For my personal point of view, "yes" a person can be motivated by others. Simply by looking back to our daily hectic life styles, same routine of work life everyday without fail, from morning to night, from heading to office to home, same routine, same set of people, same working environment or culture and limited scope and authority, this lead to demoted and feel dissatisfaction toward to our life's and work, and might causes depress emotions in personal, and in business organization.
We often heard staff complain and voice out dissatisfaction on their current job or company, about the wages, benefit, lack of leadership or communication with superior or bosses, obstacles face in work with no solution or direction headed to.
This is the most dissatisfaction which happen in business organization now days, yet it created uncomfortable feelings which cause an individual depressed ,demoted and it will definitely decreased in job productivities, performance, and do bring negative impacts to the working environment .
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This is where the motivation comes in to place, motivation play an important part in the organization now days. Motivation can be include personal and business organization to minimize the dissatisfaction and able to transform an individual to be more positive oriented.
Definition of motivation
Motivation can be defined as - The willingness to exert high levels of effort to reach organizational goals as conditioned by that effort's ability to satisfy some individual needs (Robbins & Coulter 1999:484). It describes the willingness, initiative, drives turns into action and motion and act towards an objectives or destination.
Concepts of Motivations Theory:
Motivation also categorize into two types which is intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation.
Intrinsic motivations are originated from internal, inside of individual itself. It can be driven by sort of desire, eager to achieve or obtain something which can be tangible or intangible. It doesn't effect by external environment or cause my external surrounding issue. For example: Student is mostly driven strongly to prove that result is not determined by luck.
Source: David Beswick. Between Intrinsic motivation and extrinsic rewards. [Online] Available at:< http://www.beswick.info/psychres/management.htm>[Accessed 15 September 2010]
Extrinsic motivation is totally opposite from intrinsic motivation, come from external, outside of the individual, it can be causes by environment, company and etc. Example: money and reward mostly is the extrinsic factor which motivate staff to achieve higher level of result and beat each others to gain the rewards. Most of the sale department will organize such event which is directly show reward to the staff and indirectly benefit the company.
Source: David Beswick. Between insttinsic motivation and extrinsic rewards.[Online] Available at:< http://www.beswick.info/psychres/management.htm> [Accessed 15 September 2010]
Regardless of intrinsic or extrinsic, both of these concepts come to a common element which is needs. Thus needs are the main causes of the motivation .This can be explain by the diagram below - The motivation process.
Reduction of Tension
Figure 1: The Motivation Process
Source :( Robbins & Coulter 1999: 484)
Needs may be desire and drivers. When an individual need's are dissatisfied it will lead to tension which is worries, insecure and when an individual has indentify the desire/need's or drives it will automatically create individual behavior which is curious to know, curious to find a way to achieve it and thus this needs activated the behavior, taking action and well plan strategy in order to achieve certain goals or accomplish the task which given as this may come to 5th stage which is - satisfied needs, therefore an individual needs will reduce tension as satisfaction are fulfill .
As references to figure 1, example: A sale staff may feel his/her performance are average even put in more extra effort to achieve the monthly target (refer 1st stage - dissatisfaction needs).
when it comes to mid of the month she become tension as part of the target not been achieve (2nd stage - Tension), therefore she start thinking of solution which can assist her for this matter, she seek communication with her superior for solution and direction and motivation is been given (refer to 3rd stage - Drivers).
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
Thus she just needs to take action act on it once she had her own planning (refer to 4th stage - Search behavior) meanwhile she achieved the target it also fulfill her needs to become top performer (refer to 5th stage - Satisfied Need) and yet her tension or fear ensure is unfound (this refer to the last stage - Reduction of Tension).
(1)Maslow Hierarchy Needs (1943)
The most basic theory which uses to support individual basic needs is Abraham Maslow - Maslow Hierarchy Needs (1943). It consist of 5 levels of basic human needs, this can be shown as below:
Figure 2: Maslow's Hierarchy (1943)
Source and adapted from: Samson & Daft 2009:593
The summary of Maslow theory is:
It read from bottom to top, as bottom serves the most basic need to top which is complex needs for individual. It mentions needs do effect on how individual behavior unless those needs are fulfill and satisfy.
The person will only proceed with next level of needs until the lowest needs are satisfy. This theory is more to individual needs.
Base on the model above it consist of 5 level of need which is:
1] Physiology- refers to human basic needs which are food, water, money and etc.
-2] Safety - sense of security in physical, mental and health which effect by
External or internal environment.
-3] Belongingness - need to sense the importance, recognition among relationship,
Colleague, friend and family. It defines as social need.
4] Self esteem - The person wish to achieve, be competent with his own esteem. Wish to achieve certain achievement.
5] Self-actualization - status in the society. Exceed level of self esteem.
As reference to figure 2: Example: A person been transfer to new working location, he needs to able rent accommodation which is guarded, arrange for transportation (Physiology and safety needs), When he start in new working environment he need to mix with company culture and get to know staff from all level of company (belongingness), he aim to become top management level as he deliver his quality of effort towards company goals(Self esteem), after period, he become the most capable top management leader in the region(self actualization)
Limitation of Maslow Theory:
Not all employees governed by same sets of need. Different employees may require different need at the same point of time. The most dissatisfaction needs which motivate employees.
This theory mostly not supported by today working culture as this theory indentify the 1st needs need to be fulfill then proceed with next level .
Example: An artist might not seek for basic needs but aim for self esteem and actualization which strive for recognition.
(2)Herzberg - Two Factor Theory:
Meanwhile, theory use to sustain organization behavior at work place which is Frederick Herzberg's (Herzberg 1968) -Two-Factor Theory. It distinguished between Motivator and Hygiene.
Motivator - Refer to a challenging job scope, responsibility and growth upon achieving.
Hygiene Factor - this refer to working environment culture, safety and secure work place.
Source: Samson & Daft 2009: 595
This theory is vital as it do bring impact to employees and organization. Motivator can play apart on employee's side as their basic needs must fulfill in order for them to work, such as wages, benefit, job scope, career advancement for growth, self satisfaction this can determine the level of quality effort to be delivered on their job performance.
This can lead to strike their best on the job as motivated employees always look for a better way to do a job; they are more quality oriented and productive. Without motivation worker are like neutral.
Hygiene factor describes working places/ environment, organization need to ensure employees are working under well organize company, it need to ensure everything is workable such as computer configuration, personal security, work place safety, these factor are important as if hygiene factor is dissatisfy it will not motivated employees to higher performance level.
Example to support the theory is: When new offer assign to new hire, employees must understand the job details and responsibility in that area, he needs to ensure the benefit and wages offer by company are value and worth to its new job scope and seek for future growth -Motivator Factor.
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After accept the offer, the company need ensure the work place is given to employees by having the most basic equipment such as desk with configure computer and printing facilities, telephone and safety of the office structure - Hygiene Factor.
Limitations of Two Factor Theory:
It might satisfy needs but ignore the productivity. As this theory only apply to employees needs without consider organization productivity requirement.
This theory only base on employee's natural reaction when they voice out dissatisfaction. Employees will assume the dissatisfactions come from salary structure, poor management and policies and poor leadership.
Despite these limitations this theory can be applied to avoid employees' dissatisfaction and improve work-quality.
(3)Douglas McGregor - Theory X and Theory Y:
There is another theory which is use to applied to human behavior at work which is Douglas McGregor (1960), it divided into two aspects - Theory X and Theory Y. It assumes employees have two different points of view: one is negative, called Theory X and the other is positive, so called Theory Y. Those differences can be shown at below table:
Theory X :
Theory Y :
Lazy, lack of responsibility, try to run away from workload. No commitment. Seek for simple lifestyle and demoted.
Hardworking, autonomy, positive thinking, take up job responsibilities, seek for challenges and well motivated.
Lack of ambitious once the basic needs are fulfill. Job security is their main concern.
Aggressive, not easily satisfy with current achievement, eager compete with others.
Behavior negatively as no drive in works as they felt nothing to lose.
Positive thinking, awareness on their job, driven by recognition or rewards.
Ignore management goals and vision.
Committed towards goals and vision and drive the best towards to achieve.
Need to be guide, and to be directed in their own job scope.
Self directed and analyzing problem and seek for solution.
Mainly of the employee are in comfortable zone and refuse to change.
Employee seeks for skill enhancement, to adequate with high capabilities with innovative outcome which utilize in organization.
Low level staff, clerical staff, retails.
Operation , manufacturing field etc
Middle or top management, professional which require more management skills.
Hard management, need to direct and monitor the employees.
Soft management, minimum supervision as they can carried own responsibilities.
Figure 3: Theory X and Theory Y- Douglas McGregor
Source and Adapted from: Theory X and Theory Y Models
This theory does related with Maslow's Theory, as we can define theory X emphasis on employee's physiological needs and safety needs, while Theory Y is assumption for social needs, esteem needs, and the self-actualization needs on the employees.
This theory does encourage employees to have team relations, responsible and stimulating jobs, and participants in decision-making process.
As reference to figure 3: Example: In the bank, operation and sale department holding different working behavior, operation staff always see workload as burden, as always have to meet deadline, follow bank procedure and need to interact with all level customer in the bank and their productivity are low and lack of efficiency, this is describe as Theory X . As for sale department, they are driven by monthly sale target, seeking business and work smart is their main criteria which shall have. Aggressiveness and positive thinking create believes to them that they are the best! This refers to Theory Y.
Limitations of theory x and Theory Y:
Theory X no longer exist in now days organization as it require on monitoring, use of tight control and supervision for employees which can't accept for new changes in the organization thus not suit for innovation purposed.
Theory Y encourages taking initiative and self-direction. Career advancement and growth shall be aim by employees. Beside team work and participation in decision-making is vital to contribute to organization. It creates balance and matches between employees' needs and organization needs.
Motivations are most challenging task for 21st century leader's and managers, despite motivation plays important part in organization by ensuring the goals/objective's are been achieved through motivation's processes.
Manager can motivate employees to encourage high work performance. Due to manpower are highly demand in the market, finding and retain high skill/talented workers it's a challenge, Manager's are shall need to choose the right combination of motivation techniques and knowledge to reward by satisfy employees and utilize it by contribute to the organization.
Motivations are important due to:
1] Motivated employees always seek for better way to do a job.
2] Motivated employees aggressive and quality oriented.
3] Motivated employees mostly can increase organization productivity.
Manager shall evaluate each employee's strength, weakness and performance, communication plays vital part as engagement process, through communication, managers are able to indentify employees' needs and obstacles faces in work. Mostly manager they are unable to indentify needs therefore unable to motivate employees. Example: In the sale department, most of the leader assumes that money are the main driver to move the sale staff, often given brainstorming to them as the tools as they treat this as motivation. However, not all staff is motivated by money. Especially senior staff, they seek for self satisfaction and career growth instead of financial support.