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Structure is the arrangement by which various organisational activities are divided up, and how efforts are coordinated. Structure is providing link between task and process. An organisation needs to be appropriately structured for the circumstances in which it finds itself and particularly the tasks it has decided to carry out. It follows; therefore, that strategy should be determined first, followed by the organisational structure. (Deal. T and Kennedy A, 2000).
Every organisation made up of more than one person will need some form of organisational structure. An organisational chart shows the way in which the chain of command works within the organisation. The way in which our company is organised to produce baby wipes. The company is owned by shareholders that choose directors to look after their interests. The directors then appoint managers to run the business on a day-to-day basis. In the company structure the Managing Director has the major responsibility for running of the company, including setting company targets and keeping an eye on all departments. The Distribution Manager is responsible for controlling the movement of goods in and out of the warehouse, supervising drivers and overseeing the transport of goods to and from the firm.
The Production Manager is responsible for keeping a continuous supply of work flowing to all production staff and also for organising manpower to meet the customers' orders. The Sales Manager is responsible for making contact with customers and obtaining orders from those contacts. The Company Accountant controls all the financial dealings of the company and is responsible for producing management accounts and financial reports. The quality assurance officers' controls the quality of products.HR managers is responsible for recruitment, selection and handling the skilled workers. The organisational chart shows the complete structure of our organisation. Fig. 1 explains common success criteria for organizational structures are:
High transient speed
Low residual mass
Assistant General Manager
Sale and Retail Manager
Fig: 1 Structure of Organisation
It is widely recognised that different organisations have distinctive cultures. A commonly used definition of organisational culture is the way we see and do things around here. Through tradition, history and structure, organisations build up their own culture. Culture therefore gives an organisation a sense of identity - 'who we are', 'what we stand for', 'what we do'. It determines through the organisation's legends, rituals, beliefs, meanings, values, norms and language, the way in which things are done around here (Deal T. and Kennedy A, 2000).
Edgar H Schein, in 1997 defined organisational culture 'A pattern of shared basic assumptions that the group learned as it solved its problems of external adaptation and internal integration, that has worked well enough to be considered valid and, therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way you perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems.
The definition to explain organizational values also known as "beliefs and ideas about what kinds of goals members of an organization should pursue and ideas about the appropriate kinds or standards of behavior organizational members should use to achieve these goals. From organizational values develop organizational norms, guidelines or expectations that prescribe appropriate kinds of behavior by employees in particular situations and control the behavior of organizational members towards one another (Charles W. L. Hill and Gareth R. Jones, 2001)
Structure and culture helps people in the organisation to work together effectively. The more effective the structure, the more effective the working relations between people and departments. Structure underpins how power and accountability, internal and external, operate within the organisation: it determines how responsibilities are allocated and enables effective participation (Kroeber. A and Kukhohn. F, 1951).
The Organizational Culture includes what is valued; the leadership style, the language and symbols, the procedures and routines, and the definitions of success that characterizes an organization.
In our organisation have totally democratic type and corporate culture which help to improve the organisation.
This type of culture and structure help to improve long term economics performance. Its help to develop confidence among workers improve motivation. Its define responsibilities. It focuses attention on the human side of organizational life, and finds significance and learning in even its most ordinary aspects. Its helps to understand the organization's capacity, effectiveness, and longevity. It also contributes significantly to the organization's brand image and brand promise. Organizational Culture creates energy and momentum. The energy will permeate the organization and create a new momentum for success.
How to Plan work:
A business plan is a document that summarizes the operational and financial objectives of a business and contains the detailed plans and budgets showing how the objectives are to be realized. Because the business plan contains detailed financial projections, forecasts about your business's performance, and a marketing plan, it's an incredibly useful tool for business planning. Simply planning of work activities determines where an organization is going over the next year or more, how it's going to get there and how it'll know if it got there or not. The focus of planning of work activities is usually on the entire organization, while the focus of a business plan is usually on a particular product, service or program. The way that a strategic plan is developed depends on the nature of the organization's leadership, culture of the organization, complexity of the organization's environment, size of the organization, expertise of planners, etc (Carter McNamara, 1997).
In 1997, Carter McNamara explained that there are a variety of strategic planning models, including goals-based, issues-based, organic, scenario (some would assert that scenario planning is more a technique than model), etc. Goals-based planning is probably the most common and starts with focus on the organization's mission (and vision and/or values), goals to work toward the mission, strategies to achieve the goals, and action planning (who will do what and by when). Issues-based strategic planning often starts by examining issues facing the organization, strategies to address those issues, and action plans. Organic strategic planning might start by articulating the organization's vision and values and then action plans to achieve the vision while adhering to those values. Some planners prefer a particular approach to planning, e.g., appreciative inquiry. Some plans are scoped to one year, many to three years, and some to five to ten years into the future. Some plans include only top-level information and no action plans. Some plans are five to eight pages long, while others can be considerably longer.
There are a variety of perspectives, models and approaches used in our organization to plan work activities. In our organization planners already know much of what will go into his plan. However, development of the planning activities greatly helps to clarify the organization's plans and ensure that key leaders are all "on the same script". To explain the planning in our organization show in figure. Fig: 2. The organizational paling chart explain target, issue including future target, heath and safety, new recruitment, benefit offers, etc. in quarterly briefing we decide and set the future targets by the instructions of managers, directors, HR, and team leaders. We will assets all these targets and goals in monthly meeting and send instructions and ideas to meat the requirements. After this we held weekly meeting in which team leader, production managers and representatives' labours worker participates to discuss the problems future targets etc.
Planning activities in our organization serves a variety of purposes including to:
1. Clearly define the purpose of the organization and to establish realistic goals and objectives consistent with that mission in a defined time frame within the organization's capacity for implementation.
2. Communicate those goals and objectives to the organization's constituents.
3. Develop a sense of ownership of the plan.
4. Ensure the most effective use is made of the organization's resources by focusing the resources on the key priorities.
5. Provide a base from which progress can be measured and establish a mechanism for informed change when needed.
6. Bring together of everyone's best and most reasoned efforts have important value in building a consensus about where an organization is going
7. Provides clearer focus of organization, producing more efficiency and effectiveness
8. Bridges staff and board of directors.
9. Builds strong teams in the board and the staff.
10. Provides the glue that keeps the board together.
11. Produces great satisfaction among planners around a common vision.
12. Increases productivity from increased efficiency and effectiveness.
13. Solves major problems.
Plan can play a vital role in helping to avoid mistakes or recognize hidden opportunities. Preparing a satisfactory plan of the organization is essential. The planning process enables management to understand more clearly what they want to achieve, and how and when they can do it. A well-prepared business plan demonstrates that the managers know the business and that they have thought through its development in terms of products, management, finances, and most importantly, markets and competition. Planning helps in forecasting the future, makes the future visible to some extent. It bridges between where we are and where we want to go. Planning is looking ahead.
In our organisation, managers, and exectives takes apart in decision making. They develped plan with the cordination of all team leader and worker representatives as shown below.
HRM, Health and safety
Set Targets and Goal
Fig: 2 Structures of development plain
Identify developmental needs and provide development opportunities:
Identifying your development needs can be challenging. Often, we find ourselves looking at what training courses are available and deciding which of those would be most helpful. In fact, it is better to try and identify what the development need is and then to work out ways of meeting that need, which may or may not be a training course. Annual Review is a great opportunity to discuss your development needs with your line manager. You may be able to discuss the changing requirements of your role, as well as your personal development aspirations (for example, career development). It is important that you have considered your development needs before your Annual Review meeting as this will enable you to make the most of your discussion. (Alexandra, A., and Miller, S.1999).
Being member a supervisory management development programmer in organization I first look there are three main stages of to identify our needs.
1): Identify what skills, knowledge and behaviours are 'required' for you to do your job well.
2): Look at the skills, knowledge and behaviours you actually have now.
3): Compare 'actual' with 'required' to identify the gaps. These are our Development needs.
Proposes priorities for learning and development each year, based on strategic priorities and information from learning and development plans.Arrange a variety of training and development activities to meet central and local priorities. Responsible for organisational development activities such as Investors in People, Staff Survey and Performance Management schemes.
Based on strategic priorities and information and needs from learning and development plans, there are a range of professional development initiatives throughout the financial year incorporating opportunities that include:
Management Development Programme
Aspiring to management
Diversity & Equality
Qualification based carier traning
Continuous Professional Development
Professional Qualification Scheme for Business Support Staff
Health and Safety
A Model for Teamwork:
Hadyan and Richard in 1997 explain the model for teamwork and they stated that the key characteristics of effective teamwork featuring inputs, throughputs and outputs. Suggests that throughputs may be the greatest determinant of team effectiveness and that this may have implications for the way in which management approaches the development of self-directed teams in the future.
We developed a model for teamwork to understand that labours team to respond to leadership, it needed a clearly defined task, and the achievement of that task is related to the needs of the team and the individuals within that team. Shown in Fig: 3
The team leader or facilitator must concentrate on the small central area in the model where the three circles overlap - the "action to change" area, and there are three inter-related, but distinctive, requirements of a team leader:
â€¢ Define and achieve the job or task e.g. process improvement
â€¢ Build up and co-ordinate a team to do this
â€¢ Develop and satisfy the individuals within the team
To do this, the team leader or facilitator must perform the following functions:
Define the team task or purpose
Make a workable plan
Explain why the plan is necessary
Allocate tasks to team members
Set team standards
Influence the tempo
Ensure all actions move towards the objective
Keep discussions relevant
Guide the team to action and decision
Encourage and discipline the team and individuals
Create team spirit`
Fig: 3. Model of team work
Work Activity progress and Individual development Objectives:
Assessment is an essential part of the teaching and learning process in an organisation because assessment of work helps to judge performance, determine the subjective area, provide feedback to management, and modify plain.
Biggs J. (1999) discussed that teamwork has a dramatic affect on organizational performance. An effective team can help an organization achieve incredible results. A team that is not working can cause unnecessary disruption, failed delivery and strategic failure.
Nowadays it is almost impossible to avoid being a member of team. If you're not on an official team at work, chances are you function within one in one way or another. So it's important for your personal and career development to know your team working strengths and weaknesses. This assessment helps you uncover common team working problems that you might be experiencing. Once you've completed the assessment, we direct you towards team tools that will help you to improve and develop these important skills.
There are many ways to assess our work activities and priorities for development, and to plan developmental strategies.
2): Leadership consulting.
There are various objectives of this assessment in our organisation.
become more aware of what the company needs from them as leaders, now and in the future
gain self-awareness through feedback about their strengths and weaknesses as leaders
learn the characteristics and practices of successful leaders as identified in industry and compare themselves against those characteristics
identify improvement needs and develop personal action plans for addressing needs
be able to use leadership processes to produce constructive change, flexibility to adapt to new conditions, openness to innovation, opportunities for competitive advantage
be able to balance the natural tensions between these processes in their own work life, and know how to select appropriate strategies
Modify Plans, as Required in an Organisation:
In any organisation the business plan must cover four basic stages of business development:
Management's best estimate of future operations is set out in a logical, organized way. This crystallizes ideas and identifies any problems and areas for further analysis.
To determine when money is required and whether it needs to take the form of venture or loan capital, or other forms of funding.
Which provides management with guidelines for running the business efficiently?
The means by which management can assess and control the company's progress by comparison with financial projections in the plan.
Like any other organization our company and team always tried to improve and modify the business plains which insure that the performance objectives are meet. For this purpose meeting especially the individuals meeting are very important. Other aspects are also very important like.
3: involving others