The purpose of this chapter is to present an overview of this study. It provides a special reference to the background of the study. Definition or the research issue, objectives of the study and the limitations of the research. The importance of theÂ Emotional IntelligenceÂ is also explained through this section. Finally the organization of the research is presented.
1.2Â Background of the Study
The main concern of this study is the effectiveness of the supervisory level of apparel making companies who can make a significant impact on the performance of the factory level employees. Â Therefore this study focuses on the fact that whether high levels of EQ helps out to develop the Effectiveness of Line Supervisors. In other words, whether the concern about ones' own emotions and other people's emotions will contribute to the improvement of the Effectiveness of the Line Supervisors of the Apparel Industry.
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For this purpose two Export oriented apparel manufacturing factories in the Katunayake Export Promotion Zone were selected. In these factories, there are about ten thousand employees. Each and every Line Supervisor has to supervise at least twenty five employees at a time.
Therefore the purpose of this Research is to identify whether Emotional Intelligence would really make a better impact or difference for the Effectiveness of Line Supervisors. In other words, to glance at the fact that dealing with these above mentioned situations successfully might benefit in encouraging the employees in such a way that they will contribute more to the development of the performance of the organization.
1.2.1Â Â Â Â Â Emotional Quotient
Singh (2001) stated that research demonstrate that IQ accounts for only about 20 percent of an individual's success in life. It means IQ explains a very small part of a person's achievement at the work place. But eventually the researchers found out that Emotional Quotient make a great impact on ones work and family life that his IQ.
1.2.2Â Â Â Â Â Definitions of EI
These are some definitions of Emotional Intelligence.
Bar on (1997) stated that emotional Intelligence reflects one's ability to deal with daily environment challenges and his predict ones success in life, including professional and personal pursuits.
Goleman (1998) declared that Emotional Intelligence is the capacity for recognizing our own feelings and those of others, from motivating ourselves, and for managing emotions well in ourselves and in our relationships. Emotional Intelligence or the purely cognitive capacities measured by Intelligence Quotient.
Bar-On, Brown, Kirkcaldy and Thome (2000) stated that Emotional Intelligence is the ability to perceive ad express emotion, assimilate emotion thought, understand and reason with emotion, and regulate emotion the self and others,
1.3Â Â Research Issue
The issue that was recognized here in this research study is to explore the impact of Emotional Intelligence to the Effectiveness of Line supervisors in the Katunayake Investment Promotion Zone and thus to fain some knowledge about the effect on the Sri Lankan context as well,
During the initial interviews of the HR managers of some factories, they declared that there is a tendency of the Effectiveness of the Line Supervisors of the factory, to decline. Though they have tried to fill the gap by doing various activities to increase the Effectiveness of the Line Supervisors, they have found out that the Effectiveness of the Line Supervisors has not shown much improvement according to their Performance Appraisal System. The main problem they have identified for the decrease of the Effectiveness of Line Supervisors was lack of self-understand and understanding the feeling of others. Â
This is a significant area where enough research has not been carried out but a large difference can be done if given enough attention. Therefore a main target is to explore whether a significant impact could be done by Emotional Intelligence to improve the effectiveness of Line Supervisors in Apparel Industry and if so this concept can't be used largely in many areas as well to explore new ways to increase the effectiveness of the Line Supervisors.
This study attempts to determine the relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Effectiveness of Line Supervisors as it has a great impact on enhancing the effectiveness of Line Supervisors in the Apparel industry.
1.4Â Objectives of the Study
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
To determine whether Line Supervisors in Apparel Industry have Personal Competency of Emotional Intelligence.
To determine whether Line Supervisors in Apparel Industry have Social Competency of Emotional Intelligence.
To recognize whether Emotional Intelligence leads to Effectiveness of Line Supervisors in Apparel Industry.
1.5Â Research Questions
Does Emotional Intelligence have an impact on Personal competency of Line Supervisors?
Does Emotional Intelligence have an impact on Social competencies of Line Supervisors?
Does Emotional Intelligence lead to Effectiveness of Line Supervisors?
1.6Â Originality of the Study
This research reveals an emerging concept where there is limited research in Sri Lankan context regarding the impact of EQ over Effectiveness the Line Supervisors. Though this has become an important area to study, there are only few researchers done in Sri Lanka. Theories adopted by western countries are hardly applicable to Sri Lanka because of Cultural, political, environmental differences. Theories that found in Western countries are difficult to apply to Sri Lankan organizations.
1.7Â Research Methodology
To gather the relevant data for this research, two apparel manufacturing companies in Katunayake Investment Promotion Zone was selected to represent the Apparel Industry. A sample of 30 Line Supervisors is selected at random. Survey strategy is employed in this study using questionnaires and depth interviews as methods of data collection.
This research would involve both qualitative and quantitative techniques to analyze the gathered data and interpret results. Therefore, this study would use questionnaires as the main form of data collection and few depth interviews to illuminate the findings.
1.8Â Organization of the Research Study
Research chapters are supposed to be presented as follows:
Chapter 1 - Introduction
This is the comprehensive coverage of introduction about the research. It consists of the background and significance of the study, research problems, objectives and limitations of the research.
Chapter 2 - Literature Review
The theoretical framework of the research is covered in this chapter. It also relates to past studies that have been done.
Chapter 3 - Research Methodology
Methods used to present the findings are stated in a detailed manner, it should explain population, sample and structure of the questionnaire and that are supposed to be used I the research.
Chapter 4 - Date Analysis and Data Presentation
Summarized results of data collected through field surveys and methods of presenting data in tables to easier understand are done in this chapter. To analyze the findings of the research for making rational and valid decisions. SPSS System is used.
Chapter 5 - Findings and Conclusion
Conclusions are drawn according to the findings of the research.
2.Â Â Â Literature Review
This chapter will present literature pertaining to two companies of Emotional Intelligence, namely Personal Competency and Social Competency.Â
2.2Â The shortcomings of Intelligent Quotient (IQ)
Before the Emotional Quotient (EQ) concept was initiated, Intelligent Quotient (IQ) turned out to be the most important and highly valued measurement of employees in any organization.
Primary IQ measures the skills like mathematical and spatial reasoning, logical ability and language understanding of a person. But it does not measure a person's experiences, wisdom personal qualities such as understanding, kindness empathy etc. anyone can score high when they are trained to take IQ tests. So it is not known whether a person score high because of the training he gets or his own intelligence. Some outcome variations relating to the success of individuals in education and organizational context should not be explained through traditional IQ measures (Fatt & Howe, 2003). Researchers, who had done number of research over IQ, had realized that there is something more in a person that cannot be measured by an IQ test. Even though some of those persons had fabulous IQ scores, they were doing poorly in their work life and wasting their potential by thinking, behaving communicating in a way that hindered their chances to succeed.
2.3Â What is Emotional Intelligence
Emotional Intelligence is one of the most emerging and interesting concept of today's world which largely impact to every part of any organization. Since it deals with Human psychology factor, it has become an influencing concept to the minds of people. Emotional Intelligence involves the lower and central section of the brain, called the limbic system. Human beings cannot live without emotions as they are naturally emotional beings.
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Goleman (1997) described Emotional Intelligence as managing feelings so that they are expressed appropriately and effectively, enabling people to work together smoothly toward their common goals.
Van Rooy and Viswesvaran (2004) defined EI as the set of abilities (verbal and nonverbal) that enables a person to generate, recognize, express, understand and evaluate their own and others, emotions in order to guide thinking and action that successfully cope with environmental demands and pressures.
2.3.1 Benefits of Assessing EQ
Assessing Emotional Intelligence gives much benefit for the individuals and organization.
Benefits of assessing EQ for the Individual
Examine the overall ability to deal with the immediate world
Inventories emotional and social skills
Identifies strengths and opportunities for improvement
Target areas for personal growth and development
Benefits of assessing EQ for the organization
Recognize the areas of employees to be developed
Serve as a training assessment
Supports career path development processes
Identifies employees with management potential
Assists in selecting new employees
2.4 Origin of Emotional Intelligence
Hilgard (1980) declared that our mind operates in three ways: Cognition, affect and Motivation. Human memory, reasoning, judgment and abstract thought are the attributes of cognition. Emotions, moods, evaluations and other feelings states are the attributes of affect. Finally the attributes of motivation are the personality which includes biological urge or learned goal-seeking behavior. EI was made up by the cognition and affect together.
Harvard psychologist and one of the most influential theorists of intelligence, Gardner (1983) had proposed the model of "Multiple Intelligence", to point out the distinction between intellectual and emotional capacities. He also proposed "Personal Intelligence" for managing oneself and relationships.
Mayer and Salovey (1990) proposed a comprehensive theory of EI. They have illuminated EL as being able to identify, understand, use and regulate a person's emotion. Mayer and Salovey (1997) defined Emotional Intelligence as the ability to perceive accurately, appraise and express emotion; the ability to access and/or generate feelings when they facilitate thought; the ability to understand emotion and emotional knowledge; and the ability to regulate emotions to promote emotional and intellectual growth.
There are four branches of their framework:
1.Â Â Â Â Perception, appraisal, and expression of emotion
2.Â Â Â Â Emotions facilitation of thinking
3.Â Â Â Â Understand and analyzing emotions; employing emotional knowledge
4.Â Â Â Â Reflective regulation of emotions to promote emotional and intellectual growth
Goleman (2007) identified the Five 'Domains' of Emotional Intelligence as:
knowing your emotions
managing your own emotions
Recognizing and understanding other people's emotions
Managing relationships, i.e., managing the emotions of others
2.5Â Major alternative theories of EQ
The process and outcomes of Emotional Intelligence development also contain many elements know toÂ reduce stress for individuals and organization, by decreasing conflict improving relationships and understanding, and increasing stability, continuity and harmony. The ultimate result of all these is of course the improvement of managerial effectiveness.
The growing awareness and the increasing interest that EQ plays in employees work and family life have lead researchers to generate alternative theories of EQ from time to time. Theories of Bar On (1988, 2000), Salovey and Mayer (1997) and Goleman (1998) are the three theories which built the most interest in terms of research and applications. These theories have been used to recognize the emotional behavior patterns of individuals in the work place to achieve the effectiveness of the organization.
2.5.1Theory of Bar- On
Bar- On is a pioneer in the realm of Emotional Intelligence and has been involved in defying, measuring and applying aspects of this construct since 1980.The "Bar- On's Model" is explained as one of three leading approaches to Emotional Intelligence in Spiel Berger's Encyclopedia of Applied Psychology (2004). In the doctoral dissertation of Bar-On (1998) he coined the term 'Emotional Quotient" (EQ), as an analogue to Intelligent Quotient (IQ). He (1997) defined his model in terms of five main social and emotional abilities including interpersonal skills, intrapersonal skills, adaptability, stress management, and mood which together influence a person's ability to cope effectively with management, and mood which together influence a person's ability to cope effectively with environmental demands.
2.5Â .2 Theory of Salovey and Mayer
The four branch model of Emotional intelligence describes four areas of capacities or skills that collectively describe many of areas of Emotional Intelligence (Mayer and Salovey, 1997). More specifically, this model defines Emotional intelligence as involving the abilities to accurately perceive emotions in oneself an others, use emotions to facilitate thinking, understand emotional meanings, and manage emotions.
The Four Branch Model of Emotional Intelligence
Mayer & Salovey (1997) have introduced the four Branch model of Emotional Intelligence and initiate the abilities for each branch of Emotional Intelligence through this model.
1.Â Â Â Â Emotional Perception an Expression
2.Â Â Â Â Emotional Facilitation of Thought (Using Emotional Intelligence)
3.Â Â Â Â Emotional Understanding
4.Â Â Â Â Emotional Management
2.5.3Â Â Â Â Â Theory Goleman
As Goleman (1998) states Emotional Intelligence embraces two aspects of intelligence:
Understanding yourself, your goals, intentions, responses, behavior and all.Â Â Â
Understanding other and their feelings.
The building blocks of Emotional Intelligence |Source; Jamali, Sidani an Abu-Zaki (2006)
Goleman (1998) touched the depth of the EQ through these two aspects when he found most useful for understanding how each skill matters at work. Emotional Intelligence, as defined by Goleman, is the capacity for recognizing our own feelings and those of others, for motivation ourselves, and for managing emotions well in our relationships (Fatt, 2002). His frame work has five branches: Self-regulation, Motivation, Empathy and Social Skills.
2.6Â Â Â Â Â Emotional Competence Frame Work
Goleman (1998) a Harvard psychologist in his ground breaking book, "Emotional Intelligence", had introduced a model to recognize the ways of the talents move in work live of employees. His adoptions consist of five basic Personal and Social competencies. This model has been chosen as the plinth of the study to construct the questionnaire and the hypothesis.
2.6.1Â Â Â Â Â Personal Competence
ï‚·Â Â Â Â Â Emotional Awareness -
Recognizing one's emotions and their effect
ï‚·Â Â Â Â Â Accurate Self - AssessmentÂ -
Knowing ones strength and limits
ï‚·Â Â Â Â Â Self ConfidenceÂ -
A strong sense of one's self-worth and capabilities
ï‚·Â Â Â Â Â Self - Control -
Keeping disruptive emotions and impulses in check
ï‚·Â Â Â Â Â Trustworthiness -
Maintaining standards of honesty and integrity.
ï‚·Â Â Â Â Â Conscientiousness -
Taking responsibility for personal performance.
ï‚·Â Â Â Â Â Adaptability -
Flexibility in handling change
ï‚·Â Â Â Â Â Innovation -
Being comfortable with novel ideas, approaches new information.
ï‚·Â Â Â Â Â Achievement Drive -
Striving to improve or meet a standard of excellence
Aligning with the goals of the group or organization.
ï‚·Â Â Â Â Â Initiative -
Readiness to act on opportunity.
ï‚·Â Â Â Â Â OptimismÂ -Persistence in pursuing goals despite obstacles and setbacks
2.6.2 Social Competencies
ï‚·Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Understanding Others-
Sensing others' feelings and perspectives, taking an active interest in their concerns.
ï‚·Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Developing Others -
Sensing others development needs and bolstering their abilities.
ï‚·Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Service Orientation -
Anticipating, Recognizing and meeting customers' needs.
ï‚·Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Political Awareness -
Reading group's emotional currents and power relationships
ï‚·Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Influence -
Wielding effective tactics for persuasion
ï‚·Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Communication -
Listing openly and sending convincing messages.
ï‚·Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Conflict Management -
Negotiation and resolving disagreements.
ï‚·Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Leadership-
Inspiring and guiding individuals and groups.
ï‚·Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Change CatalystÂ -
Initiating or managing change
ï‚·Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Building Bonds-
Nurturing instrumental relationships.
ï‚·Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Collaboration and Cooperation
Working with others towards shared goals.
ï‚·Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Team Capabilities-
Creating group synergy in pursuing collective goals
Working with Emotional Intelligence |Source: Goleman (1998)
2.7Â Â Â Â Â Distinctiveness of EQ Competencies
There are special characteristics for each and every competency of Emotional Intelligence. People who have the most of these characteristics are considered as emotionally intelligent. They strike a balance between their emotions and behaviors. To be an effective manager or a supervisor one should try to gain these competencies in their lives.
2.7.1Â Â Â Self-Awareness
People with competence ofÂ Emotional AwarenessÂ know which emotions they are feeling and why they do feel like that. They are able to realize the links between the feelings, thought s in their minds, the appropriate words they should speak and the tone they should use. People who have this competence easily recognize how their performance is affected by their feelings. They also have guiding awareness of their values and goal to be achieved.
Another competency ofÂ Self AwarenessÂ is Self Confidence. People who have this competence are very decisive. They make sound decisions regardless uncertain and stressful situations. They are able to voice the unpopular views and present themselves with self- assurance.
2.7.2Â Â Â Â Â Self - Regulation
Self-control is one of the most important competences one should have. People with this competence are able to manage their impulsive feelings and stressful emotions well. They always tend to be positive, calm and sober in manner, they are able to think clearly over the situation and even stay focused under pressure.
Another competence of Self-regulation is Trustworthiness and conscientiousness. People who have the competence of trust worthiness act ethically all the time and build trust amount the others through their reliably and genuineness. They recognize and admit their own mistakes and stand against unethical actions of others. They take tough and principled stands at any time concreted on a strict bottom line of their own, people who have Conscientiousness hold themselves accountable for achieving their goals and objectives. They are well organized and very careful in whatever they do. Such people keep their promises and meet commitments.
2.7.3Â Â Â Â Â Motivation
People with the competence of Achievement Drive are very results oriented. They always seek out for improving their performance in order to reach to their objectives and standards, they set challenging goals and take calculated risks. Such people follow information to reduce uncertainty and discover different ways to do things better.
Another competence of Motivation is Initiative and Optimism. People who have this competence are ready to grasp opportunities around them. They pursue goals beyond what is expected of them. When thy want any job to be got done they do not hesitate even to cut through the red tape and bend the rules when necessary. They are more likely to mobilize other through unusual, enterprising effort. People with competence of Optimism keep on seeking goals in spite of obstacles and set back, they always work with a hope of success rather that fear of failure. They see setbacks as due to manageable rather than personal flaw.
2.7.4Â Â Â Â Â Empathy
Understanding others is another competence of Empathy. People with this competence are good listeners to others emotional cues. They are very sensitive for the other emotions and easily understand other; perceptions. People who have this competency help out other with understanding their feeling and needs.
Acknowledging and rewarding strengths and accomplishments, giving useful feedback, identifying the need of future growth, mentoring other and giving timely coaching and helping you improve the others skills are the characteristics of people who have the competence of Developing others.
People who have the competence of Service Orientation understand their customers' needs are able to provide the right service or product according to their need. Such people always seek various ways to increase customer's satisfaction and loyalty. They gladly offer appropriate assistance often. They are acting as trusted advisors to their customers.
2.7.5Â Â Â Â Â Social Skills
Â Influence is an important competence of Social skills. People with this competence are skilled at wining people and good presenters who can appeal to the customers and to persuade them. They influence the others indirectly to build compromise and support.
People who have the competence of Communication are able to deal with the difficult problems straight forwardly at any time. They are good listeners who seek for mutual understanding. They also welcome sharing information with each other, people with this competence encourage for open communication and they are interested in any kind of news either good or bad.
2.8Â Â Â Â Â Impact of EQ to Effectiveness of Line Supervisors
Emotional Intelligence plays a vital role in influencing the Effectiveness of employees in any organization. Even though the other factors like salary, bonus, job security recognition, promotion, delegation of authority and responsibility ectâ€¦impact for the effectiveness of the employees yet the Emotional Intelligence is in the first place in the list which contributes to increase the Effectiveness of the workers largely.
Â Zipkin (2000) has found out by a Gallup Organization study of two million employees at seven hundred companies the tenure of an employee in a company and the productivity of the employee is determined by the relationship with his immediate supervisor, the relationship of employees and the Line Supervisors leads not only to reduce the turn over and absenteeism of the company but also to increase the rate of target achievement.
Â Effectiveness can be identified as one of the most crucial factors of any company in Apparel Manufacturing Company's Effectiveness of Line Supervisors contributes a large amount on achieving the company's daily target. The most effective Line Supervisors are the people who have the capability to understand how their subordinates feel and react over situations in the work place and how to get involved effectively to encourage them an support them to solve problems that they are coming across.
When the effectiveness of the Line Supervisors increases, the level of absenteeism and turnover goes down. Employees have the confidence that they can work under the Line Supervisor and he understands their feelings form their perspective. The level of Job satisfaction and the target achievement increase and it creates a committed workforce who acquires positive results for the organization such as increased productivity and improved quality by building the EQ competencies Line Supervisors can produce motivated employees willing to put forth energy to improve work performance. Emotionally Intelligent Line Supervisors are proficient to manage their own emotions while they are dealing with others. Because of this employees who work under him build trust over the supervisor and feel good about working with them. It is obvious that to be effective in helping the organization to achieve their goals, Line Supervisors must first need to be aware of and to manage their own feelings of anxiety and uncertainty. The awareness of others emotional reactions and helping them to cope up with those reactions will become easier once they have become aware about their own emotions and feelings.
It is essential for Line Supervisors to understand their workers and gain their respect to do their job well. They must exercise good insight and good judgment when correcting the errors of employees and resolving disputes. They are bound to help to solve any problem that the workers are having with their jobs. If the employees who work under the supervisors are not performing their tasks well, production output is affected. Having a close relationship with their workers is very important for the Line Supervisor to achieve their daily targets. Through personnel and Social competencies of Line Supervisors, they can create a smooth flowing of daily work of the organization other that a daily struggle. The most important and the most difficult things are to deal with one's emotional situations in the workplace and to resolve them in an effective and efficient manner.
Emotionally Intelligent Employees exhibit the qualities like cooperation with each other, commitment to the work, creativity and group coherence that are increasingly important for the effectiveness of them whereas less emotionally intelligence employees exhibit the kind of conflicts, endless grievances, lesser commitment to work and imbalance of work and family life. When the Line Supervisors become highly emotional the employees work under them perform their work under them performs their work more willingly and tend to display the same qualities through theme.
Insight on Emotional Intelligence Components
The FirstÂ component of Emotional Intelligence ,self-awareness means ,having a deep understanding of one's emotions , strengths, weakness, needs and drives, (Goleman, 1995). People who have a high level of Self-awareness are very honest with themselves and other. People who have a high level of Self Awareness are very honest with themselves and others. They avoid the extremes of being overly critical and unrealistically hopeful. Furthermore, these people know how their feelings affect them, other and their job performance. (Goleman, 1995).Â Â Â Â
The SecondÂ component of Emotional Intelligence is Self-regulation. This is an ongoing conversation people have themselves, which frees them from being prisoners of their feelings (Goleman, 1995). Employees who have higher level of Self-regulation are able to face ambiguities of the industry more than employees who have lower level of Self-regulation. Moreover, employees with a high degree of self-regulation would be able to help in making accurate and thoughtful decisions through their impulsive behaviors.
The ThirdÂ component of Emotional Intelligence is Motivation. Motivation extends to the deep inner desire achieve for the sake of achievement. Motivated employees will work harder for the company and will likely be the most satisfied. To rouse their employees, companies should include them in the decision making process and recognize their contributions (Broolfiled, 2000.)
3.Â Â Â Methodology
Research framework was included in this chapter. Primary data was collected through a structured questionnaire and depth interviews with employees as a feedback. Secondary data was collected from the annual records of the company.
3.2 Research Strategy
The survey instrument which was developed to collect data. Included number of questions itself. Before giving the survey instrument to the companies in Katunayake Export Investment Promotion Zone a "Pilot Survey" was conducted in PAM Maliban Textiles (Pvt) Ltd in Colombo. Ten questionnaires were given to the Line Supervisors of the particular company and gathered data and information. This was done mainly for two reasons; to recognize whether the survey instrument can he easily understood by the respondent and to identify whether it acquires the accurate and necessary information from the respondent. The outcome was as following. IQ questions were changed and simplified further because it was understood that those questions were hard to comprehend.
3.3 Research Context
In order to narrow down the research, two apparel manufacturing factories situated in Katunayake Investment Promotion Zone were selected in this study. These are the Apparel Manufacturing Companies selected for the study.
1) Hirdaramani- Mercury Apparel (Pvt) Ltd.
Hirdararnani Mercury Apparel (Pvt) Ltd. is a well-known company in Katunayake Investment Promotion Zone which was established in 1987. It has a fully air-conditioned production area of 86,000 square feet. It produces 300,000 numbers of pieces per month.
2) Hidramani Garments (Katunayake) Ltd.
Hirdaramani Garments (Katunayake) Ltd. is one of the oldest companies which belong to the Hirdaramani Group of Companies. It was established in 1978 in Katunayake Investment Promotion Zone. The production area of the factory is 85,000 square feet, single storied and fully air conditioned. It has a capacity of 175,000 pieces per month.
3.4 Conceptual framework
The conceptual framework displays the relationship between the dependent variable and independent variables. The focus of the study is to examine the impact of EQ to the Effectiveness of Line Supervisors by using the following conceptual framework.
3.4.1 Independent Variable
1)Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Self-awarenessÂ - knowing your emotions, recognizing feelings as they occur, and discriminating between them is called Self-awareness. Self-awareness is understanding what one is feeling at the moment, and using those feelings in decision making, which is generally known as intuition or gut feelings that Â follows one to make decisions congruent with his or her deepest value (Fatt, 2002).
2)Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Self-regulationÂ - handling feelings so they are relevant to the current situation and react appropriately is self-regulation. Handling our emotions such that they facilitate rather than interfere with tasks requires self-regulation. This reveals itself largely through the absence of disruptive emotional outbursts (Fatt, 2002).
3)Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â MotivationÂ - "Gathering up" your feelings and directing yourself towards a goal, despite self-doubt, inertia, and impulsiveness is called Motivation. The need to achieve is the single strongest competence that .distinguishes outstanding from average executive (Spencer & Spencer, 1993).
4)Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â EmpathyÂ - Empathy is recognizing feelings in others and tuning into their verbal and nonverbal cues. This is the ability to be aware of the feelings of others and to consider their perspective (Fatt, 2002).Â
5)Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Social-skills - Handling interpersonal interaction, conflict resolution, and negotiation is called Social-skills. This engages in handling emotions well in relationships and accurately reading social situations and networks, which are best demonstrated by diplomacy and tact (Fatt, 2002).
Â 3.4.2 Dependent Variable
Effectiveness of Line Supervisors
1)Â Absenteeism - Absenteeism can be identified as the voluntary nonattendance at work, without a Â Â Â Â valid reason. It does not include involuntary or occasional absence due to valid causes or reasons Â Â Â Â beyond one's control such as accident or sickness. Absenteeism is the term generally used to refer Â to unscheduled employee absences from the workplace (Tylczak, 1990). Employee absences due to personal illness, personal business and absence without leave, as measured in number of hours
(Goff, Mount & Jamison, 1990).
2)Â Turnover -. Simply the Labor turnover refers to the movement of employees in and out of a Â Â Â Â Â business. Rankin (2005) defined turnover can be classified in three ways: Employer controlled like Â dismissals, redundancies and early retirements; Employee Â Â Â led like dissatisfaction of varying kinds Â and employer and employee uncontrolled like long-term sickness, normal retirement, Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â maternity Â Â Â Â Â Â leave and death in service. It is concerned with movements of individuals into jobs (hiring) and out Â of jobs (separations) over a particular period of time in an organization.
3)Â Target Achievement - Target means a desired goal. Target achievement is one of the most Â Â Â Â Â Â crucial aspects of the Apparel industry. They set daily targets for each and every employee in order to get the optimum benefit of the worker within the work hours.
3.4.3 Control Variables
1) Â Â Â Gender - The difference of male and female respondents was gathered, to measure whether there is an impact by gender on EQ.
2) Â Age - Respondents' age was collected in order to measure whether this factor has an influence on EQ.
3) Â Â Â Marital status - Measure whether the respondent is married or unmarried
4) Â Â Â Â Tenure of the organization - Measured by the number of years the respondent is employed in the current organization.
5) Â Â Â Â Highest educational standards reached - The educational qualifications of the respondents were gathered to measure the impact on EQ by the employee.
3.5 Respondents and data collection
3.5.1 Population of the study
The main aim of this research is to study the impact of Emotional Intelligence on theÂ
Effectiveness of Line Supervisors of Apparel Industry in Sri Lanka. For this purpose Line Supervisors of Apparel Making Companies were selected as the population of this study. The chief responsibility of the Line Supervisor is to ensure whether the production process is carried out according to the targets and goals of the company.Â
As the Line Supervisors are the ones who deals with a larger number of employees in the workplace it is important to study, to what extent Emotional Intelligence impact on the Effectiveness of them. Consequently, the population of this study would the Line Supervisors of Apparel Manufacturing Companies selected for this study.
3.5.2 Respondents of the study
The respondents of the study were 30 Line Supervisors in two Apparel Manufacturing Companies in Katunayake Export Promotion Zone in Sri Lanka.
3.5.3 Sample of the study
Sample is the finite part of the statistical population Set of respondents was selected out of the population in order to make inferences about the Population of the study. The population of this study is the Line Supervisor 02 of Apparel Industry in Sri Lanka. Therefore the Line Supervisors of two Apparel Making Companies in Katunayake InvestmentÂ Â Promotion Zone in Sri Lanka was selected as the sample of this study.
Due to the busy work hours of the Line Supervisors the sample was selected on the basis of convenience of the company's day to day operations. Hence the convenience sampling technique was used as a non-probability sampling procedure in this study. The number of the Line SupervisorÂ who responded the questionnaireÂ in each Selected Apparel Manufacturing Company Was determined by the HR Managers of that particular company.
Out of the 40 questionnaires distributed by the researcher all 40 were collected back, representing a response rate of 100.00 percent.
The number of Line Supervisors in selected apparel making companies.
Name of the Company No. of line Supervisors
Hirdaramani Mercury Apparel (Pvt) Ltd 18
Hirdaramani Garments (Katunayake) Ltd. 12
Source: Researcher's original construct
3.6 Methods of Data Collection
Siegall (2000) explains that there are different methods of acquiring information in a survey research such as structured interviews, questionnaires. Panel interviews, over the phone interviews, discussions and controlled observations. Out of these, the dominant tool of for collecting data in the survey strategy is the questionnaire method. Therefore this study uses the questionnaire method as the main method of data collection and also discussions with HR managers and randomly selected factory level workers as a feedback.
3.6.1 Primary Data
Data which is collected directly from the firsthand experience of employees is called Primary data. For this study, primary data was gathered by using a questionnaire and depth inter views with the HR managers and the factory level workers.
22.214.171.124 Construction of the Questionnaire
The research design used for this study was mainly personalized by a questionnaireÂ (Refer Appendix A). Two separate sections were built up in this questionnaire in order to gather data from the employees. The general information of employees is gathered through the demographic variables and the information of the EQ level of Line Supervisors are gathered through the EQ variables. Five demographic variables were included for the first part of the questionnaire to gather the background information of the respondent to be utilized in the analysis of the study and 30 questions were included in the second part of it to measure the Emotional Intelligence of the respondents. The questions were developed on the foundation of Emotional Competency Model done by Goleman (1998). The term EQ was not mentioned in the questionnaire but the research questions were framed in the context of the Personal and Social competencies of Emotional Intelligence. A pilot survey for 1 0 Line Supervisors has been given to ensure whether it can acquire the information needed and the simplistic nature of the questionnaire. Each of the variables of the second part of the questionnaire was measured on a five point Like Scale anchored at "Strongly disagree" to "Strongly agree". The questionnaire was translated into Sinhala for the convenience of the respondents. The responses were averaged within each scale to create scale scores.
126.96.36.199 Depth Interviews
Â A few depth interviews were carried out with the 1-JR manager of the two companies and randomly selected factory level employees who work under Line Supervisors, in order to support the findings of the questionnaireÂ (Refer Appendix B). The purpose of the discussions was to get an idea of the role played by the Line Supervisors inside of the company. These interviews provide a feedback to the study to obtain an overview of the level of Emotional Intelligence of the Line Supervisors and the Effectiveness of them. Even though these discussions were not lengthy discussions due to the busy schedules of the respondents it supported to get an idea about the actual condition within the company. Three separate questions were asked by the researcher from FIR Managers of these Line Supervisors and the factory level workers who work under the Line Supervisors of these two companies.Â
3.6.2 Secondary Data
Published data and the data collected in the past arc called Secondary data. For this study, secondary data of absenteeism, labor turnover and target achievement of the factory level employees has been gathered from the past records of the companies.Â
188.8.131.52 Target Achievement of the factory level workers
Target achievement of the factory level workers of the selected companies
Company Name Target Achievement
Hirdararnani Mercury Apparel (Pvt) Ltd. 70% - 90%
Hirdararnaiij Garments (Katunayake) Ltd. 65% -80%
Source: Researcher s original Construct
The absenteeism labor turnover and target achievement of the Apparel Manufacturing Companies have been shown in percentages in these table.
184.108.40.206 Absenteeism of the factory level workers
Absenteeism of the factory level workers of the selected companies
Company Name April May June July August Sept
Hirdararnani Mercury Apparel
(Pvt)Ltd. 9.1 11.0 8.2 6.7 4.6 4.9
(Katunayake) Ltd. 8.9 12.2 8.5 7.1 5.2 5.0
Source: Researcher's original construct
220.127.116.11 Labor Turnover of the factory level workers
Labor Turnover f the factory level workers selected companies
Company Name April May June July August Sept
Hirdararnani Mercury Apparel 9.2 1 5.1 11.4 6.2 3.5 7.1
Hirdararnanj Garments 8.7 13.4 10.6 6.8 4.3 6.4
Source: Researcher's original construct
Â 3.7 Data Analysis Method
The following data analysis tools of SPSS were used in order to analyze the data gathered through the questionnaire.
1)Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â One Sample I-Test AT-Test is any statistical hypothesis test in which the test statistic follows a Student's / distribution ii the null hypothesis is supported. It is most commonly applied when the test statistic would follow a normal distribution if the value of a scaling term in the test statistic were known. When the scaling term is unknown and is replaced by an estimate based on the data, the test statistic (under certain conditions) follows a Student's t distribution.
2)Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â ANOVA Test: The Analysis Of Variance, frequently known as the ANOVA test, can be used in cases where there are more than two groups. It is a collection of statistical models, and their associated procedures, in which the observed variance in a particular variable is partitioned into components attributable to different sources of variation,
3)Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Chi-square Test:Â 'hi-square is a statistical test commonly used to compare observed data with data Â Â we would expect to obtain according to a specific hypothesis. That is, chi-square is the sum of the squared difference between observed and the expected data divided by the expected data in all possible categories.
4)Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Normality Test:Â In statistics, Normality Tests are used to determine whether a data set is well-modeled by a normal distribution or not, in this study the Jarquebera test was used to measure whether the variables have been distributed normally.
Â 3.8 Originality of the Methodology
The methodology used in this study can be identified as exclusively built up for its purpose compared to the past studies in a similar nature. Most of the past studies have used questionnaires to collect data to measure the level of EQ but they have not much focused on the depth interviews with the employees who work with the employee level that has been taken as the population. Therefore, feedbacks from the I-ER managers of the Line Supervisors and employees who work under the Line Supervisors have been obtained through depth interviews in order to find out the actual situation within the company. Therefore this study develops the analysis techniques to arrive at further reliable conclusions.
3.9 Limitations of the Methodology
This research has mainly used the method of questionnaires to obtain information on Emotional Intelligence. There is a possibility that some employees perceive the questions in the survey instrument as a threat. They do not reveal the real perception of them as they assume that information might leak out to the managers.
When the questions are translating from English to Sinhala the real meaning of the questions are hard to be translated to the exact meaning of Sinhala. This might confuse the respondents when answering the questionnaire.
4. Data Presentation and Analysis
4.2 Introduction to Data Analysis
The data, mainly gathered by questionnaires which were distributed among 30 Line Supervisors in two apparel making companies of Katunayake Investment Promotion Zone would be analyzed in this chapter. Even though these two companies have significant differences from each other in various aspects such as the culture of the company. Organizational hierarchy, management styles, vision and mission, policies and procedures etc. these variables were not considered in depth when analyzing the gathered data because the main focus of the research was on whether the Emotional Intelligent would affect the Effectiveness of Line Supervisors when they are working with the factory level employees at the workplace. The demographic variables of Line Supervisors such as Gender, Age. Tenure of the employee, highest educational standard reached etc. would also be considered in the analysis in order to find out the impact of these variables on the Emotional Intelligence level of Line Supervisors.
The relationship between the key variables would be analyzed and interpreted by using following statistical tests which were derived from the use of SPSS software.
ANOVA: Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is a collection of statistical models, and their associated procedures, in which the observed variance in a particular variable is partitioned into components attributable to different sources of variation.
One sample T-Test: A T-Test is any statistical hypothesis test in which the test statistic follows a Student's I distribution if the null hypothesis is supported. It is most commonly applied when the test statistic would follow a normal distribution if the value of a scaling term in the test statistic were known. When the scaling term is unknown and is replaced by an estimate based on the data, the test statistic (under certain conditions) follows a Student's t distribution.
Chi-square Test: Chi-square is a statistical test commonly used to compare observed data with data we would expect to obtain according to a specific hypothesis. That is, chi-square is the sum of the squared difference between observed and the expected data divided by the expected data in all possible categories.
Normality Test: In statistics, Normality Tests are used to determine whether a data set is well-modeled by a normal distribution or not. In this study the Jarquebera test was used to measure whether the variables have been distributed normally.
4.3 Normality Test
Normality Test of the EQ variables have been measured in relation to Jarque. bera test statistics. All the test values could be seen between 0 - 6 that is the standard test statistics. Therefore, the variables have been distributed normally. It indicates that the sample of the study has not been biased. For that reason the result of the study is more valid.
Normality Test of EQ variables
Variables of EQ Jarquebera Test value
Source: Researcher's original construct
4.4 The Impact of Personal Competency on the Effectiveness on Line Supervisors
HI: There is a positive relationship between Personal competency of EQ and Effectiveness of Line Supervisors
To test the first hypothesis of this study the attributes of Personal competency, namely Self-awareness, Self-regulation and Motivation of Line Supervisors are tested out with the
Absenteeism, Labor Turnover and Target Achievement of the factory level workers of each and every company. The statistics obtained to measure this relationship are as follows:
4.4.1 The Relationship between Self-awareness and Effectiveness of Line Supervisors
This table shows the relationship between Self-awareness of Personal competency and Effectiveness of Line Supervisors.
The relationship between Self-awareness and Effectiveness
Apparel (Pvt) Ltd
Source: Researcher's original construct
According to the One-Sample T-Test, the significant level of Self-awareness of Hirdaramani Mercury Apparel (Pvt) Ltd is 0.000 in relation to the levels between agree and strongly agree. It means that the Self-awareness of this company is not in the level of agree or strongly agree. It indicates that the Line Supervisors, of this company have not considered Self-awareness as an important factor in their work. The absenteeism of the factory level workers, who work under these Line Supervisors is averagely high, compared to the other companies (7.41). The labor turnover of factory level workers is also high (8.75), which is the second highest of the two companies. The target achievement 70%- 90% of this company which is comparatively high. This indicates that the Line Supervisors who have not considered the factor of Self-awareness are faced with the issue of high absenteeism level and high labor turnover value but maybe due to other factors they have a higher rate of target achievement.
The significant level of Self-awareness of Hirdaramani Garments (Katunayake) Ltd is 0 .046. This company has a slight significant level of Self-awareness. It means the Self- awareness of this company is not in the level of strongly agree or agree. It indicates that the Line Supervisors of this company have also not considered the factor of Self-awareness as an important aspect in their working environment. The absenteeism of the factory level workers is in a high level compared to the other companies (7.82). The labor turnover of factory level workers is also high (8.36). The target achievement of this company is in a very lower level (65%-80%). This indicates that the Line Supervisors who have not considered the factor of Self-awareness have to face a high level of absenteeism among their workers, a high level of labor turnover and a considerably low level of target achievement.
Therefore, this clearly implicates that the companies that have an insignificant level of Self-awareness of Line Supervisors leads to a lower level of absenteeism and labor turnover and a higher level of target achievement. Therefore, it indicates further that the Self-awareness and Effectiveness of the Line Supervisors has a relationship.
4.4.2 The Relationship between Motivation and Effectiveness of Line Supervisors
This table shows the relationship between Motivation of Personal competency and Effectiveness of Line Supervisors.
The relationship between Motivation and Effectiveness
Apparel (Pvt) Ltd
Source: Researcher's original construct
The significant value of Motivation in Hirdaramani Mercury Apparel (Pt) Ltd is 0.863. It shows that the competency of Motivation is insignificant in this company. It indicates that the Line Supervisors of Hirdaramany Mercury Apparel (Pvt) Ltd are in the levels between agree or strongly agree. It indicates that the factor of Motivation is highly considered by the Line Supervisors of this company. The absenteeism, labor turnover and target achievement of this company is 7.41 8.75and 70%-90% respectively. This indicates that the Line Supervisors who have considered the factor of Motivation have reached to a higher level of target achievement even though the absenteeism and labor turnover is high.
The significant value of Motivation Of Hirdaramani Garments (Katunayake) Ltd is 0.003. It shows that the P value of the competency of Motivation is highly significant. The meaning of this is that the Line Supervisors of Hirdaramani Garments (Katunayake) Ltd are not in the level of agree or strongly agree. It indicates that the factor of Motivation is not considered by the Line Supervisors of this company. The absenteeism, labor turnover and target achievement of this company is 7.82, &36 and 65%-8O% respectively. This indicates that the Line Supervisors who have not considered the factor of Motivation had to experience a higher level of absenteeism and labor turnover as well as lower level of target achievement.
Therefore, this clearly implicates that the company which has a significant P value of Motivation of Line Supervisors has reached to a higher level of absenteeism and labor turnover and a lower level of target achievement. Companies that have an insignificant level of Motivation have reached to a higher level of target achievement and lower level of absenteeism and labor turnover. It indicates further that the Motivation and Effectiveness of the Line Supervisors has a relationship.
4.4.3 The Relationship between Personal competency of EQ and Effectiveness of Line Supervisors
This table shows the relationship between Personal competency and Effectiveness of Line Supervisors.
The relationship between Personal competency and Effectiveness
Apparel (Pvt) Ltd
Source: Researcher's original construct
The significant level of Personal competencies of Line Supervisors of Hirdaramany Mercury Apparel (Pvt) Ltd is 0.000. This is highly significant. It indicates that the Line Supervisors have not regarded the Personal competency as important in this company. This can be clearly identified in the previous tables of the attributes of Personal competency. Motivation is the only Personal competency that the Line Supervisors of this company has regarded, Therefore, this indicate that the Line Supervisors who have competency of Motivation, have reached to high level of target achievement (70%-90%) but the absenteeism (741) and labor turnover (8.75) of the factory level workers are high as they haven't paid much attention to the other competencies; namely Self-awareness and Self-regulation.
The significant level of Personal competencies of Line Supervisors of Hirdaramany Garments (Katunayake) Ltd is 0.226. It shows a highly insignificant level of Personal competency of the company. It indicates that the Line Supervisors in this company have regarded the Personal competencies as important. But level of absenteeism (7.82) and labor turnover (8.36) of this company is very high and they have reached to a low level of target achievement (65%-80%). It shows that even though the Line Supervisors have regarded the Personal competency as important they were unable to achieve their goals. When considering each attribute alone it is obvious that each of them is in the significant level. That is, not even a single attribute have been taken in to consideration by the Line Supervisors of this company.
By taking in to consideration all the above facts and findings, it is clear that there is a positive relationship between Personal competency and Effectiveness of Line supervisors. The factory level workers who work under Line Supervisors who are aware of Personal competency are more likely to have less absenteeism, less labor turnover and also the target achievement seems to be in a higher level. Therefore it is clear that where Personal competency takes effect, the efficiency of those who are concerned become high. This relationship is further more elaborated in Table 4.13. The depth interviews disclosed that the Line Supervisors who have the competency of Self-awareness meet up less conflict situations with the factory level workers. Line Supervisors, who had Self-regulation, were considered as reliable employees by their immediate managers and also the factory level employees have considered such Line Supervisors as trustworthy.
4.5 The Impact of Social Competency on the Effectiveness on Line Supervisors
There is a positive relationship between Social Competency of EQ and Effectiveness of Line Supervisors
To test the second hypothesis of this study the attributes of Social competency, namely Empathy and Social-skills of Line Supervisors are tested out with the Absenteeism, Labor Turnover and Target Achievement of the factory level workers of each and every company. The statistics obtained to measure this relationship are as follows:
4.5.1 The Relationship between Empathy and Effectiveness of Line Supervisor
This table shows the relationship between Empathy of Social competency and Effectiveness of Line Supervisors.
The relationship between Empathy and Effectiveness
Apparel (Pvt) Ltd
Source: Researcher's original construct
Empathy of the Line Supervisors of Hirdaramani Mercury Apparel (Pvt) Ltd is highly
insignificant (0.972). It means the Line Supervisors are in the level of agree or strongly agree according to the one-sample Test. This indicates that the competency of Empathy is considered by the Line Supervisors. The level of absenteeism and labor turnover of this company is 7.41 and 8.75, respectively. The target achievement is 79%-90%. This shows that even though the Line Supervisors of Tins Company have considered about Empathy it doesn't have a significant impact on absenteeism or labor turnover.
Empathy of the Line Supervisors of Hirdaramani Garments (Katunayake) Ltd is highly significant (0.O) it means the Line Supervisors are not in the level of agree or strongly agree according to the One-Sample T-Test. This indicates that the competency of Empathy is not considered by the Line Supervisors. This company has a high level of absenteeism (7.82) and labor turnover (8.36) itself. The target achievement also very low (65%-80%). This shows that the Line Supervisors who have not considered Empathy had to face higher levels of absenteeism, labor turnover and lower level of target achievement.
Therefore, this clearly implicates that the Empathy of Line Supervisors has a consi