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How do individual differences and environmental factors influence human behavior in an organization? Justify your answer with examples?
MEANING OF ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR:
Oranganisational Behavior is the study of human behavior in organization context with a focus on individual and group processes and actions. It is the study of human behavior, attitude, and performance in organizations.oranganizational behavior.Oranganizational behavior helps to study about systematic view of looking at and understanding the behavior in organization
DEFINITION OF ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOR:
" The study and application of knowledge about human behavior related to other element of an organization such as structure, technology, and social system"
L M PRASAD
."Organizational behavior as a systematic study of the actions and attitudes the people exhibits within organizations".
- STEPHEN ROBINS
NEEDS OF ORAGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOR:
Quality of management
Managining the employees
Motivate the employees
Environmental influences Organizational Regulatory issues
Individual fundamental disposition is main reason for individual difference. Let me explain this individual difference with an example consider in an organization there are lot of employees am going take two employees character let's take the two employees names A&B. Type A personality is characterized by emotion and sensitivity to organization goals, competitive spirit and achievement oriented behavior. This leads to frustration even for small deviations from the
Expectations, thus feeling of more stress. Type B personality is typically relaxed, carefree, patient and less serious in achieving objectives. Thus, he never feels stress. Following are the reason the person getting stress.
ï‚•ï€ Age is positively related to stress. When a person grows older, his expectations also go up. If he is unable to find avenues for realizing expectations, he feels stress.
ï€ ï€ ï€ ï€ ï€ ï€ ï€ ï‚•ï€ Sound health enables a person to cope up stress better than unsound health.
ï€ ï€ ï€ ï€ ï€ ï€ ï€ ï‚•ï€ Education and health are related positively and negatively. Better education provides an opportunity to understand things in a better manner. Even the level of maturity increases with better education. So better educated persons are less prone to stress. Poorly educated people in relation to the jobs are likely to feel more stress due to the poor adaptability on the jobs.
ï€ ï€ ï€ ï€ ï€ ï‚•ï€ The nature of the occupation and stress are related. Certain occupations are inherently stressful than the other occupations. For instance, doctors, lawyers, politicians etc. At the same time occupation also gives enough stress tolerance ability. Politicians are found to posses more stress tolerance ability.
ï€ ï€ ï€ ï€ ï‚•ï€ Strong urge for satisfaction of needs compel people to over work and may lead to stress.
ï€ ï€ ï€ ï€ ï‚•ï€ Greater degree of locus of control leads to stress. A person is less likely to feel stress as he believes that he can exercise control over external factors
Perception helps in understanding the environment. Person possessing a positive perception understands reality and appraises the events objectively. Thus, he feels less stress.
Hostility and aggressive behavior is positively related to stress. A person who becomes aggressive and gets quick anger is cynical and does not trust others.
If there is a good family that means good wife & healthy children that individual will not stress and his attitude also good he always think positive. On the other family is not happy the individual get more stress and attitude will be negative. Obviously he got depress with his family issue and he can't concentrate more on his work.
Economic difficulties are the main cause of stress. Poor management of personal finances, heavy family expenditure, and constant demand for money, poor incoming earning capacity and slow financial growth in the job are some of the economic reasons responsible for greater stress. For example, an increasing family expenditure, increased expenditure on children education and health create heavy demand for income. This creates greater stress in the individuals.
An organization is a combination of resources, goals, strategies, and policies. In order to make people to work, organizations create structure, process and working conditions.
Working condition and stress are inversely related. Take an example of poor man working condition is highly based stress because he has to work hard get minimum amount of salary. So he is frustrated with his work.
Organizational tasks are designed to meet the objectives and goals. For this coordination is very important every individual has attain their own target as well as company target. So every adjust with other department as well as their team.
Administrative Policies and Strategies:
All employees should follow the rules and regulation which was already preformed by the higher authority. But that is fully applicable by all the employees, some may follow that and some may against that rules so get stress that work environment
Top management is responsible for creation of a sound organization climate and culture by appropriate managerial style. This only creates free, tensions, fear, and anxiety between employer and employees. Friendly relationship between leader coworker creates a good work and they easily attain the target of a company as well as employees also fulfill their in free flow of environment.
Groups are Omni present in organizations. In that both men women are working it helps to understand each other's to overcome the problems in formal relationship. Informally they create a committee and they work according to that. They will work in team each work will be done in group. So it helps to attain the target in easy way.
These are the factor which an affect the individual within the organization. Some of the external factors also affect an individual to perform their work. Let me explain it in brief
Internal factors which affecting an individual within the organization. External factors means that factors which affecting an individual outside of the organization. Following are the factors of external environment
Changes of government create changes in the rules regulations of the company that affect an individual in that particular work environment and it create stress.
Economic factors deals about the income, demand, supply, inflation, deflation. For example if there high inflation in the country its create more pressure to an individual and it's create stress.
Technology creates new upgrades of things. So it is not comfortable for all the employees without any proper training the employees can't work so its create lots of stress to the employees
Legal environment consist of laws and regulations intend to control the operation. Practical difficulties arise in the implementation of the legislative framework.
Social factors talk about the life style of the employees. Cultural factor also affects the employees. Because individuals in an organization came from different place so that is difficult for the employees to follow the particular region culture.
B) A manufacturing company making automotive parts finds that workers working on the assembly line have poor attendance, leave for home early and are generally unproductive. They are fully unionized and resist any attempts by management to discipline them. If you are the HR Manager of such a company, what would you do? Discuss with reference to theories of motivation, leadership, participative management and quality circles.
Motivation is a psychic force that drives an individual towards goal realization. It is a process of inducing the individuals' desires towards goals. Both financial
And non-financial factors motivate employees. Motivating employees and driving their energy towards organizational have been major question for the manager.
Organizational goals have been a major question for managers.
THEORIES OF MOTIVATION:
Maslow's Need Hierarchy Theory
Abraham Harold Maslow advocated the theory of motivation based various needs. Maslow identified five distinct categories of needs. He arranged these needs into a hierarchy, and stated that individuals wish to satisfy particular need to a moderate extent, and then tries to satisfy the next need in the hierarchy. Maslow identified human needs into five distinct categories.
Basic need or physiology need
Social needs or belonging need
Self esteem need
Self actualization need
BASIC NEED OR PHYSIOLOGY:
Basic and primary needs required for human existence of physiological needs. They relate to biological and are required for preservation of basic human life. These needs are identified to the human organ in the body. They are finite needs.
Individuals seek protection from natural environment, biological danger, economic deprivation and emotional threat from other beings and animals. For this purpose, he wishes security for himself.
SELF ESTEEM NEED:
Maslow believes that people seek growth. They have natural desire to be identified and respected by others. This instinct is called as esteem. Esteem needs are associated with self-esteem and esteem from others
SELF ACTUALISATION NEED:
Self-actualization is transformation of perception and dream into reality. Individuals have inner potential to do something different from others. Realizing the full inner potential, one wishes to become what he is capable of becoming.
Herzberg's Two Factors Theory:
The two factors are
Intrinsic factors exist within the job. They relate to the job content. They occur at the time of performing the job. They relate to the positive feeling about the job. Thus, they provide job satisfaction.
Extrinsic factors are external to the job. They are hygiene factors or maintenance factors. They are related to the conditions under which job is performed.Therefore, they are environmental centered. They relate to the job context. They occur after the work is completed
Leader is the process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task. Leadership is organizing a group of people to achieve common goals.
THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP:
Personal traits were and occasions still are thought to have a bearing on a individual's ability to lead. This includes basis features such as, height, social background, intelligence, and of personality.
Ability to translate into simple form
Explain phenomena in unique way
Considering setback of minor mistakes
Working for long hours
Attempting to succeed
Emphasis on the behavior of the leaders including their style of leadership
According to the situation him or her emphasis their leader they react in that same manner.contigency approach.
The quality circle scheme is popular form of workers of participation. It is established at the workshop levels with voluntary participation from the employees. An ideal circle consist of six to 10 members belonging to the same department or workshop with the common interest .this members of quality meet periodically to discuss the issue relating the quality aspect of the job. It is a process without any monetary benefit but its intention to involve the employees to making the decisions
According to my view in this case Maslow hierarchy theory is more applicable because every individual basically start their career for fulfill their basic needs after that they expecting some prestige in the society where they are living. Then they expecting this rewards and self reganization for their work so they work hard and they are reward for that.so here also their basic needs and security needs are already fulfilled but here they are not getting rewards and reganisation. So they are not getting productivity from the top management. So here as a HR manager I will give power to the worker to take a decision worker can also participate & they can give suggestion to taking the decision. Here the authority will be with me only so that I can control whenever I want to control them. And I also frame the policy according to the convince of the employees and their participation. Then I will give tanning to the whenever its needs. Then I will create the good relationship between lower and level employees and higher level employees. Then I will motivate my employees not only money I will provide them tangible and intangible benefits to them like family get together party etc so that they won't get absenteeism. So that management also get benefit and also get the employees.