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A paradigm offers a conceptual structure for considering and making sagacity of the social world. As said by Burrell & Morgan in1979, "To be there in some particular paradigm is to analyze the world in some specific way." Whereas of course a paradigm has been phrased as a "world view", by Patton in 1990.
The value of paradigms is that they design how we observe the world and are influenced by the ones around us, the group of practitioners. Inside the research progression the ideas a researcher carries will reveal in the way the research is planned, what way the data is both gathered then analyzed and what way the research outcome is presented. For a researcher this is obligatory to be familiar with his paradigm, this thing allows him to make out its role in the research procedure, decide the course of any research assignment and make a distinction of other perceptions (Applegate, et. al., 2008).
In administration or organizational study the phrase of paradigm is consisted of 3 levels. The philosophical, fundamental beliefs pertaining the world we in which we are living. The social level, where strategies are available as to what way a researcher must perform his attempts and final level is technical level. The ways and techniques are preferably implemented what time executing a research. As per the theory of Burrell and Morgan in a philosophical level organizational notions are separated in 5 sorts of suppositions, which are the ideas of axiology, ontology, epistemology, methodology suppositions along with conjecture regarding human nature. These suppositions or conjectures are filtered through to lower levels and impinge on a research practice (Robbins, and Judge, 2010).
Ontology signifies the character of social reality. For a realist the social world is corporeal, hard fabricated of somewhat undeniable structures those exist independently of our individual explanations. The social world is real plus peripheral to an individual. However according to nominalist reality is fabricated in the names, titles and concepts those are considered to makeup that reality. Individuals make the social world; for that reason there are compound realities (Friedman, 2008).
As regards Epistemological hypothesis, it indicates the nature of knowing and structuring of knowledge, whereas this notion is split into the positivist plus anti-positivist posture. The previous have belief that real objectivity as an exterior observer is achievable, while the second anti-positivist says that the knower as well as known are interdependent further the social science is in actual fact subjective. The positivist studies the components to recognize the whole, they try to find regularities and contributory relationships to recognize and foresee the social world. As per the anti-positivist's point of view the social world can just be recognized by engaging the frame of reference of the partaker in action (Applegate, et. al., 2008).
Axiological hypothesis is closely relatable to the epistemological. These are the suppositions about the role of values. Possible to suspend the values in order to recognize, or do values intervene and shape what is recognized?
Conjectures regarding human nature are deterministic or of voluntarism. Lastly there are suppositions concerning the process of research, the methodology. Nomothetic methodology point up a test of regularities and links to global laws, whereas ideographic ideas focus on why individuals make and read their world in some specific way.
Sociological Paradigms: Paradigms of Organizational Behavior
Nearly every professional manager will confirm you that the organizational behavior is a basic part of his profession. Organizational behavior is the type of study which offers the professionals knowledge about how they must act in the best efficient ways while working in organizations, mainly when there is matter of big organizations like Dell. It is presented in a number of chief paradigms those differ from each other in their particular features.
1- The autocratic paradigm: Perhaps it is the best prevalent organizational behavior paradigm. In the constitution of this organizational behavior paradigm, the head is in control whereas the other workers are just supporters to follow him.
2- The custodial paradigm: In this paradigm the leader presents protecting supervision on the paradigm whereas the workers or employees necessitate money and protection.
3- The collegial paradigm: This is almost the best progressive paradigm that is specific for the most sophisticated groups. In this paradigm, both managers as well as other workers work in the form of a team with intent to serve the interests of their organization.
4-The supportive paradigm: This paradigm urges on drive and identification.
Mostly the organizational behavior is dependent on the specific natures of both managers plus employees. This is well explained by Twyla Dell in Motivating at Work. This scholar describes the 4 sorts utilizing alliterations.
Organizational behavior provides managers vital awareness like about how they must pay attention on grades of socialization together with individuation inside a working team. Organizational behavior endows the professional managers with techniques how they can assist the working communication among the workers in order to make certain the organization with their supportive impact. That means, the manager learning the organizational behavior must be talented enough to recognize how to perform if a worker appears to seem not interacted. Further the manager learning organizational behavior must be aware what to do with inventive, distinctive, conformable, as well as disobedient workers keeping in mind their particular characteristics (Kreitner and Kinicki, 2009).
The organizational behavior awareness had been achieved by consuming a lot of time, money, brain power, and energy of inventive participants. Managers' principal objective is to make sure worker security, afford expansion, and monitor products plus profits at their best. With the purpose of doing so with excellence the managers must learn such skills in organizational behavior management or OBM lessons. One more way is to score a degree in the field of Organizational Psychology can be much useful. Furthermore, a better combination of all the aforesaid ways would serve as the best option (Friedman, 2008).
Fresh managers or the leaders should give emphasis on time and energy not merely to make the organization profitable, but they should gain knowledge of how to help employees in the organization in making out situations those may reason the ethical problems and ways in which to implement ethical behavior in such good way that provides satisfaction to all stakeholders. A new organizational paradigm is required to be introduced today in order to evade certain common loopholes being observed in legal and ethical behavior in organizations (Holzner, 2005).
Dell survived through the worst period of global recession when many big names failed to sustain their growth, market share and profits. As per my perspective, this was possible due to the adoption of collegial paradigm which is considered the most progressive paradigm when it comes to harmonizing organizational behavior. Dell would have sustained their performance by developing the team work by allowing the managers, employers and employees to interact and share their opinions and strategies. The different organizational levels were harmonized towards achieving the organizational goals.
Dell Inc. is one of the most trusted names in the computer manufacturing world today. At the beginning when the foundation was set by a 19 year old boy, the vision was just to provide computers to home users. The idea was to cut down the cost of retailers and to provide this facility to every individual. In the early years, Dell was just producing equipments and selling them. In mid 90's the strategy was officially announced to make an infrastructure that could compete leading market manufacturers. And they succeeded in achieving what they wanted and Dell was at the top in 2005 for being the highest market share holder of Computer manufacturers and in the same year, it was first among selling personal computers. The strategy at that time was to make the company profitable as much as it can be.
After 2005, Dell has become a house hold name. The brand carries excessive brand equity and is a trusted name in the market it competes in. The market share of Dell has been growing for the past decade. The company under the leadership of Michael Dell has proved to be a company full of potential and good prospects in future. (Holzner, 2005)
Current corporate strategy of Dell was to earn profits from the Chinese market and provide their stakeholders as much advantage as they can. This overall corporate strategy was supported by the new business strategy to give a tough competition to other manufacturers. As Michael dell announced to manufacture computers from India using their labor and manufacturers to reduce the cost and maximize share profits in the long run. This has been a huge turning point for Dell. With the improved brand equity and increasing market share, the somewhat aggressive policy proved to be fruitful for Dell. In all parts of the world and especially in places like India, the sales of Dell increased (Dell and Fredman, 2006).
But during the time of recession, Dell focused on developing the organizational harmony in terms of streamlining the behaviors of its staff. During this phase, Dell implemented the collegial paradigm along with its corporate strategy to derive the entire work force in accomplishment of organizational goals.
After selecting the paradigm of collegial in organizational behavior, we would be evaluating the company according to collegial paradigm on the base of secondary data available. The tools used are research and surveys conducted on the base of secondary data.
Considering the strategic clock, Dell is already past that stage where low price can increase sales. It has its own say in the market share holding. Considering this clock, the sections 5,6,7 and 8 should be avoided. For now Dell should go for exploring new markets. Dell is a name of quality and it has been producing quality products for more than two decades. The company has earned huge revenues in recent years and defeated its top most rivals in almost every department. Dell values its customers and this is what leads its success story (Bowman, 2010).
Dell formulated a strategy to grab the market share from its arch rival HP and lowered down its prices and increased the quality of the products. The company suffered losses but succeeded in building its reputation in the market. The specifications offered by Dell were nowhere affordable for HP in that price range. This strategy boosted sales of Dell and nobody has ever been able to catch it up till today.
Michael Dell had sensed the upcoming challenges way before and was prepared to deal with them about a decade ago. He put forward a plan which had priorities set to target the small and medium businesses and to expand the business in under developed countries. Dell became the biggest supplier of notebooks and PC's to enterprises which was in the priorities of the business plan as well. New range of laptops that were made for business use, were launched at the start of this year and among these was the first ultra light notebook from Dell. The company introduced affordable business PC's and laptops all over the world this year.
Current economic crisis has made almost every organization to go for right sizing and make adjustments to organizational structure. Dell has done the same and has reduced its number of employees to a considerable amount. 8500 employees were removed from the company which not only saved the cost but also increased profits compared to previous quarters. The company is aiming to cut down number of employees to another 400 in 3rd and 4th quarter of this year.
Talking about strengths of the company then it is largest PC manufacturer in the whole world though HP took over it sometime earlier but Dell is determined to regain its position. Dell PC's are available directly to the customers and user's can build a PC according to their choice. No other company is offering that much customization facility and it gives a clear edge to Dell. Customers can keep track of their orders as well and Dell has a total command and control system in place of it supply chain (Fields, 2003).
Kreitner and Kinicki think that Organizational behavior can help organizations succeed in the time of recession. A strong organizational behavior or culture is one that should aid all the managers and employees of the organization in the same way. A better organizational culture is of advantage to each affiliate of the organization from the very peak to the very underneath. If any group of employees feels marginalized, then that organizational behavior traditions can be made better. Organizational Behavior is the learning on individuals as well as on groups in an organization.
An organizational behavior is a learned practice, as well as the method of socialization which teaches fresh employees the routines of those employees previously working there in an organization. The behavior of workers within an organization will depend a lot on the behavior that is presented by the higher ups, also by the general organizational customs which any corporate body has (Kreitner and Kinicki, 2009).
The organizations with better organizational behaviors and cultures are happened pretty adaptable. They have capability to go with good and worst market conditions, they don't loose the chance to clutch a benefit or an opportunity when they come across that, and can nicely tackle smartly with the unforeseen recessions (Robbins, and Judge, 2010).
During the recession periods almost several organizations may consider to downsize their staff in addition to carrying all the other possible measures to reduce the costs. In such circumstance organizational behavior is expected to play a needful role to not only keep in notice the interests of the organization but also to maximum safeguard the employments of the workers, however at the same time by mulling over and suggesting some other measures to reduce the administrative costs.
As per organizational behavior phenomenon a good manager should not only supervise the suitable positioning of the workers but also plan to keep them contented in their position and keep them ready for any probable situations like recession. This is not merely fine for the organization to be succeeded in some painful situation but this also provides the employee job contentment.
You would see that in some recession course if managers backup their subordinates, they will be quite happy to have their seniors stand behind them. If the workers feel scared or uncomfortable in any itchy situation, in that case it would be better for the managers to sit alongside them instead of standing over them. If a manager is unable to recognize when an employee is feeling not comfy in some situation, he will get that those workers will become sidetracked and hence less productive. So how a manager or supervisor can recognize if some worker is not feeling comfortable in some situations? A lot by the body language!
Talented managers will gain well comprehensive knowledge pertaining organizational behavior best to make sure that they can get the maximum out of their workers and at the same keeping them happy in any situation. Currently, organizational behavior scholars are dealing with a wide variety of issues faced by the business world including downsizing.
The networking, telephony and online technical support provided by Dell are its strengths. The mission statement clearly states that company focuses its customers to provide them with the best quality products at reasonable prices. No businesses can succeed by making its customers unhappy and customer satisfaction is the top most priority of Dell from the beginning and till date its reliable products has earned him the most loyal customers. This loyalty helps Dell in selling other services to these customers that increases the profits. In addition to this, the organizational behavior in Dell is the major strength as the staff works in complete collaboration and as a team.
Due to this low price strategy and high performance products have made the company won many awards. The latest technological advancements in the systems and the services provided are the major strength of Dell.
The basic strategy of direct selling of computers to users also poses a disadvantage to Dell which is its weakness. As other brands are marketed in the malls and are placed at the computer counters, Dell is not there to be purchased or checked by the users. Dell should revise its strategy a bit that would enhance its profits very much. The students buy net books mostly and they are through schools and colleges. Dell is also failing in such products as dell is not marketed like other brands in schools and colleges. There are a huge percentage of students that can provide Dell with serious profits. (Apple gate, Austin, and Soule, 2008)
There are many Opportunities to Dell if it expands its business to Chinese and Russian markets. The new business strategy showing that Dell is planning to manufacture Desktop PC's from manufacturing companies in India that will give a low priced and quality product to the users of South Asian Market. This strategy will earn Dell both high share in market for selling computers and the overall share of computer market. The biggest opportunity is that the requirement and demand of sophisticated computers is increasing worldwide. With the production of more computers, /Dell can explore this opportunity to generate better revenue. Due to the team work and presence of collegial paradigm, Dell would be able to survive in any market without facing any hindrance due to geological or demographical differences. Dell could use this paradigm everywhere in order to build a strong team work.
As there are always Threats prevailing around such big companies but the top level management always aware of what could possibly affect the affairs of company. The basic threat to Dell is to fulfill the Technological demands of users. As other manufacturers are launching new tech products at a very fast speed. To be competitive Dell needs to produce new technological products. Overall Dell is doing well and need a little bit change in its marketing and distributing strategy to make more sales. And to hit wider market area by focusing youth related policies (Fields, 2003). The decision to enter new markets is also appreciated by the stakeholder as it will increase the overall growth of the company and will yield maximum profits. The biggest Threat is that in this industry considering the huge demand, new entrants might prefer to offer lower prices on high quality product thus cutting on the share of Dell and other biggest share holders
The world is more like a global village now and Dell has sensed that quite early. Dell is operating in almost every country and its online stores are operating in more than 26 countries, across five continents. After sales service is what people are more considered about and Dell has made it a part of its strategy. The support centers are active 24/7 and promptly answer the queries. This clearly indicates that the collegial paradigm is being followed because only a flawless team work could help a company in expanding its business globally. The communication and team work of the staff is helping Dell to maintain its support centers actively 24/7. Employees from every department know their job description and role along with the part of other departments. This overall has helped build strong communication among the employees hence leading to achieve organizational goals.
Dell has successfully made its way through recession period by adapting to collegial paradigm as team work was needed the most during that time. Instead of personal gains, the employees and managers were driven towards achieving the organizational goals which ultimately helped the employees and managers in retaining their jobs as well. However Dell can further enhance its organizational behavior by adopting custodial paradigm along in which leader present protecting supervision on the paradigm whereas the employees necessitate protection and money. The corporate strategy of Dell to increase profits will benefit from this paradigm. By adopting these two paradigms, Dell will step ahead to another success level.