the job has to be done. This information should be in written about the detailed task, instruction, time mentioned. Selected employee should be matched with the demand of job. Work should arranged properly And employee has to be trained that he/she can be efficient.

Human Relation Approach : This type of approach for job designing is based on employees motivation. In this process mental and hygienic factors are considered. Like achievements, recognition, responsibility, working condition, inter personal relation and job security.

www.businessdictionary.com & www.openlearningworld.com

Recruitment:

Drake and roe (1994) asserted that '' perhaps the most effective way to make long-range improvement in organizations is to have a sound recruitment program''. Recruitment is a kind of process which is the basis of a company looks for the perfect employee or worker to fill vacancies or entitled new members. Respective applicant are invited for selection by this process. A lot of recruitment process are currently working in the modern Human resource policy. Most of the cases A company normally post an advertisement to the local Newspapers, to TV channels, or giving add to the email, advertisement in the social network site, any other popular site in the internet, distributing leaflets. Recent years it has been revealed that some company using billboards as recruitment strategies. Recruitment can be done by two ways. One is internal recruitment another is External recruitment.'' Both internal and external recruitment have advantages and disadvantages to the school district( Lunenburg & Ornstein, 2000, P 529). Internal recruitment can be the more effective than external. Because internal people already knows the role, company, and its strategies. More over internal recruitment is less expensive than external. On the other hand, External recruitment is essential in terms of shortage staff, efficient and extra ordinary staff. This type of recruitment can bring the highest effectiveness of recruitment process and organizational objective. Different authors has been given different opinion about the recruitment strategies:

Recruitment process can be a tricky for a community based projects. Some contribution which is focused on the physical activity of the innervations of the woman on the community based, specially discussed in a research about the outcome of the specific recruitment strategies. On the addition recruitment strategies can be used as a race of all culture or ethnics group this is still not been shown in any school work or research which has been documented. The community based intervention has been revealed in several studies in spite of of populations and interventions. (Baigis, Francis, & Hoffman, 2003). Using post or announcement in newspapers are very much popular and effective to recruit people in home based walking programme has been revealed by the different studies. The printing media is equally very much effective to recruit American and African older aged or adult people (Coleman et al.. 1997). Into a state-wide intervention television adds and recruitment letters are the most popular recruiting methods for recruiting adults. (Spencer et al...1998)

In the case study, Lauren has chosen local news papers to recruit her staffs. As she is reluctant to get the people from job centres.

Selection:

Selection is a process which is taken by the employee to recruit the right person in right position among all the applicants who are interested for the specific job. This process is taken for finding the eligible and best person from the number of applicants. To gain the expected performance from the selected staff this process is the most important part of Human resource management( HRM). Over looking the all application is first step for selection process. After that metholody of selection process used and then making shotlisting from the entire applicants. Finally, further interview ( if necessary) and make a selection is the last process of a selection process. On first step all the application has to check carefully. CV should be the main crieteria for checking application. After that selected applicants on the basis of applivcation invited for assessment. In this process applicants will face, face -to- face interview, individual presentation, and group presentation. Following the assessment a shorlisting is next process. After making a short list, listed candidate are aske to do on job experience. Final selection need to be done in the final part of selection process. Different company use different selection methods in assessment like face to face interviewing people, communication ability testing by the phone, self assesment,

Group assessment, testing skills, ( technical, cocfidence, communication), and OJ.

Some author has given their view about the selection process : Selection is the process of collecting and evaluating information about an individual in order to extend an offer of employment. Such employment could be either a first position for a new employee or a different position of a current employee (Robert D. Gatewood…..2007). Having a very sound recruitment process is a technique to make a long range improvement for a company. (Drake and Roe, 1994). In the time of globalization every company is highly concerned about the work performance of its employee. This is because employees performance level determinant how successfully an organization can reaches its strategic goals and developing the competitive advantage over rival firms1

In the case study Lauren has some of good idea to ask question to the candidates

Assessment:

Human Resource Assessment Technique is a useful and effective method of personnel evaluation, In modern business world, it has been widely used in different business organizations of many developed countries. Assessment is a process by which management can find out that how effectively a employee enable to prefer his job in proper way with expectations after selecting him/her for the position. Generally most of the company recruit the people for six month provisional period. Assessment process can be done after the employee finishing his/her provisional period before permanent confirmation. In that case candidates can be assessing by different assessment method. That assessment can be psychological or physical. Applying KSA is a traditional and continuous process of the competency of assessment technique. This is a very identical analysis of a task or job a which is followed by the assessment individually to find out that individuals chararactaristic in a specific job. In that case jobs and individuals performance both of them can be monitored deeply by putting under the microscope, on the other hand on that process the larger context condition where this specific job were situated and were been slighted as well. (Clardy, 2007). Job analysis is a systematic collection analyze the detail information about the job. Job description in included in this process. Main focus of a job analysis is performance, knowledge, skills, abilities, and motivation. The primary goal of a job analysis is to provide full information to create a model performance. Which can be the basement of measuring good or bad performance. Once job analysis is completed, a determination must be made about the specific instrument to use to measure the desired ability. Purpose is to develop exercise that suggest the skill required the job.

There is many ways to assess the employee such as :

Leaderless Group Execercise : This method is to checking candidate leadership ability. In this method a job will be given to a number of people which has to be done as a group towards organizational goals. No instruction will be given about the leading role. Everyone will be in equal status but to achiving the goal leadership will needed. Thus candidate are in a situation where they have the opportunity to demonstrate their leadership ability.

Employee counselling : This exercise is very effective for the candidate who applying the managerial role. Employee counselling is very important job for manager's job. This can be the most difficult and unpleasant task the employee need to perform. Candidate are given the information about a critical situation relating an employee. Instruction may be given to interview and counsel the employee. Candidate has to show the ability to find out the seriousness and consequences of the factor.

In- Basket : In this exercise candidate will be asked that he/she has been just promoted. So lots of paper, notes, conference agenda, letters, and file will put in the basket. Candidate has to write in every single issue that he/she picking up. This exercise will demonstrate the candidate's ability of problem solving, decision making, writing communication skills, etc., rather than permitting them to avoid the problems by claiming they would handle them later.

Interview : By this exercise candidate will face to face conversation. Candidate may asked to answer the question about personal life, personal interest, general knowledge, job related knowledge, elements that making him interested to apply for the job. This exercise is more common and traditional. Almost every organization use this pattern to assess their employee. Candidate can be assessed of his personality, skills, ability by this method.

All of those exercise is very common in terms of popularity for modern organization. Some organization use all together and some organization use one or two of them.

Performance Appraisal :

Performance appraisal is a process by which an organization evaluate its individual's job performance of the existing employee. This process is very important to achieve organizational goals. Any wrong or bias evaluation can affect the proper human managing. Performance appraisal is about employees performance and accountability. As a human being nature employees need the feedback for their better performance as future guide. Appraisal helps to develop individual, organizational develop, and feed into business planning. Appraisal process depends on the organization's structure. Normally staff appraised by line manager, managers appraised by CEO, who is appraised by chairman or shareholders. Generally most of the organizations has the annual appraisal system. It is important for staff motivation, attitude and behaviour development, communicating and aligning individual and organizational aims, and fostering positive relationships between management and staff. Performance appraisal is also essential for career succession planning for individual, and organizational as whole. Meaningful regular discussion about work, career, aims, progress, development, hopes and dreams, life, the universe, the TV, common interests, etc., whatever, makes appraisals so much because this discussion helps to know each other and develop the loyalty between staff and management which reduce all the stress and uncertainty. Transparent, long and short term performance measurement, agreeing objectives, aims and target, mutual understanding and relationship between staff and management can be achieve by managing proper performance appraisal. Performance appraisal can be done in various ways classified into a) past oriented neither b) future oriented.

A) Past oriented appraisal

The appraisal based on the past performance is called past oriented appraisal. Some of the past oriented appraisal are :

Ranking : In this terms Supervisor or line manager has been asked to rank the employee according to his vision of previous performance for highest and lowest.

Critical incident technique : This terms is used to describe the employees very effective and very ineffective behaviour. In the evaluation period evalutor prepared a log for each employee. During the evaluation period evaluator recorded examples of critical behaviour in each categories, and the log has been used for performance appraisal after the ended of evaluation period.

Forced choice method : Using this term employees high rating can be avoid. Which has been done by the evaluator. There is a possibility to ranking high by the evaluator with bias on some one. In this terms evaluator has bees asked to select for appraisal from a set of descriptive statements, statements that apply to the employee.

Forced Distribution : This term is used to describe an appraisal system similar to grading. The evaluator are given a graph and asked to draw positive/ negative curve on employees performance in some fixed distribution of categories. And the selection for appraisal will made after finishing the evolution period.

Narrative or Essay Evaluation : This terms is the most oldest and popular for appraisal. In this terms evaluator asked to write an essay about employees strength and weakness point of behaviour.

B) Future oriented appraisal :

Future oriented appraisal is important because only past performance assessment is not enough for achieving organizational goal. How employees can perform on upcoming day that is important as well. There is various type of future oriented appraisal method such as :

360-Degree appraisal :

360 degree appraisals are a dominating developmental method and fairly different to traditional manager-subordinate appraisals . As such a 360 degree process does not replace the traditional one-to-one process and can be used as a stand-alone development method. In this terms appraisee receiving feedback from people named or unnamed whose views are considered helpful and relevant. The feedback is provided on a form showing job skills/abilities/attitudinal/behavioural criteria and some sort of scoring or value judgement system. 360 degree respondents can be the appraisee's peers, up-line managers/execs, subordinate staff, team members, other staff, customers, suppliers - anyone who comes into contact with the appraisee and has opinions/views/reactions of and to the appraisee.

Management by objective :

In this process subordinate and supervisor jointly identify the organizational goal. This measure can be used as guide for operating the unit and assessing the contribution of each of its member by defining organizational goal and individual responsibilities.

Objective :

Two change behaviour and attitude towards getting the job done.

Providing responsibility and accountability.

Providing opportunities for participation in goal-setting process.

Psychological appraisal :

In this terms psychological affect can be used. Employees are appraisal by psychological test, discussion with supervisor, and a review of other evalutions. An evalution report written by a psychologist about employees emotions, intellectual, motivational and other characteristics. By assessing his intellectuality and potentiality it is easy to make decision for future placement. This appraisal can boost individuals career.

Assessment centre : Mainly used for executive hiring. In this terms evaluator assessed the potentiality of executive. Thus the executive can bring the highest benefit for the organization.

Compliance to Regulation

In Modern business importance of Human resource compliance is lot. A business which HR department is not aware of law of Fair Labour Standard Act(FLSA), OSHA, sexual harassment, and antidiscrimination laws, is headed for trouble. Practicing proper HR compliance is a process, the way of defining group and individual behaviour. This practice assured that everyone understand and followed rules. In HR practice it should be ensured that management knows the laws and make a development of a relationship with the law and its policies. Compliance is also ensure that staff and management communicate with the policies by expected adherence and the consequence for non adherence. And the required further investigation and punishment.

Effective HR compliance program is included the business strategies. Every policy has to drafted in the relationship of company strategies and the Laws. And the compliance should be start from top to bottom of the organization. So everyone in the organization respect the rules and regulation and know that workplace be kept safe and any sort of discrimination will be intolerable. There is the possibilities that people from different age , culture, religion, and background can work together within an organization. As a result this is highly important that management can achieve the goals of HR compliances. There is some steps which can help to achieve the goal of HR compliances such as :

1. Get in touch : Management always should be in touch of new regulation. Because HR laws changes regularly. So management has to be in touch in on time for establishment the policies relating to the changes. Otherwise any intentional trouble can be make by taking the opportunity of law changing. So management has to be aware of changes and communicate them to the employee with new policies.

2. HR Manual : Effective HR compliance can be achieve by developing a HR manual. This manual is known as employee hand book. This handbook is regarding the laws, employees criteria, limitations, consequence of non adherence behaviour etc. But this manual should be updated regularly on the basis of changes.

3. Training : This is very important part to achieve the compliance goals. Managers should be trained properly about the policies thus they can handle the employee within the regulation on the day-to-day basis. Moreover employees should be trained as well. As they know the regulation they will act on its expectation.

4. Opinion : Listening and takes the opinion can be the good practice for HR compliance. Listening to the managers and staff and take the opinion from the experts can be effective to develop the proper compliances respecting the current situation in the organization.

5. Feedback : Giving the feedback to the people is important for ensuring proper HR compliance. Employee should be informed regularly what is expected and what is done by him. In this process they can know their areas of weakness that they can get on that.

6. Documentations : As a human being Management and staff memory can be fade on over time. In this process anything good or bad evidence can be filed as documentation. If it is necessary to show that after long period no one need to memories. Document will speak the matter. As a result no one can disagree with the fact. This document has to kept on file with the signature of related persons.

Some of the Laws are as follows :

Sexual Harassment define by European Community under Sex discrimination Act 1975 '' any form of unwanted verbal, non-verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature occurs with the purpose or effect of violating the dignity of a person, in particular when creating an intimidating, hostile, degrading, humiliating or offensive environment"

Harassment in the work place. ( Protection from Harassment Act 1997)

Pay roll Policy( Minimum wages)

Compensation Policy.( Federal Employment compensation Act)

Equal opportunity policy. ( Equal opportunity Act 2004)

Fair Labour Standard Act. ( Labour relation Act 2002)

Health and safety Law ( Health & safety at work Act 1974)

http://www.allbusiness.com/human-resources/workplace-health-safety/979-1.html ( Access 2nd June 2010)

Development Training :

Human Resources (HR) training in employee related and legally related, especially managers and supervisors are mandatory in almost every company in modern business world. Motivational training has the positive impact on the business. It can brings the return on investment by increasing employees knowledge, productivity, loyalty, and contribution with satisfaction if the right employee can trained in right time. The importance of trained the right employee within right time is most. Otherwise the goal of training can not be achievable if the person and time for training is wrong. So most of the company spending a lot on their employees training. The American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) "estimates that U.S. organizations spend $109.25 billion on employee learning and development annually, with nearly three quarters ($79.75 billion) spent on the internal learning function, and the remainder ($29.50 billion) spent on external services."

Important aspect of training :

Importance of training is most. But in most case it is determine by the view of employee and method of training. For building truly dynamic company innovation, flexibility, and dedication form the employee is needed. This type of vitality only comes from only the trained employee. Professional development and training opportunity is one of the best way to motivate the individual. The business work atmosphere introduce with energy and creativity by developing the new skills of the employee. Introducing the training facility inside or outside the organization, introduce the new creativity and ideas of solving current problems. This development start energy and encourage employee to recommit to their jobs and the company rather than getting used to of their everyday work schedule. Learning new skills and interacting with new and different people has the great impact on organizations productivity and workforce. There is no need to trained a longer period and expensive training. Seminar, group discussion, workshop, cross training to other department. Cross department training make the employees more involvement in the business. Thus the employee can know how other department works and how everything comes together in one line at the end of the day. So that the employee can understand the company as a whole in big picture not only the department where he/she work. Option of employee training is necessary due to these factors :

Technological change : Employees training is mandatory in the case of any technological change. Employees are used to their equipment but when any change comes they don't know about the operation and maintenance . So the have to trained on that particular changes.

New product : Effectiveness from an employee comes when the employee has good knowledge about the product. Without knowing the product his workforce will go down. In this case employee has to trained properly about the product.

New department : In the case of Job enlargement employee need to trained properly. When an organization stand on the growing stage they split their job in terms of high volume of task. A new department of working task then start. Employees has to trained that how the new company will work, and how all the job will come together.

New employee : This factors is very common. When an employee recruited normally he doesn't know the company its product, operation, manners etc. As a result the employee needs proper training.

So, in two ways this training for development can be done :

External education, Training, and Development :

Seminars, workshops, and classes come in every variety imaginable, both in-person and online.

Take field trips to other companies and organizations.

Colleges and universities, and occasionally, local adult education, community colleges or technical schools provide classes. Universities are reaching out to adult learners with evening and weekend MBA and business programs.

Professional association seminars, meetings, and conferences offer training opportunities.

Internal education, Training, and Development :

1.Workshop, seminar, and classes can provide within the organization.

2. Mentoring programme.

3. Bring the experts in the organization.

http://humanresources.about.com/od/educationgeneral/a/training_invest.htm & http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/109127/why_employee_training_is_so_important.html ( Access on 2nd June 2010).

1.Frank J.Landy and James L. Farr, The measurement of work performance method, Theory and applications( Newyork: Academic Press, 1983)

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