Organizational change management can be defined as a framework that organizations use to manage the effect made by new business processes, effects left by the changes in the structure of the organization, and also the cultural changes within the organization. In simplicity, organizational change management addresses the effects felt by people and not the success of the firm. This paper addresses the organizational change management as well as the strategies used by organizations to make the process successful and effective with respect to the employees of the firm.
Change management is made up of thou8ghtfull planning, sensitive implementation, consultation and management should above all involve the people who will be affected by the organizational changes. Problems against change normally arise in organizations because the changes are forced on people without consultation. This however needs that management comes up with changes that are realistic towards meeting the goals of the firm, changes that are viable and quite measurable. It is important that change be measurable so that the management can be in a position to determine how far it is from achieving the goals and objectives of the firm. These aspects are usually very relevant when it comes to the management of personal changes.
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Managers of organizations are required to have the understanding that organizations change in different inter related dimensions. One important dimension of change in an organization is the extent of planning which carries a difference of opinion between experts and manager. According to experts, change does not need planning while in the light of a manager, change can only be change after a good planning for it has taken place. This means that managers need to develop steps that will accommodate and encourage the occurrence of change
Another very important dimension that is considered during change is the degree of change. Changes may be very small or even very large in the sense that it alters the way that an organization carries its activities. This is important because the managers have to plan for the degree of change and how it will affect the behavior of employees. It may also have an impact on the degree of learning between members of the management staff. Change helps people in understanding the previous position in light of the position before it.
The main questions that need to be answered by the management before change takes place in an organization is, who are the affected parties by the change? How will the affected parties respond to the organizational change? And above all questions, the management should be able to determine how the reaction of the affected people will affect the goals of the firm and the future of the firm. This is why it is important for management to work on both personal and organizational changes during implementation.
The main insecurity of most staffs in organizations is change. This however does not apply to the top management of organizations which includes senior managers and directors of the firm. This group of an organization's staff does not fear change because they are responsible for the change that takes place in the organizations. The top management level of any organization thrives on change because they do less handy work in the firm. This implies that the staff's fear of change is as good as the management's fear of failure because it is quite threatening and disturbing.
The responsibility of most employees in the firm is to do their best in their places of duty, and it is not their position to manage change. The responsibility of the employees is different from one person to another with respect to various factors. Some of the factors that determine the difference between employees are their health status, their maturity, and their stability, experience and personality traits. It therefore leaves the responsibility of change management to the management of the firm so that the employees can be able to comfortably live with change.
Management can help employees to easily cope with change by formally setting the expectations of every employee to a standard that is quite reasonable and acceptable. It is also necessary that management seeks the employment of tools that improve communication and ensure that there are no differences in the information passed across. The stakeholders of a firm are most likely to hold to change throughout any discomfort associated with the change, so it is important that the management should make the change to be convincing to stake holders so as to avoid inconveniences.
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Organizational change is a part of organization development in the sense that the firm need to make a decision towards a course of action. This decision usually possess as a big challenge to the organization in the sense that it is difficult for the management to come to a solid and fair conclusion. For this to be easily implemented on fair grounds, there are several theories of leadership and management that can be used to come to fair and equitable change in the organization.
In case of D2, the management is faced with a big challenge as to how to handle the change that is about to take place in the organization. The organization will best solve the problem in their hand by first taking into consideration all the parties that will be affected by the decision that the firm's managers will take. This means that they have to consider the contribution of all the staff of the firm from a positive perspective. This is based on the teaching of organizational change theory that puts in minds the use of the appreciative inquiry approach.
From the organizational change theory, it is advisable that before the management puts into practice it's most preferred and reliable strategy, it has to positively define the problem that is facing the firm. In this case, D2 being a surviving company in the competitive market, it has to consider the positive impact the competition has caused. Since the main problem of the firm is to cut down the production costs, the management's definition of the problem from a brighter perspective should be ways of increasing the firm's revenues.
During the discovery phase, the management should use many people to determine the best moments of the firm and the worst moment of the firm. This is because one party's perception of a condition is not satisfactory for the solution. This therefore needs the firm's management to put in to practice the practice of team work. In this context, the best leadership theory to be applied by the D2 management team is the behavioral leadership theory. This theory mainly focuses on the behavior of leaders in all organizations. The main questions behind this theory help in the determination of the approaches a leader uses to achieve the expected results.
There are different leadership styles according to the behavioral theory, and they include autocratic leadership, democratic leadership and laissez-faire leadership style. In the formation of change in D2, the management has to use autocratic leadership in the discovery phase. The autocratic leadership style involves all team members in decision making and all members of the organization take part in the organizational setup of changes.
Democratic leadership can also be of major help in this case because this allows all members of a team to give an input to the problem at hand. It is most effective when the perception of many people and leaders is valid about a problem. In this sense, all heads of branches of D2 have to take part in the strategy formation and come up with one common and preferable solution to the staff of the organization. This is necessary because every head of branch understands the political, economic and social background of the people working with him or her, and they can therefore be effective in decision making.
The next step that a team of managers need to do in making changes within the organization is to dream about the possible results that the firm could achieve after the discovery has been implemented. At this stage of changing the organization, the management takes the positive initiatives they were part of and then make them into real strengths for the growth of the organization. In this case study about D2, the management needs to develop strategies that will help the firm to increase its revenues. This stage still adopts the leadership theory under democracy. This is because; the management needs to decide through brainstorming the best course of action to achieve higher revenues. Democratic leadership style is favorable in this case since all members of management will give their opinion about the best solution or the best step to be taken towards the change.
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In this stage, it is important that the executioners of the change as a process should influence others into believing that change is good to them. People should be convinced into the long term perception of the change and how beneficial it will be to the staff and the organization as a whole. In case of resistance towards change, management should practice a little patience with the negative receptors of the idea. This is because, they could still be holding onto a history about the existing condition.
The next stage for the change to take place in any organization is the design phase. This is where the management with the help of appreciative inquiry will build on the dream they have developed for the change to take place. This involves several processes, systems and strategies that will help the dream to be realized. The best management theory that is applicable in the case of D2 is the systems theory. This theory holds onto the idea that workers affect the systems around them just as much as the systems around people affect them. A system is a collection of many parts that simultaneously work together with a common goal to be achieved.
The systems theory is a broad spectrum of the activities that take place at a work place and it helps managers to be in tune with these activities. Through this theory, managers are helped to coordinate the programmes so as to achieve the highest goals possible. This is applicable in the case study in that the management of D2 should use the systems theory to know the position of the firm before the change and to also discover the effects the change will have on the firm's system.
The final stage of the appreciative inquiry is the delivery stage, where the management team has to deliver the results of their dream. It usually is identified as the implementing stage and it is accompanied with a lot of planning and preparation. This is because the results achieved form this phase will impact the whole organization simultaneously. The general conception of the organizational change management should be applied in this phase. This is because it will carry different reactions from people but since change is constant, it is rarely controlled by any forces.
The main phase that needs a lot of emphasis when it comes to change is the design stage. This is because it is the most affected phase in the sense that the system has to be changed from what it was to something entirely different. Systems of organizations are the best ways that show change has occurred within an organization. Change can be significantly felt through the change in the system.
Effective leaders have the power to create systems of management that give their employees the ability to produce quality goods at the cheapest costs, and high revenues are earned at the same time. Change management within an organizationally basically entails having the management team manage people and later having the staff change their behavior towards the change positively. The expert utilization of different leadership theories in managing change can earn these leaders lots of profits as well as achieve growth. Such leaders equally maintain a competitive edge in the competitive market.
The organizational change management can borrow some of its principles from the organizational development a theory since change within a firm is aimed towards development. The equilibrium theory of organizational development states that there has to be found an equilibrium point between the desirable behavior and the non-desirable behavior is achieved within the firm. This is the Kurt lewin's change management theory, and it is easily applied within many organizations around the global sphere. This change management theory is an epitome of several change models and it is suitable for personal, organizational and even group changes. This is because most of the social contemporary theories are based on the change management theory.
According to lewin's organizational change theory, change takes places in three phases. The first phase is the unfreezing phase and it involves, making people free themselves from the old culture. The culture that people have to free themselves form is what is less productive for the organization. This is at a time when people realize that there is a need for change in the organization. For instance in the case study, D2 management realize that the firm is about to lose its position in the competitive power and they discover it is time for change.
Unfreezing the behaviors that people hold onto in the current is difficult but with the help of a very intensive analysis, it can be made possible. Analysis for change can be done through realizing the imperatives for change. The realization can be done through conducting dialogues, members of the management team brainstorming, and also educational activities like team building and personal development. The process can be made easy by having people being open to the idea and discussing it openly.
The next level according to Lewin is the change itself. In this level, the implementers of the change believe in it and they hence their behavior towards something acceptable and reliable in their minds. The management team is convinced that the new way and behavior is better than the old way of doing things. After the analysis of the situation, new structures and ideas are put into place and they are aimed towards the achievement of a better and improved company. From the theory, this stage is costly and even time consuming since it takes time for people to adapt to the new changes.
The final stage of the organizational change form Lewin is the freezing stage which involves members of the management team implementing the changes and making them standard operational actions. At this stage, rewards are given to the team that geared the changes, through having better production taking place at lower costs. These changes are frozen into their expected place and therefore, they become a big part of the day to day proceedings in the organization. Orientations to the new personnel are made just at almost the same time.
Since change is a process that cannot be easily accepted in society, let alone organizations that help people determine their lives, it has many challenges that follow it. One of the most challenging elements of the job of a manager is to plan and manage change in an organization. A manager in an organization can only be of good service to his or her subordinates when he or she plans while anticipating change. This goes without saying that the success of a manager within a firm is determined by how he or she diagnoses change, how he or she structures a smooth change.
In conclusion, change comes with a difference to all organizations even though it is never accepted with wide arms. The most responsible action for the executioners of change is that they should be able to apply the different theories of management and leadership into the process of change. This involves being ready to face challenges from different perceptions as well as being able to exercise patience throughout the process. The most important thing that the management of every organization should put in mind is that change should be dealt with from a positive perspective of the situation so as to have an impact on people.
It is also preferable that the management of every organization that is willing to change its strategic approach in everything should put the desires of their employees at stake and not their own needs. This is because most organizations have employees who need a lot of support from their personality to execute some tasks at their place of duty. In this light, it is necessary that before change is made in any organization, the management should meet at the centre with the needs of its employees as a motivation for the change to occur.