As we all know for the common types of organization have included the hierarchical organization. And the types of hierarchical organizations will divided by 2 types, is the tall organization structure and flat organization structure. However, the hierarchical organizations in between the organizational structure and organizational culture have a significant relationship. And this significant relationship will become to related and influence the beginning development of organization. Thus, when we want to build up or development of organization, firstly, we need to understand the role play of organizational structure and organizational culture at the tall organization structure and flat organization structure.
The organizational structure is consisted by organization action and activity to compose. The meaning of organization action and activity is like the organization management style and work planning, such as they how to formally divided, grouped and coordinate in they job task. Thus, the organizational structure also will called by organizational chart. However, in the design of organizational structure have six key elements, is the work specialization, departmentalization, chain of command, span of control, centralization and decentralization, and formalization.
The meaning of work specialization is through to division of labour to let the employees can more focus on they work position and responsibility. And to subdivide into a separate individual jobs, like to get a specific task for every employees, such as different position have a different responsibility and different specialty technical. The meaning of departmentalization is to build up more department for who have the same technical and tasks in after the specialization to division. The meaning of chain of command is like a department manager direct to order or command their subordinate in the working. And a department manager cannot directly to command for the different or other department subordinate. The meaning of span of control is a manager has ability to control the number of subordinate. The meaning of centralization and decentralization is the authority to centralize or decentralize, such as whom person can to do the decision making in the organization. The meaning of formalization is the employees will in their working to get the more explicit directive and rules. And through this information can help their job to reach a standard level.
The meaning of organizational culture is like to get along for internal organization with the external development. Like to interactive or relationship between in organization and stakeholder. In addition, that also belong a system to share the organization belief and values. Such as own the attitude and behavior for the employees in the organization. In addition, in the organizational culture have seven common characteristics, is the innovation and risk taking, attention to detail, outcome orientation, people orientation, team orientation, aggressiveness, and stability. However, these seven common characteristics will become to factors affecting the performance and satisfaction for employees.
The tall organization structure also called the vertical structure. That is belong to a more complex structure, because they have many layers structure are in the organization. And this organization structure generally is used in the big company or corporate. However, that also have some characteristics same with the bureaucracy and mechanistic model, like together own the high work specialization, rigid departmentalization, long and clear chain of command, narrow spans of control, centralization, and high formalization. In addition, those characteristics will impact the development of organization. Such as the centralization of decision is very slow, because need through to more layers of management to approval and will making to slowdown that progress. And the long chain of command is easily having the communication problem for between the employees with superior, because need through to many layers. The more formalization can help those employees to easy understand what their role for at the corporate. The narrow span of control can help the superior have a supervisory control to closely and to reduce the employees in the working mistakes. And the characteristics of high work specialization and high departmentalization can help the managers and employees to reduce their workload and can more focus on their job. And those employees will get more opportunities for promotion, because that has many layers of department and many position to let their update.
In addition, those organizations in the organizational culture characteristics are belong to more attention to detail, outcome orientation, aggressiveness, and stability. And that less to focus on the characteristics of innovation and risk taking, people orientation, and team orientation. Because, that organization are not to encourage their employees have self-assertion, such as to making a decision at the working. However, that organization unwilling to innovation and taking risk, so when their employees long-term to faced with the same tasks, and their will to feel very weary and no heart to work. Owing to that organization is a many layers of structure, so that has many staff or employees to working and become the organizations need to higher costs. Thus, that organization will to less the rewards on employees, and for this reason their employees will to less the motivated in their work.
The flat organization structure also called the horizontal structure. That just has few layers structures are in the organization. And this organization structure generally is used to the small business or small company. However, that also has some characteristics same with the simple structure and organic model, like together own the low departmentalization, short chain of command, wide spans of control, decentralization and little formalization. In addition, those characteristics also will impact the development of organization. Like the low departmentalization will let a company have more cost and to give their employees reward and let their employees have more motivated to work. But those employees will get fewer opportunities for promotion, because that just has few layers of department and less position to let their update. Although the employees of opportunities are fewer, but that responsibility still will not be affected and changed, and may become to greater. The short chain of command can be improve and short the time of communication for between the employees with superior, because that no need pass to many layers to inform. And those employees can faster to get the clear information from superior, and faster to solve the problem in the working.
However the wide span of control will let the superior easy to lose the control for employees, and to cause the employees have more chance to challenge their superior. Because, those employees will distrust their superior ability, and think that cannot to focus or take into consideration for they everyone feeling. Thus, this also will cause the superior or manager to feel very pressure and have the many workloads. And that supervision of work will become to be not strict and loose, and these employees efficiency will become to be lazy and slow. The decentralization of decision is very fast to do decision, because that no need through to more layers of management to approval. Like a company has several individuals own the authority and goes to responsible the making decision or running the business. Thus, that will become to making a faster progress on the organization. The little formalization can let those employees in working to feel more freedom, because that organization only has the few rules and regulation. And the little formalization also will let these employees easy to forget what their role at the company.
In addition, those organizations in the organizational culture characteristics are more focus on innovation and risk taking, people orientation, and team orientation. The characteristics of innovation and risk taking will let that company easy to meet the market need and conditions. Such as let employees to try and to do changed at the product, and to produce more innovation product. And this method can let the pace of company have able to follow up the modernization, and no longer to backward. The characteristics of people orientation is refers to the company will pay more attention to employees of attitude and feeling. Such as when a company want to do a decision, and firstly that will to let employees welfare as a priority for to take account. And the characteristics of team orientation is refers to the company will pay more attention to teamwork performance more than individual performance for employees. Such as to provide more activity to let all employees can get together to interactive and mutual understanding. And these activities can help that company to improve the teamwork of employees.
In here, we can through to above analysis to understand their role or characteristic of organizational structure and organizational culture how to effect and what have the consequence for used into the tall organization structure and flat organization structure. And the each function or characteristic of organizational structure and organizational culture with have what contribution for us company or organization.
The motivation will like a power to let you do anything, and that also same like a reason or cause to let you do something. And that also like a process, let us have more power or efforts to achieve the goal. However, the 5 common of motivational theory types has include the hierarchy of needs theory, theory x, y, z, 2 factor theory, self-efficacy, path-goal theory, and victor vroom's theory. In addition, we can through this 5 typeââ‚¬â„¢s theory to management our business and let our business can faster to achieve the goal. Thus, the following will to explain the each theory function and how to use them in our business.
The hierarchy of needs theory is according the needs of human pyramid to arrange and compose. And that has five levels at the pyramid, the first level is physiological, second level is safety, third level is social, fourth level is esteem, and the higher level also called to fifth level is self-actualization. The first level of physiological is refers to most basic human needs, such as food, water, and clothes. The second level of safety is refers to human security, such as their physical, emotional harm and the security of residence. The third level of social is refers to communication between people to get the attitude and relationship. The fourth level of esteem is refers to human through to a variety of factors to get other people to respected him or her. Like the individual of status and achievement at the social. The fifth level of self-actualization is refers to achieve a high level of our living standards. Such as try to play our potential and to do self-transcendence.
In addition, we can use them into our business like the physiological, is refers to superiors to provide an enough lunchtime or tea break time for employees. And to provide some water to let employees used. The safety is like company to let employees to feel safety, when their in the workplace to work. And provide some safeguard for their employees, such as the accident insurance and employees benefits. The social is refers to the communication and relationship of superiors and subordinates. However, we can provide more activity for employees and given that have a belonging feeling at the company, and like a part of the company. The esteem is refers to the employees can feel the respect from the superior. And the self-actualization is like company can to encourage their employees to advanced studies, because their employees are the future prospects of the company.
The theory x, y, and z is description that employees attitude at work. The theory x employees is belong to a more lazy and no sense of responsibility. So, the superior need to establish a stricter of control or supervise to management their employees. In addition, that superior to think the discipline and award will become to the motivation of their employees. And that superior wills more attention into the outcome orientation. Theory y employees will more initiative and aggressive in their job. Like that willing to take on more responsibility in their work. Because this employees hope can faster to get the authority and promotion from their performance. However that superior will let their employees to do more innovation at their work, and to encourage their employees to give more the idea when they to making a decision. The theory z employees have the high work specialization and have more loyal toward their company.
The two-factor theory also called to hygiene theory. They are refers to the related of two factors how to let their employees to feel satisfaction or dissatisfaction in the job, and the related of two factors is intrinsic factors and extrinsic factors. The intrinsic factors are including the achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibility, advancement, and growth. And the extrinsic factors is include the policy and administration, supervision, relationship with superior, work conditions, salary, and relationship with peers. However, the extrinsic factors will easily to lead their employees to feel the dissatisfied at the job. So that needs to improve their extrinsic factors, such as to increase the wages of employees and to establish a good relationship for between in superior and subordinate.
The self ââ‚¬" efficacy theory are refers to a personal competence, such as their efficiency and ability when want to accomplish a task. And this theory also refers like a personal belief, such as their will to think for whether has the ability to attain the goal. However, this have four major ways will to affect the self-efficacy, is the enactive mastery, vicarious modeling, verbal persuasion, and arousal. Enactive mastery is that have a similar or the same experience when want to do a task. Vicarious modeling is to observe things around and get inspiration and adoption, such as to reference from the other people doing or practice. Verbal persuasion is through to other people suggestions and assessment to making a decision or to get more confidence to face. The arousal is through emotion or physiological states to become influence for them performance.
The primary of victor vroom's theory is the expectancy theory. The expectancy theory is regarding the 3 step process of motivation, is the effort-performance relationship, performance-reward relationship, and rewards-personal goals relationship. And they will explain this 3 process how to improve and affect a personal motivation in the job. The first step process of effort-performance relationship is refers to who willing to pay or effort, and their performance will become to better. Such as when you brew, and have sown. The second step process of performance-reward relationship is refers to maintain a stabilize performance can let them to obtained the expected result or outcome. The third step process of rewards-personal goals relationship is refers to the rewards will direct to affect a personal goals, such as when a company to run a activity like in every monthly will to choose a more better performance to give her or his some rewards. And this manner can help that employee to unleash their potential and to improve their work efficiency.
Finally, I think that victor vroom's theory can used into the case study company, and can help Mr.Zulkifli to solve the problem of anxiety from the employees. Because, the main problem of anxiety is refers to the long working hours, work environment and wages. So, we can used the 3 step process of motivation to solve, such as to provide some attendance bonus and rewards to promote their employees motivation. However, let their employees to feel fair in their job, such as which willing to pay more effort and their can get the good performance and rewards. And this performance is need to get an accepted, not a superior to given, because this can avoid their superior to do eccentric.