Human resource Management is planning, organising ,directing and controlling of the recruitment, development, motivation, compensation, integration, maintenance and separation of Human Resource to the end that individual, organisational and social objectives are accomplished.(<http://www.docstoc.com/docs/7224852/Human-Resource Management,2010>)
Human Resource Management (HRM) is based on idea of motivation, productivity and performance (http://managementhelp.org/hr_mgmnt/hr_mgmnt.htm).It assures employee satisfaction to improve performance towards increase productivity. In other words, HRM is a department which attract, select, retain and motivate people within an organization. HRM deals with selection of employees, training, plain, reward system, recruitment. The main functions of HRM are, staffing of employees,
performance measurement, compensation and benefits, training and development, employee and labour relationship, safety and health and human resource research (http://www.answers.com/topic/human-resource-management,2010).HRM.
Human recourse activities control over the five major domains:
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Employee and Organizational Development, and
Reward Systems, Benefits and Compliance
Organisational design involves with interaction of people, work analysis, job design, organisation restructuring, goals and strategic plans of organisation. Staffing deals with Recruitment, selection, employee orientation, safety and health issues. Performance management includes assessments of individual and teams to measure and to improve work performance. Employee and Organisational Development involve with the employee training and maintain employee skills based on organisational needs.
As HRM is deals with human resources another approach is there know as Human Recourse Development (HRD).HRD deals with training and development aspect of employess.HRD focused on training and work performance and HRM deals with employees whom you hire, whom you fire.HRD concerned with development of whole organisation.HRM deals with people only.HRD cope with changing needs of people.HRD is sub system of large system. It is more organisation orientated .it is more independent and having separate roles to play.HRM is administrative function and HRD is continues process.( http://www.scribd.com/doc/21582177/hrm-vs-hrd).HRD ). HRD is the framework for helping employees to develop their personal and organisational skills. Knowledge and ablities.It includes the career development, coaching mentoring, performance management and organisation devolpment.HRD focus on developing the most superior workforce( http://humanresources.about.com/od/glossaryh/f/hr_development.htm,2010).
International Human Resource Management (IHRM)
International human resource management is about understanding of internal and external factors of human resource throughout global environment. International human resource management: policy and practice for the global(By Dennis R. Briscoe, Randall S. Schuler).In the start of 21 century the globalisation of companies give birth to global human resource management. Globalisation is becoming more and more important to companies all over the world. The major component of globalisation of business is field of human resource management.(http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb3265/is_nSPEISS_v37/ai_n28692550/?tag=rbxcra.2.a.33,2010) IHRM is important for success in international business. IHRM is sub filed of HRM.IHRM is deals with management of employees in multinational corporations. In recent years the scope of IHRM has expended considerably and researcher consider all assets of HRM with in large, international companies, including international recruitment and selection, international reward. Training and development programs and system of performance management. There is a link between IHRM and different management structures of multinational companies. Different management structures effects the current culture, laws and business environment of host country. Another strand is concerned with the impact on internal business and movements. It includes the international labour organisation, global union ( http://www.jrank.org/business/pages/836/international-human-resource-management-(IHRM).html,2010). The main function of Global HRM is to developing external culture of development as global organisation. It deals with integration of external function like, international human resource management and cross function like, global marketing (http://www.slideshare.net/xetianale/strategic-global-human-resource-management,2009).The globalisation of business increases the requirement for understanding ways in which multinational enterprises operate effectively. Understanding of IHRM is inclusion of attention to cross culture issue.HRM is related to a single country. IHRM is deals with different countries and national categories of workers. IHRM research is concerned with co ordination of cross national management and management practices Globalization of HRM is important for linking HRM policies and practices with organizational strategy in a single country.(
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International HRM is not just about the practices, it deals with the understanding of different cultural and nature of national culture (page,130)
HRM and personal management are responsible for managing people. personal functions provide the advice and support to managers to carry out its responsibility. Personal management is related with regard to respect for individual, individual needs ,balancing the organisation and developing people to achieve maximum level of satisfaction. In case of IHRM the personal management perform the same function globally. In that case personal management deals with individual culture and ethics satisfaction of employees. Personal management and HRM placing and developing the right people on right place. IHRM and personal management both use the same management techniques like training, management development and reward management.(page,18).According to Torrington international personal management can be defined by seven characters, cosmopolitan, culture,compensation,communication,competence,consultancy,coordination(page,130). Personal values provide an important bridge to group values .personal values are real and help to understand people's behaviour. Personal values helps group to achieve excellence. If people had the same values, it would be easy for them to work. Each member's personal value must link with group's values. Have different values they can identify their personal values within the working group.( http://www.dennisjaffe.com/articles/ASTDValuesArticle.pdf). In relation to the personnel management the work group always works as compared to the Individual work. As from Stone Age men usually involved in the work group. As group work tend to leads many discoveries and inventions. In this context, working in groups is often presented as a good way of dividing work and increasing productivity. It can also be argued that it allows for the utilization of the different skills, knowledge and experiences that people have. As a result, in an organization, it is often approached as a skill to be learnt the ability to work in group-based environments. Within schools and colleges, working in groups can also be adopted as a mean of carrying forward curriculum concerns and varying the experience (infed.org, 2010). The successful management tell that the working in the group is being very effective and always in a positive manner as compared and it is highly cost effective with the person to head.
World Business Culture and Ethics
British business industry follows the generalisation rather than specialisation. British people searching a positive way to say something negative. In addition to being diplomatic, the British also use language in a coded manner preferring to say unpalatable things using more acceptable, positive phrases. Thus, "I disagree" becomes "I think you have made several excellent points there but have you ever considered...''.Humour is Used as tension release mechanism on UK. It helps to keep situation calm and reserved. Humour is very important tool at all levels in all contexts(http://www.worldbusinessculture.com/British-Business-Communication-Style.html).
Britain's business culture gives a inclusive description of British business culture
(http://www.worldbusinessculture.com/British-Business-Style.html).British people use the different way of communication. Women add up to almost 50% workforce in British business world. Women regularly found in managerial positions, than in other European countries and more women are reaching very highest echelons of British business life (http://www.worldbusinessculture.com/Women-in-Business-in-Britain.html). British dress code includes the traditional dark gray and dark blue suits. Suits are worn with white, blue or pink shirt (http://www.worldbusinessculture.com/British-Business-Dress-Style.html). British managers try to develop friendly relationship with staff. British people like to work in a group. Business lunches are seen as an additional room for meeting and it is usually acceptable to discuss business matters over the food ( http://www.worldbusinessculture.com/Meals-and-Entertaining-in-Britain.html).On ).
United States adopted the scientific approach to business. Scientific approach is applied on every aspect of commercial life is studied and analysed. In States more resources are available for the study of business than in any other country. United states started the new management theory .The scientific approach deals with the search for better and effective methods which led to a new business environment. (http://www.worldbusinessculture.com/American-Business-Style.html).we can describe American management style as individualistic. In it managers can made their own decisions. American managers are likely to disregard the opinion of subordinates than mangers in other, more compromise-oriented cultures. This leads to frustration.( http://www.worldbusinessculture.com/American-Management-Style.html). HYPERLINK "http://www.worldbusinessculture.com/American-Management-Style.html). In"In business communication Americans are seen by some cultures as aggressive and even rude. Women play an important role in American business. Most of the executives in America are women ( http://www.worldbusinessculture.com/Women-in-Business-in-The-USA.html). In America, the dress code is vary from formal, dark business suit, shirt to informal T-shirt and shorts( http://www.worldbusinessculture.com/American-Business-Dress-Style.html ). Americans believe in straight talking and getting to the point. They give the value to time. They believe in change and they give preference to new ideas and approaches. Americans tends to work longer hours. (http://www.worldbusinessculture.com/Doing-Business-in-The-USA.html). They invite to breakfast and dinner for business meeting. And the breakfast may starts from 6: 00 7:00 am and if invited for dinner, this may be scheduled 5:30 - 6:00pm. (http://www.worldbusinessculture.com/Meals-and-Entertaining-in-The-USA.html).
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India presents a massive market opportunity for companies who want to expand their business internationally (http://www.worldbusinessculture.com/Indian-Business-Style.html).Indian business structures mirror Indian society. Both are hierarchical in nature. The hierarchical society has an impact on management style. In this environment manager acts like boss and boss acts like manager. Boss is expected to give instructions and everyone will be followed to the letter (http://www.worldbusinessculture.com/Indian-Business-Communication-Style.html). English is main communication language in Indian business. They behave in a good and civilised way (http://www.worldbusinessculture.com/Indian-Business-Communication-Style.html).Women play a very small role in Indian business world as compare to the foreign countries. India places great value on quality of inter-personal relationships.
As mentioned above every country follow different management styles, different dress code and they use different communication languages in business industry. Culture and ethics play an important role in the business world like, In UK, there is a tradition of business lunches for business meeting. But Americans usually held these business meetings over the breakfast or dinner. And Indian are very much traditional. They follow the traditional methods to hold the business meeting. Dress code is also different is different countries. In UK and USA large percentage of women is working in business industry as compare to India. African adopted a different approach to business management style.
Traditional South African business a few senior managers have the power of decision making. The middle management can help the top managers to make a decision. Over last few years has been the introduction of new cadre of black professionals into most companies. This new breed of managers enabled to make a corporate progress through use of 'affirmative action' programmes which promote the development of black talent throughout South African industry. A new approach to develop a more representative management team. South Africa presents a world impression and emotions. There are many cultures with i the South Africa with ethnic tensions existing both with in black and white communities Humour is used by most of society as a tension release mechanism. Women play a minimal role in business life of South Africa ( http://www.worldbusinessculture.com/South-African-Business-Negotiation.html).
HR must be knowledgeable about cross-cultural and business ethics is factors both human resource management (HRM) and global HRM. Culture influences individual, communities, families, organisations and nation's culture provide a sense of identity and belonging. Culture is everywhere like, language, communication styles, history, symbolism, way of being, religion( http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3495/is_9_53/ai_n29460531/,2010)people). People reflect their cultures in both domestic and global organisation. Human resource management bring together people of different cultural backgrounds. HRM, point out awareness of cultural differences in domestic and global organisation, understands the need for cross culture in business setting, Cross culture factor in HRM serve the needs of the organisation. Due to globalisation of business cross cultural organizational behaviour helps in understanding the multicultural domestic and international workplaces.HRM is lie between various types of cultures culture of developing countries. Cross cultural competence takes time, education, sensitivity and experience.( http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3495/is_9_53/ai_n29460531/,2010)peop).The concept of culture is very important at national, international and organizational levels. Human resource literature places emphasis on the role of corporate culture in achieving high performance levels. People working with in a culture of commitment are prepared to work longer ( http://www.hrmguide.co.uk/hrm/chap5/ch5-links1.htm. Organisation's culture, leadership and communication are the key for establishing ethical workplace.
Business ethics includes organisational values risk management, group behaviour with in the Organisation (http://www.shrm.org/Research/Articles/Documents/09-0711_RQ_4_2009_FINAL.pdf).culture). Culture differences influence business ethics. In different countries, there are cultural variations around business ethics like, communication style. For example collectivist societies use different style to solve
Interpersonal and ethical problems. Organisational culture and ethical leadership influences employee attitudes and behaviour. Ethical culture is developed though rewards. Organisational culture includes the views of employees, individual and management. HR is responsible for ethics In terms of programs, communication and discipline in an organisation(http://www.shrm.org/Research/Articles/Documents/09-0711_RQ_4_2009_FINAL.pdf).culture).
Reward Management is implementation and formulisation of strategies and
Policies that aim to reward people fairly, equitably, consistently in accordance to their value with the organisation. It deals with design, implementation and maintenance of reward process and practices that are geared to improvement of individual, team, organisational performance.( Reward Management: A Handbook of Remuneration Strategy and Practice By Michael Armstrong, Helen Murlis,5th addition ,p: 3 ). Reward management is deals with how people should valued for what they do and what they achieve, reward strategies have to integrated with HRM strategies reward management is an integrated part of HRM approach to managing people (Reward Management ( A Handbook of Remuneration Strategy and Practice By Michael Armstrong, Helen Murlis,5th addition ,p: 4). An organisation's culture will influence its choice of reward system and vice versa. People's attitude and behaviour towards pay and satisfaction influence the reward system. Cultural differences have a great impact on reward systems so knowledge of cultural differences is important in succeeding with business in global market culture ( Reward management: a critical text By Geoff White, Jan Druker, addition 2 page 196). National culture influences the efficiency of pay system. Particular reward strategy on employee behaviour is reflect the role of value, attitude and actual behaviour.( Reward management: a critical text By Geoff White, Jan Druker, addition 2 page 204). Rewards can be allocated on the basis of equity to each according to contribution, equality or need. United States are guided by the equity rule and rewards are distributed on performance. Rewards are influenced by three factors: personal utilities of specific distributions, situational demands and cultural influences in individualistic cultures.( Reward management: a critical text By Geoff White, Jan Druker, addition 2 p115)
Tornblom, Jonssons, and Foa compared the use of three factors in United states and Sweden. Swedish value system is more oriented towards equality than American system. Swedish system encouraged teamwork rather than individual achievement. the equality rule is most appropriate to Swedish cultural values. Swedish value system is more integrate whereas American system is internal conflict exist between the values of individual freedom. The three allocation rules were examed with respect to positive and negative allocation- bonus and cut in pay in united states and India (Murphy-Berman et al.,1985).results demonstrate that for Indians the orders of performance of three rules was need equality and equity across situations. American preferred allocation on basis of need in cultures because of high level of personal independence. Indians are less responsive to merit because status in society is determined by not so much by achievement.(p116).
Employee relations or human relation processes consist of methods used by employs to deal with other employees within the organisation.(page,753).The main advantages of human relations are it provide a co-operative environment for working. Human relations helps to create a trust among employees, they can talk freely and provide more friendly environment. Purpose of employee relation is to provide more positive and productive environment.(page,754).employee relations strategies set out how objectives are to be achieved. It define how to manage the relations between organisation and its employees (page,758)
On the other side, employee relations policies usually evolve in the light of circumstances of firm, practices, management values and styles. They will change as new situations emerge like, competitive pressure, new management, takeover, different view amongst employees about the value of trade union,(page,757).so an employee relation environment can be good or bad depends on some facts like, management and employees trust on each other, management treats employees fairly or not(page,758).The climate can be improved by developing fair employee relation policies and procedures.(page,76)
Personal values includes all which is important to be human begins like, honesty, friendship, loyalty ,contribution and kindness are some of many values. Personal values plays a important role in any relationship, either inside or outside of work environment. Personal values leads to good communication provide more flexible environment for work group.( http://www.summittraining.co.uk/news-detail.asp?fldNewsArticles_ID=126)
HRM in both Western and non Western countries
The globalisation of business leads to Western HRM practices in developing countries . United States, Italy ,France and UK and Germany includes largest economic powers of western world United States is the birth place of modern management especially HRM .Current practise of personnel management often lakes an integration into strategic management in European countries and Japan. The major difference between HRM in United States and in Western Europe is the degree to which it influences by cultural differences. Companies in Western Europe have a narrower scope of choice in regard to personal management than in United States. Another major difference in the United States and Western Europe is the degree to which trade union and shop stewards influence a company's HRM. Third factor is historical development of HRM in Western Europe. In both France and Germany, personnel management issues were handled by management.
The Asian sample consist of Japan China and India. The HRM approaches are very different .Japan faces problems in managing Human Resources. That cannot compare to China.HRM in Japan has more in common with concepts being discussed and applied in Western industrialised countries than with China , In China facing in its attempt to change county's economy.HRM is becoming a key aspect of the current economic and management restructuring in China.