The need for equal opportunities in india

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Topic of this research is related with equal opportunity for women in Indian hotel industry. Equal opportunity for women in hotel industry means author want to explore whether women in hotel industry are getting equal chance to be in the management and top management level or there is inequality being women.

In this secondary research author presenting information collected from websites because there are very limited books on equal opportunity for women in hotel industry. Intact there is no legislation for equal opportunity for women in India. In India there is equal pay legislation and minimum wage legislation but there is no law as such on equal opportunity for women. In India it is equal opportunity for all. But government paying more attention to it that there should not be any discrimination on the basis of gender, age, caste etc.

But time to time government taking steps in empowering women by alteration in the legislation / giving judgments towards women empowerment. This part of secondary research contains information regarding the same.

This topic implies the meaning that there is gender biasness in the hotel industry. It means women's are not having higher position in the hotel industry rather they are being hold in junior positions even at senior position but not very upper level. This is a kind of a glass ceiling for women's who can be seen but can not achieve.

Equal opportunity and treatment between men and women is a fundamental principle of HR Policies. Actions to give effect to this principle have meant that , over recent years, recruitment and retention patterns have gradually changed to give women a largest presence in the organizations staff team. Information technology provides that all aspects of human resource management be conducted without regard to race, sex, colour, national orgin, sexual orientation, age, veteran status, political affiliation, or disability in accfordance with the governorsexecutive order on equal opportunity and state and federal laws. Prousit, M.,(1999)

Author chosen this topic with the rational thinking. The rationale behind the choice is that author always heard personally that there is partiality in the hotel industry and this partiality is basically based on gender. Author would like to say that there is gender biasness in hotel industry. This is the reason author thought to explore this topic.

Aim and objectives / Research Questions / Hypothesis:

Purpose of this study is to explore whether there is glass ceiling in the hotel industry for women workers or not?

Objectives:

To find out number of women working in senior and junior level in the chosen sample.

Find out the ratio of women and men of the chosen hotel

To explore the reason behind existence of glass ceiling for women in hotel.

To explore the solution of existence of this glass ceiling in hotel Industry

Research Questions:

R.Q.1 : Whether there is existence of glass ceiling for women workers in hotel industry or not?

R.Q.2 : What are the basic reasons of partiality with women workers in their promotion?

R.Q.3: How this biasness can be removed from hotel industry?

Definitions:

"Hospitality is all about offering warmth to someone who looks for help at a strange or unfriendly place. It refers to the process of receiving and entertaining a guest with goodwill. Hospitality in the commercial context refers to the activity of hotels, restaurants, catering, inn, resorts or clubs who make a vocation of treating tourists.

Helped With unique efforts by government and all other stakeholders, including hotel owners, resort managers, tour and travel operators and employees who work in the sector, Indian hospitality industry has gained a level of acceptance world over. It has yet to go miles for recognition as a world leader of hospitality. Many take Indian hospitality service not for its quality of service but India being a cheap destination for leisure tourism.

With unlimited tourism and untapped business prospects, in the coming years Indian hospitality is seeing green pastures of growth. Availability of qualified human resources and untapped geographical resources give great prospects to the hospitality industry. The number of tourists coming to India is growing year after year. Likewise, internal tourism is another area with great potentials". http://www.naukrihub.com/india/hospitality/

STRUCTURE OF DISSERTATION-:

This dissertation has been many sections, so author feels to introduce the each sections in this very first chapter- introduction. Here are the introduction about the structure of the dissertation: very first chapter after this section is literature review which contains secondary research, next chapter is methodology that contains information about authors approach of the primary data collection, after that findings and analysis and then there is a conclusion chapter.

Chapter 2

LITERATURE REVIEW:

It is inequality that gives dissatisfaction to the employee in the hotel industry. This is not only in hospitality industry but it might related to any field where there is no equality that will lead to dissatisfaction among employees. Hospitality industry is such kind of employee where women and men both are equally important keeping in mind serving to the guest. Rather women might be very effective in serving the guest because of the general nature of women that matching with the serving and managing effectively. The nature of women in effective managing is starts from home where females who make home manages effectively. So this is a question of debate that if a women can manage home effectively then why not an office and office work.

In hospitality industry inequality is a major issue, where women get lesser salary than a men of similar position and even in promotion and reaching to the top management level in the organizational hierarchy women face glass ceiling means they can see the position from their place but actually reaching to the top level is dream.

Though subtle, gender bias exists in every aspect of society - from the workplace to the political arena. The gender gap affects our children's education, the size of the paycheck we bring home, and why women still lag behind men in math and science careers.

Gender Biasness:

Gender bias is the prejudice in action or treatment against a person on the basis of their sex. Eg. Payment of lesser salary to weaker sex workers. http://www.legal-explanations.com/index.htm

A several studies demonstrate a disparate distribution of income between male and female employees in the hospitality industry, with females earning less than their male counterparts (Biswas and Cassell, 1996; Purcell, 1996; Sparrowe and Iverson, 1999). Gender-based income disparity has been confirmed as a form of sex discrimination within the hospitality industry (e.g., Sparrowe and Iverson, 1999; Thrane, 2007). There also have been several examples of research highlighting differences between men and women managers in effective strategy implementation (Schaap, Stedham, and Yamamura, 2008). Still other research has documented gender differences in promotions to managerial positions (Manwa and Black, 2002; Thrane, 2007), wherein men are over-represented in preferred positions that pay better. Part of the reason for this disparity may be that female employees may interrupt their working lives due to preferences for marriage and caring for children.

http://asbbs.org/files/2010/ASBBS2010v1/PDF/M/McCuddy2.pdf

EMPOWERMENT

Definitions of Empowerment: Empowerment means giving people their head, not just relieving them of minor bureaucrat impedimenta…It means top management explaining and delegating more while commanding less Glission, C and Durick, M (1988). For management, empowerment is the giving up of some control and the sharing of additional knowledge of company goals and achievements for employees, its acceptance of the risk by taking more responsibility (Loretta & Polsky, 1991). Empowerment simply means encouraging people to make decisions and initiate actions with less control and direction from their manager Fried, Y and Ferris, G R (1987). Empowerment is the process of enhancing feelings of self-efficiency among organizational members through the identification of conditions that foster powerlessness and through their removal by formal organizational practices and informal techniques of providing effective information (Conger & Kanungo, 1988). The last definition of empowerment as defined by Conger and Kanungo will be used as the basic definition for purposes of this study. According to Hummuda and Dulaimi (1997), Conger and Kanungo's definition of empowerment is a comprehensive description of empowerment emphasizing various aspects, including -empowerment as a quality achiever as well as a motivator, empowerment as an organizational process, a whole restructuring, the involvement of every member in the organization; as an individual or self managed team, powerlessness in organizations as a barrier to the adoption of empowerment, formal and informal practices and techniques to implement empowerment,

The Theory of Empowerment

"The idea of employee empowerment is a concept that is fairly unused when compared with the size of the employee population. Also, empowerment can easily be misconstrued, depending on an organization's use of the principle. Employee empowerment is closely related to employee involvement, a concept that is easily understood and more uniform throughout organizations. Employee involvement has been defined as "a participative process to use the entire capacity of workers, designated to encourage employee commitment to organizational success" Roebuck, C (1996)

WOMEN EMPOWERMENT:

Women work two-thirds of the world's working hours, according to the United Nations Millennium Campaign to halve world poverty by the year 2015. The overwhelming majority of the labor that sustains life - growing food, cooking, raising children, caring for the elderly, maintaining a house, hauling water - is done by women, and universally this work is accorded low status and no pay. The ceaseless cycle of labor rarely shows up in economic analyses of a society's production and value. • Women earn only 10 percent of the world's income. Where women work for money, they may be limited to a set of jobs deemed suitable for women - invariably low-pay, low-status positions. • Women own less than 1 percent of the world's property. Where laws or customs prevent women from owning land or other productive assets, from getting loans or credit, or from having the right to inheritance or to own their home, they have no assets to leverage for economic stability and cannot invest in their own or their children's futures. Women make up two-thirds of the estimated 876 million adults worldwide who cannot read or write; and girls make up60 percent of the 77 million children not attending primary school. Education is among the most important drivers of human development: women who are educated have fewer children than those who are deniedschooling (some studies correlate each additional year of education with a 10 percent drop in fertility). They delay their first pregnancies, have healthier children (each additional year of schooling a woman has is associated with a 5 to 10 percent decline in child deaths, according to the United Nations Population Fund)

http://www.care.org/newsroom/publications/whitepapers/woman_and_empowerment.pdf

Employee turnover

Turnover or labor turnover is the rate at which an employer gains and losses employees. Simple ways to describe it are "how long employees tend to stay" or "the rate of traffic through the revolving door." Turnover is measured for individual companies and for their industry as a whole. If an employer is said to have a high turnover relative to its competitors, it means that employees of that company have a shorter average tenure than those of other companies in the same industry. High turnover can be harmful to a company's productivity if skilled workers are often leaving and the worker population contains a high percentage of novice workers.(www.answers.com)

2.1.3

Working condition

General conditions of work define, in many ways, peoples' experience of work. Minimum standards for working conditions are defined in each country but the large majority of workers, including many of those whose conditions are most in need of improvement, are excluded from the scope of existing labour protection measures. In many countries, workers in cottage industries, the urban informal economy, agricultural workers (except for plantations), small shops and local vendors, domestic workers and homeworkers are outside the scope of protective legislation. Other workers are deprived of effective protection because of weaknesses in labour law enforcement. This is particularly true for workers in small enterprises, which account for over 90 per cent of enterprises in many countries, with a high proportion of women workers. (Ref: http://www.ilo.org)

2.1.4

Employee satisfaction

Simply defined, "job satisfaction is the balance between work stressors and work rewards' (Corey-Lisle, et all 1999). Locke (cited in Tovey & Adams,1999) has described job satisfaction as: "… a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job or job experience. Job satisfaction results from the perception that one's job fulfils or allows the fulfilment of one's own important job values, providing and to a degree that those values are congruent with one's needs."

http://www.merinews.com/article/women-empowerment-in-india/15790444.shtml

Empowerment is key to success of any organisation whether it is empowering to the women or men or smaller staff or senior staff it is giving power and freedom in hand of employee within the scope and limitation of the organisational rules and regulation to handle the work independently. Empowerment gives employee to practice their own aptitude and materialise those aptitude in success. Altimately there will be appreciation in work and employee will be rewarded or promoted in the organisational hierarchy. But it is the biasness within the organisation that limit such employee going into higher hierarchy and to be promoted. This kind of hurdles are basically partiality and inequality based on anything.

http://www.merinews.com/article/women-empowerment-in-india/15790444.shtml

Equality in Hotel Industry of India: women empowerement

"The Hotel Association of India scored a major judicial success in the High Court of Delhi in its legal battle to carry forward the movement for empowerment of women and providing them equal opportunities for work in hotels across the country.

On a petition filed by the Hotel Association of India, the Delhi High Court, Bench of Justice Mukul Mudgal and Justice H.R. Malhotra struck down the 92 year old legal section of the Punjab Excise Act enacted during the British Rule in India in 1914 which prohibited employment of women of any age in duly licensed Bars and other Food and Beverage Outlets where liquor is served to customers.

The apex forum of hoteliers, HAI had filed a Writ Petition in the High Court of Delhi in July 1999 for declaring the Section 30 of the Punjab Excise Act, 1914 ultra vires under Article 226 of the Constitution of India. Describing Section 30 of Punjab Excise Act, 1914 as "totally misplaced" the HAI Writ argued that in the changed economic and social conditions of the new millennium, women have equal rights with men and are competing with men in all spheres and vocations and such a prohibition on their employment at a work place in hotels is arbitrary, discriminates against women on the basis of gender and amounts to violation of their right to carry on a vocation.

The two member bench of the High Court of Delhi, which upheld the hotel body's petition, declared Section 30 ultra vires." http://www.hotelassociationofindia.com/milestones.htm

Chapter 3

METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction

This chapter looks at the process of secondary and primary data collection. In order to fully explore the issues of employee retention in hotel industry with the help of working condition both desk and primary research has been carried out. The section evaluates the variety of research methods and the process of choosing the most appropriate one.

3.2 Meaning of Research

Research in simple terms, refers to a search for knowledge. It is also known as a scientific and systematic search for information on particular topic or issue. It is also known as the art of scientific investigation. Several social scientists have defined research in different ways.

In the Encyclopaedia of Social Sciences, D. Slesinger and M. Stephension (1930) defined research as "the manipulation of things, concept or symbols for the purpose of generalizing to extend, correct or verify knowledge, whether that knowledge aids in construction of theory or in practice of an art". (http://www.4shared.com)

3.3 Data collection method

In this research data can be collected from secondary and primary data, various secondary and primary sources respectively. This research has been investigative one and therefore both primary and secondary data was collected with the use of easily available secondary and primary sources.

3.3.1 Secondary data

The process of secondary data collection involved searching and reviewing of relevant literature. This was mainly carried out at the R M institute library. The searched topics included literature on employee retention, working condition, employee turnover, types of turnover studies. In addition, journals and magazines' articles were obtained from electronic data bases, such as sage and emerald

Research information stored on the electronic databases, i.e. journals' articles, proved to be the most effective method of secondary data collection. Various reports, publications and studies provided the most relevant and current data. Literature was a valuable source of information, although much of it appeared to be somewhat dated. It also proved difficult to find the aspects of employee retention and working condition, with regards to the hospitality industry.

3.3.2 Primary data

The purpose of primary research was to further expand on the data collected during secondary research. Its aim was to also provide answers for the research questions. The following section examines the various methods used to collect primary data, provides explanation as to why certain techniques were eliminated and explains the rationale for the methods that were used in the research.

The literature in research methods distinguishes between quantitative and qualitative methods. Qualitative research is defined as: "using unstructured forms of data collection, both interviewing and observation ,and employing verbal descriptions and explanations" (cited in Johns and Lee-Ross, 1998,)

3.4 Research approaches

There are two main approaches to research, namely quantitative approach and qualitative approach. The quantitative approach involves the collection of quantitative data, which are put to rigorous quantitative analysis in a formal and rigid manner. This approach further includes experimental, inferential, and simulation approaches to research. Meanwhile, the qualitative approach uses the method of subjective assessment of opinions, behaviour and attitudes. Research in such a situation is a function of the researcher's impressions and insights. The results generated by this type of research are either in non-quantitative form or in the form which cannot be put to rigorous quantitative analysis. Usually, this approach uses techniques like depth interviews, focus group interviews, and projective techniques. (Ref : http://www.4shared.com)

3.4.1 Quantitative vs. Qualitative

Quantitative research relates to aspects that can be quantified or can be expressed in terms of quantity. It involves the measurement of quantity or amount. The various available statistical and econometric methods are adopted for analysis in such research. They include correlation, regressions, time series analysis, etc. Whereas, qualitative research is concerned with qualitative phenomenon, or more specifically, the aspects relating to or involving quality or kind. For example, an important type of qualitative research is "Motivation Research", which investigates into the reasons for human behaviour. The main aim of this type of research is discovering the underlying motives and desires of human beings, using in-depth interviews. The other techniques employed in such research are story completion tests, sentence completion tests, word association tests, and other similar projective methods. Qualitative research is particularly significant in the context of behavioural sciences, which aim at discovering the underlying motives of human behaviour. Such research help to analyse the various factors that motivate human beings to behave in a certain manner, besides contributing to an understanding of what makes individuals like or dislike a particular thing. However, it is worth noting that conducting qualitative research in practice is considerably a difficult task. Hence, while undertaking such research, seeking guidance from experienced expert researchers is important.(ref : -http://uk.geocities.com)

3.5 Questionnaire as a research instrument

The author used both primary and secondary data as a source to carry out the research. The aim was to build up questions that respondents would answer at the same time as yielding the desired information Nowadays questionnaire is widely used for data collection in social research. It is a reasonably fair tool for gathering data from large, diverse, varied and scattered social groups. The questionnaire is the media of communication between the investigator and the respondents. A questionnaire is a list of questions sent to a number of persons for their answers and which obtains standardized results that can be tabulated and treated statistically.

3.5.1 Questionnaire design

The main drawback of using questionnaire as a research instrument is that the response rate tends to be low. The author tried to prevent this as much as it was possible by taking care while designing the survey.

The layout was carefully considered so that the survey appeared simple and did not require a time-consuming process to complete. Only closed questions were used however some of them provided the opportunity for further comment. Likewise and semantic differential scales were used in order to survey respondents. The questionnaires were printed on good quality paper so that they appeared professional and maximised the response rate.

3.6 Sampling

Though sampling is not new but the sampling theory has been developed recently. People knew or not but they have been using the sampling technique in their day to day life. For example, when a doctor wants to examine the blood for any deficiency, takes only a few drops of blood of the patient and examines. The result arrived at is most of the times correct and represent the whole amount of blood available in the body of the patient. In all these cases, by inspecting a few, they simply believe that the samples give a correct idea about the population. Most of our decision are based on the examination of a few items only i.e. sample studies. In the words of Croxton and Cowdon, "It may be too expensive or too time consuming to attempt either a complete or a nearly complete coverage in a statistical study. Further to arrive at valid conclusions, it may not be necessary to enumerate all or nearly all of a population. (Ref : http://www.4shared.com)

3.6.1 Sampling Methods

Sampling methods are classified as either probability or non-probability. Probability methods include random sampling, systematic sampling, and stratified sampling. Non-probability sampling, include convenience sampling, judgment sampling, quota sampling, and snowball sampling.

Random sampling is the purest form of probability sampling. In random sampling, each item or element of the population has an equal chance of being chosen at each draw. A sample is random if the method for obtaining the sample meets the criterion of randomness (each element having an equal chance at each draw). The actual composition of the sample itself does not determine whether or not it was a random sample. (Ref: http://davidmlane.com)

The author for the purpose of carrying out the research decided to go with the purest form of sampling i.e. Random Sampling. It allows every component of the sampled population an equal probability of being selected. Each individual is chosen entirely by chance and each member of the population has an equal chance of being included in the sample.

3.6.2 Sample design

A sample design is a definite plan for obtaining a sample from a given population (Kothari 1988). Sample constitutes a certain portion of the population or universe. Sampling design refers to the technique or the procedure the researcher adopts for selecting items for the sample from the population or universe. A sample design helps to decide the number of items to be included in the sample, i.e., the size of the sample. The sample design should be determined prior to data collection. There are different kinds of sample designs which a researcher can choose. Some of them are relatively more precise and easier to adopt than the others. A researcher should prepare or select a sample design, which must be reliable and suitable for the research study proposed to be undertaken. (Ref : http://www.4shared.com)

3.6.3 Universe:

The first step involved in developing sample design is to clearly define the number of cases, technically known as the Universe, to be studied. A universe may be finite or infinite. In a finite universe the number of items is certain, whereas in the case of an infinite universe the number of items is infinite (i.e., there is no idea about the total number of items). In the research the universe was made up of various five star hotels located all over Delhi Region. In other words the universe consisted of almost 25 hotels located at the Delhi region. (Ref : http://www.4shared.com)

3.6.4 Size of sample:

Size of the sample refers to the number of items to be chosen from the universe to form a sample. This constitutes a major problem. The size of sample must be optimum. An optimum sample maybe defined as the one that satisfies the requirements of representativeness, flexibility, efficiency, and reliability. While deciding the size of sample, the author should determine the desired precision and the acceptable confidence level for the estimate. The size of the population variance should be considered, because in the case of a larger variance generally a larger sample is larger required. The size of the population should be considered, as it also limits the sample size. The parameters of interest in a research study should also be considered, while deciding the sample size. Besides, costs or budgetary constraint also plays a crucial role in deciding the sample size. (http://www.4shared.com)

Authors approach of sampling and sample size:

After contacting a number of hotels, only 10 hotels (out of the universe of 25) agreed on assisting in the research. The author then decided to shortlist 3 hotels on the basis of the random sampling method. The Oberoi, Inter Continental, and Ashoka were the chosen hotels for the research. The study was conducted at two categories of employees-male employees and female employees. 2 male and 2 female were chosen from each 3 hotels, so total sample size was 12. Selection of male and female employees was done on random basis and this includes manager and non manager's male and female employees.

3.6.5 Sampling procedure:

Finally, the author should decide the type of sample or the technique to be adopted for selecting the items for a sample. This technique or procedure itself may represent the sample design. There are different sample designs from which the author should select one for his/her study. It is clear that the author should select that design which, for a given sample size and budget constraint, involves a smaller error. (http://www.4shared.com)

3.6.6 Sampling Error:

Sampling method consists in estimating the parameters of the population by appropriate statistics computed from the sample. Improper choice of the estimation techniques might introduce the error.

Sampling errors are of two types- Biased Errors and Unbiased Errors

Biased Errors: The errors that occur due to a bias of prejudice on the part of the informant or enumerator in selecting, estimating measuring instruments are called biased errors. These errors are cumulative in nature and increase when the sample size also increases. These errors arise due to defect in the methods of collection of data.

Unbiased errors: Errors which occur in the normal course of investigation or enumeration on account of chance are called unbiased errors. They may arise accidentally without any bias or prejudice. These errors occur due to faulty planning of statistical investigation.

To avoid these errors, the author must take proper precaution and care in using the correct measuring instrument.

Reducing Sampling Errors: Errors in sampling can be reduced, if the size of sample is increased. This is shown in the following diagram

From the above diagram it is clear that when the size of the sample increases, sampling error decreases. And by this process samples can be made more representatives to the population. (Ref : http://www.4shared.com)

3.7 Limitation

During the research, the author had to engage within more than a few important organizations to commence the survey and it was a testing task to get the approval off four different organizations to complete the research. Once the approval was granted the major limitation that the author came through was the time frame to complete the research as each procedure took time. Preferably the author would have liked to have spent a lot extra time on the research work and have increased the sample size in order to increases the accuracy of research.

Chapter 4

ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

Question 1 - Do you believed in "equal opportunity for women" and especially in the hotel industry?

YES

%

NO

%

MALE EMPLOYEES

6

100%

00

00%

FEMALE EMPLOYEES

6

100%

00

00%

Total Consolidated

12

100%

00%

00%

Question 2 - Are you agree that there is gender biasness' in the Hotel industry?

YES

%

NO

%

MALE EMPLOYEES

1

16.66%

5

83.34%

FEMALE EMPLOYEES

2

33.32%

4

66.64%

Total Consolidated

3

25%

9

75%

Question 3 - Do you believe in women are at par with the men from the view point of managing any work in the hotel industry?

YES

%

NO

%

MALE EMPLOYEES

6

100%

00

00%

FEMALE EMPLOYEES

6

100%

00

00%

Total Consolidated

12

100%

00%

00%

Question 4 - Do you believe that women in hotel industry gets equal chance of work and promotion like men employee?

YES

%

NO

%

MALE EMPLOYEES

1

16.66%

5

83.34%

FEMALE EMPLOYEES

2

33.32%

4

66.64%

Total Consolidated

3

25%

9

75%

Question 5 Do you believe that women can handle the management functions efficiently like men managers?

YES

%

NO

%

MALE EMPLOYEES

6

100%

00

00%

FEMALE EMPLOYEES

6

100%

00

00%

Total Consolidated

12

100%

00%

00%

Question 6 - Do you believe that women and men are equally efficient in handling management positions in the hotel industry?

YES

%

NO

%

MALE EMPLOYEES

6

100%

00

00%

FEMALE EMPLOYEES

6

100%

00

00%

Total Consolidated

12

100%

00%

00%

Question 7 Do you ever felt that women are being neglected by the management for promoting to the higher position in the organizational hierarchy of hotel industry?

YES

%

NO

%

MALE EMPLOYEES

1

16.66%

5

83.34%

FEMALE EMPLOYEES

3

50%

3

50%

Total Consolidated

4

33.33%

8

66.66%

Question 8 Do you believe that working under female boss is a matter of ego for the male employees?

YES

%

NO

%

MALE EMPLOYEES

1

16.66%

5

83.34%

FEMALE EMPLOYEES

2

33.32%

4

66.64%

Total Consolidated

3

25%

9

75%

Chapter 5

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

Keeping in mind the aim and objectives of this research topic all the data has been collected and analysed with the help of table and graphical presentation in percentage form to conclude the average response. The direction of the conclusion is going to demonstrate that there is equal opportunities in the hotel industries, and with special reference to women employee this is true that there is no biasness. But author would like to attract attention on the odd response which has been shown in the analysis section of this report that demonstrates that few employees are not in a favor that hotel industry gives equal opportunities to the women employees. But majority of the samples responded that there is equal treatement to all the employees irrespective of their gender so this can be concluded that there is no gender biasness in the hotel industry in India.

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