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Motivation is an indispensable part of our life. Without motivation nothing is possible in this world. As it was well said by Newton in his third law of motion- "To every action there is equal & opposite reaction". But for every action to be performed we need a motivational or energizing force that drives us to perform that particular action. Motivation act as the driver for all the actions and work that are performed by any individual. Motivation helps us in achieving a particular thing, objective, goal etc. The importance of motivation in organizations can hardly be over emphasized. It plays a very crucial role in achieving organizational objectives. Motivation helps to influence the human resources so that they perform all their work and responsibilities efficiently and effectively. A manager can motivate his employees in various forms and through various techniques. In order to implement the techniques of motivation in the organization more effectively various management scientists give different views and opinion in order to standardize the motivational efforts within the organization. These motivational thoughts enable a manager to move and drive the organization in the right direction.
Motivation is considered as the significant means to get the people involved in the work so that they can work hard and contribute their competencies in the accomplishment of the objective. The means of motivation is different for different employee and it depends on various factors of human's behavior. It could be defined as the level of energy, commitment and innovation that an employee brought in their work by getting satisfied with the job. Thus motivation is also considered as the result of job satisfaction. Motivation is those psychological forces that help to identify the direction of the employee's behavior towards and within the organization whether it is his efforts or his persistence. In the world of globalization, the company with motivated employees who can use their creativity to enhance the productivity of the organization can only be able to take the competitive advantage of the global market. Motivated employees have their mind stress free and thus able to contribute for the organizational success. Motivation results to employee belongingness for the company and the company objectives get aligned with the personal objective of the employees and thus a motivated employee is a great asset for the company. Despite various theories of motivation, motivating employees within the company is still a mystery among the HRM of the company. A positive employee motivation is able to enhance productivity, improve quality and service within the company, it makes the organization compatible to achieve goals, build self esteem and capability, develop a positive aspect, develop competency to create its own power and able to manage their own creative development. However motivating employees is not an easy task it involves lots of company capital including various barriers for such motivation. Various investigators have suggested different types of motivational theories in order to motivate the employees within the work place but as the motivation is the result of human behavior, it is very difficult to implement any particular theory to get all the employees motivated (Motivating Your Staff in a Time of Change).
Meaning of Motivation
"Motivation" word has been derived from the Latin word "Movere" which means "To move". The meaning of motivation as described in oxford dictionary is a type of enthusiasm or desire or willingness to act something in order to accomplish the desired result. A reason to performing in a specified manner is motivation. Motivation act as a force of driving which enables us to do a particular thing at a particular time and in a particular manner. For each & every activity to be performed we need a motive behind it. Motivation is also said to be an inertia that rides us to perform voluntary actions (Motivation and Motivation Theory).
Frederick Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory (1959)
In 1959, Frederick Herzberg proposed a two factor theory which is also called as Motivator-Hygiene theory. Herzberg with his colleagues Mausner and Snyderman, through their extensive research analyzed foundations of job motivation. Herzberg's theory challenges the traditional view of employee motivation that employees are either satisfied or dissatisfied with their jobs and establishes a dual continuum of satisfiers and dissatisfies which helps to understand the motivation and satisfaction among employees. This indicates that when employees are satisfied with their job, they provide their contribution towards work itself and when they are dissatisfied with their work, they get more concerned about the work environment in which they are working (Motivational-Hygeine Theory). Herzberg states that there are some factors which results to satisfaction among employees and there are other factors that helps in preventing dissatisfaction among the employees. Herzberg states that "No Satisfaction" is opposite of "Satisfaction" and "No Dissatisfaction" is opposite of "Dissatisfaction". The two factors so categorized as per the theory are as follows:
Hygiene factors are the essential elements required to be present in the workplace to motivate the employees. These factors though do not lead to the positive motivation for the long term but non existence of such factors leads to dissatisfaction among the employees. The existence of such factors pacifies the employees and able not to make them dissatisfied. These factors are also called dissatisfiers or maintenance factors as these factors are essential to combat dissatisfaction. These factors are responsible for workplace environment where the employees work. The hygiene factors are as under:
The pay or the salary structure: The salary or pay structure must be suitable and rational. It should be equivalent and competitive in the same industry and domain for the sustainable development.
Company and Administrative Policies: The policies and strategies of the company policies must not be too rigid rather they should be flexible. They must be clear, fair and rational. It must involve flexible working hours, amiable working environment, sensible dress code, refreshing breaks, proper vacation, etc.
Fair and Transparent Treatment: The employees should be treated in a fair and transparent manner; there should not be any biasness and discrimination while treating the employees. It leads to the development of efficient workforce.
Fringe Benefits: The employees must be provided health care policies like medi claim, help programs for the employees, additional benefits for the family members, educational facilities to the children, servant facility etc.
Employee Status within the Organization: The status of the employee in the organization must be familiar and saved. It helps in the development of feeling of belongingness in the employees which motivates them to perform well in the organization.
Working Conditions: The working conditions in the organization must be safe, hygienic and clean. The equipments and instruments at must be modernized and well-sustained. It further helps in increasing the working efficiency of employees.
Interpersonal Relations: The employee's relationship with their peers, colleagues, superiors and subordinates must be appropriate and tolerable. The elements of humiliation and conflicts should not be there in the organization so as to ensure the smooth functioning of organization.
Job Security: The organization should provide job security to its human resource. It helps in the better employee retention (Herzberg's Two factor Theory of Motivation )
Herzbergs view of satisfaction and dissatisfaction
Figure : Herzberg's View of Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction.
Source: (Herzberg's Two factor Theory of Motivation )
Hygiene factors are not regarded as motivators they are only essential to avoid dissatisfaction but the motivational factors enforces positive satisfaction within the organization. These factors relate to work intrinsically which motivate the employees to give their best performance. These factors motivate the employees intrinsically which are as follows:
Recognition: The employees must be appraised and recognized for their outstanding performance and task accomplishments by the superiors and managers.
Sense of Achievement: The employees should have the sense of achievement towards their tasks and objectives. It depends on the type of job. There should be some sort of fruitful results in the job.
Growth and Promotional Opportunities: There should be growth and development opportunities in an organization so that employees can be motivated to perform well so as to accomplish individual and organizational goals efficiently and effectively.
Responsibility: The employees should embrace themselves accountable for the task. The managers must delegate them authority along with the concomitant responsibility. Managers should reduce the control but maintain and retain the responsibility or accountability.
Meaningfulness of Work: The work itself must be meaningful, motivating, challenging and interesting for the employee in order to perform well and to get motivated (Herzberg's Two factor Theory of Motivation ).
Limitations of the Two-Factor Theory
The two-factor theory ignores the contingency or situational variables.
Herzberg presumed a correlation between the productivity and satisfaction but the research carried out by him focuses mainly on the satisfaction and overlooked productivity.
The reliability of the theory is uncertain. Investigation and analysis has to be prepared by the raters. The raters may ruin the findings by evaluating same response in different ways.
The theory lacks behind the usage of comprehensive measure pertaining to satisfaction. The human resource of the company may find their job satisfactory despite of the fact that they may disgust part of their job.
The theory is not free from partiality as it is based on the employee's natural reaction when they are asked the basis of satisfaction and dissatisfaction at work place. The causes of dissatisfaction are the external factors such as pay structure, organizational policies and interpersonal relationship between team members. The employees will give recognition to themselves at work place for the satisfaction.
The two-factor theory overlooks the blue-collar employees (Herzberg's Two factor Theory of Motivation ).
Despite of the aforementioned limitations, the two-factor theory of Herzberg is broadly acceptable (Herzberg's Two factor Theory of Motivation ).
The Implications of Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory
The Herzberg's Two-Factor theory entails that the supervisor should focus on assuring the competence of the hygiene factors in order to avoid dissatisfaction of employees. The managers should also make sure that the performance is inspiring and rewarding so that the human resource is motivated to perform harder and superior their tasks. The two-factor theory highlights the job-enrichment in order to motivate the workers. The job should utilize the skills and competencies of employees at maximum level. By focusing on the factors of motivation an organization can enhance the quality of work life (Herzberg's Two factor Theory of Motivation ).
telwin amajorc satisfaction disatisfaction frederick herzberg motivation
Figure : Herzberg's Two Factor Theory
Need Hierarchy Theory by Maslow
The theory of hierarchal need was given by Abraham Maslow. This is one of the most widely mentioned theories of motivation. Maslow saw the needs of human in hierarchal form. According to Maslow a person is motivated throughout his life at five levels. These five levels comprises of various needs which he showed at different hierarchy. In his theory he mainly emphasize on five needs viz. Physiological Needs, Psychological or Safety Needs, Affiliation or Social Needs, Self Esteem Needs, Self Actualization Needs. These needs are arranged in ascending order in a pyramid as shown below:
Figure : The Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Model
Physiological Needs: Physiological needs are the elementary level needs and Maslow put these needs at the lowest portion of pyramid. Physiological needs comprise of basic needs of human which are essential for the sustenance of life. It includes food, clothing, accommodation and other basic necessities of life. Once these needs are satisfied a person can't be motivated by them and will motivate by next level of hierarchal needs.
Safety Needs: Safety needs as clear by their name are the need related with the security, security of any kind viz. financial security, physical security, social security, job security etc. every person wants to live a tension free life, he needs a peaceful environment and wants to overcome fear, tensions, anxiety. For example a person seeks security from job will give maximum efforts to perform well so that he can overcome the fear of firing from job.
Social Needs: The third level need in Maslow's pyramid is social needs. According to Maslow when physiological and safety needs got fulfilled, a person is motivated towards the fulfillment of social needs. It comprises the need for belongingness, need of affection and love from our near & dear one, need of friends & friendly behavior. When the social needs of a person get fulfilled he will motivated towards higher level need i.e. self esteem.
Self Esteem Needs: The needs for self esteem are the needs which are related with one's ego, one's self respect, recognition by other people, pride, dignity etc. These are said to be the second highest level needs in Maslow's pyramid. After these needs get fulfilled there are no more personal needs remains in a person's life and he will motivate towards self actualization.
Self Actualization Needs: The need for self actualization includes personal achievement desire, finding the reason behind our presence in this world, our mission, vision of life, Self realization. At this level a person tries to search himself and do only that work which provides inner happiness to him. He tries to do meaningful work in the life.
In Maslow's theory all needs are arranged in a hierarchal pattern and a person will motivate towards higher level needs only when he get satisfied with the lower level needs. For example: If the basic needs of a person such as food, shelter and clothing are not get fulfilled then he wouldn't get motivated towards the need of job security and belongingness need. He will do any job for the fulfillment of his basic needs irrespective of security, belongingness etc. So in order to motivate employees a manager has to identify the level of needs of different employees individually so that he can better motivate them as per their requirement (Motivation and Motivation Theory).
Frederick Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory (1959) as an evolution of Maslow's theory of need motivation (1943)
Fredrick Herzberg proposed Two Factor Theory after conducting his research on Maslow's hierarchy of need motivation theory. He conducted research on 200 employees by asking them the factors at that their workplace which satisfies or dissatisfies them. The results of the study depicts that the intrinsic factors leads to satisfaction while extrinsic factors leads to dissatisfaction. Maslow's theory focuses on the hierarchy of needs which motivate people, Herzberg theory though based on Maslow's theory but it argued that there is a basic relation between individual and his work and his attitude towards the work determines his success and failure. Herzberg argued that motivation is not dependent on the need of the individual while it depends on his expectations from the work. Herzberg observed that Hygiene factors are related with the physiological, and safety needs of Maslow's theory and Motivations factors are related with the social, esteem and self actualization needs. Maslow's theory defines basic framework for employee motivation while Herzberg's theory helps to decrease dissatisfaction and increase satisfaction through motivating them (Compare and Contrast Two Theories of Motivation).
In the theories of motivation both Maslow and Herzberg shows the linkage between the work rewards and the personal needs of an individual. The Maslow's Theory of Hierarchal Needs (1954) was the foundation on which Herzberg carried out research and consequent the Two Factor theory or the Motivation-Hygiene theory in the year 1959. As per as the Maslow's view is concern, there are five types of significant needs of an individual which together formed a hierarchy, in this hierarchy the lower level needs of an individual are located at the bottom of pyramid while the higher level needs are placed at the top portion of pyramid. He demonstrated that when the one of the individual's needs becomes considerably fulfilled the next level of need becomes dominant. Hence when an individual gratifies the Physiological needs, then his more significant needs become the safety needs currently and whenever the safety needs get fulfilled then the socialization need become dominated. And this continues until the man achieved the self actualization (Compare and Contrast Two Theories of Motivation).
In comparison to the view of Maslow that persons are born with a well-structured hierarchy of needs which motivates them towards a particular task, Herzberg demonstrates that the relation of an individual with his work is crucial and the success or failure of the individual depends on his attitude. Maslow paid attention on the needs of individual to be satisfied by their vocations but Herzberg searched to find what individual want from their jobs. Herzberg proposed that it is not individual needs but his expectations from the employment. According to Herzberg the antonym of "satisfaction" is not "dissatisfaction" rather it is "no satisfaction" and the antonym of "dissatisfaction" is "no dissatisfaction" which is entirely against the conventional view. He said that the factors which come under the category of motivators are achievement and responsibility and they results in satisfaction. On the contrary the hygiene factors like pay scale, interpersonal relationships, company policy etc. decrease the level of dissatisfaction (Compare and Contrast Two Theories of Motivation). Herzberg united the factors of hygiene and motivation results in four probable situations;
High Hygiene with High Motivation.
High Hygiene with Low Motivation.
Low Hygiene with High Motivation.
Low Hygiene with Low Motivation (Compare and Contrast Two Theories of Motivation).
Â Victor Vroom, and Lyman Porter and Edward Lawler's Expectancy Theories (1960)
Vroom's theory is based on the goals or outcomes of people which they prefer more as compared to other factors of motivation. Thus for them experiencing the feeling of being satisfied is to achieve their outcome or goal successfully. Vroom's theory begins with the idea that individuals have a tendency to choose certain objectives or results over others. Hence they foresee practice feelings of satisfaction should such a favored result be accomplished. The term valence is used to express the feeling for particular outcome (Miner, 2005). As a foundation for establishing the valence of a particular result, Vroom formulates the following proposition:
It refers to the emotional beliefs of the individual towards the outcomes or rewards associated with the work. It is related with the first or the second order outcome. The valence of a result to an individual is a monotonically rising task of the algebraic sum total of the products of the valences of all other results and his formation of its instrumentality for the accomplishment of these additional results (Vroom 1964, 17). Hence the Valence's size of a result is reliant on the degree to which it is out looked as a way to diversified results and the valence of the additional results. A result with a big valence would be inclined as one that is connected to many additional results, one that is measured extremely influential to the accomplishment of a huge number of these supplementary outcomes, and another which is associated with the additional outcomes having big valences. Vroom specifically implements the first scheme to the subject of professional choice i.e. the computation of occupation's valence, job satisfaction i.e. the computation of valence of related job, and the job performance i.e. the computation of the effective performance's valence in the job (MINER, John B., 2005).
An augmented and centralize variable of the Vroom's theory is expectancy. It refers to the expectations and level of confidence from the employee that what he is able to do in order to reach the first order outcome. Certain People widen varying formations of the probability or extent of certainty that the selection of an exacting alternative action will definitely lead to a desired result.
It refers to the actually feeling of the employee that whether they will actually receive what they desire even if they are assured by their manager. As per as the instrumentality is concerned, it is refer as an outcome i.e. the link of outcome, the expectancy includes an act i.e. the linkage of outcome. Expectancies merge with the total valence to generate an individual's stimulated motivation or potential for a particular course of action (MINER, John B., 2005).
Force here is refer to as the pressure on the individual to perform a particular task and it is an enhancing function of the algebraic sum total of the products of all the outcomes' valences monotonically along with the power of his expectancies that the performance will be pursued by the accomplishment of these results (Vroom 1964, 18). The entire force for an act is unaffected by results that have zero valences and also by results that are analyzed as entirely suspected to outcome from the procedures, since a multiplicative association between the two variables has been positioned again. It is expected from the individuals that they should opt the alternatives of action more rationally in order to maximize the force in an optimistic direction. When a measure is connected to various highly optimistic valiant results by high expectations that it will generate the particular results, the force can be extensive and adjustable. The theory formulates particular declarations with respect to the allegations of the second proposition for vocational choice i.e. the computation of the pressure on a person to enter in particular job, job satisfaction i.e. the computation of the pressure or force on an individual to sustain in a particular job, and job performance i.e. the computation of the pressure on an individual to apply a particular amount of efforts in the execution of performance in the job. As the last of the aforementioned statements has been the subject of significant auxiliary hypothesizing and research, it is given entirely (Vroom's Expectancy Theory):
The pressure on an individual to execute a particular amount of effort in performing the task associated with the job is a enhancing function of the algebraic sum total of the products of the valences of various performance levels and the respective expectancies i.e. the particular amount of efforts will results in the accomplishment of the desired outcomes (Vroom 1964, 284).
These entire factors interact with each other to develop a motivational force which is represented with the help of following formula:
Valence*Expectancy (Instrumentality) = Motivational force
Figure : Vroom's Expectancy Theory
Source: (Vroom's Expectancy Theory)
Lyman Porter and Edward Lawler's Expectancy Model:
Porter and Lawler develops a model of motivation which was though based on the Vroom's expectancy theory but has the more broader concept much more than only motivational force on the performance of whole organization. According to Vroom:
Performance= f (Ability * Motivation)
Porter-Lawler considers following variables:
Value of Reward: It shows the outcome on the basis of its outcome and desirability (valence).
Effort - Rewards Probability: The perception of diversified rewards depends on the diversified effort. This further classified in to the components of effort-performance i.e. expectancy and performance-reward i.e. instrumentality.
Efforts: It signifies the energy or potential spent in order to perform a particular task.
Abilities and Traits: They denote the individual characteristics in the long run.
Role Perceptions: It includes the categories of effort an individual believes essential to execute the task through effective performance in the job.
Performance: An individual's achievements pertaining to the tasks in the job.
Rewards: Rewards are the enviable situations of dealings obtained from either one's personal thinking or the proceedings of others i.e. the intrinsic and extrinsic outcomes.
Perceived Equitable Rewards: The magnitude of rewards an individual believes fair.
Satisfaction: The degree to which rewards acknowledged meet or go beyond the superficial fair level. However the under-reward unfairness leads to the dissatisfaction.
In accordance, with the previous preparations the initial two variables i.e. the value of reward and effort-reward probability combined to generate the third variable i.e. effort. The abilities and traits which have been described in the Vroom's theory also have a multiplicative relationship with the effort in the determination of performance. A similar type of association to effort embraces for the role of perceptions in the setting of levels of performance. Due to the interference of such factors between the performance and efforts they cannot be perceived to be associated or linked perfectly.
Superiority of Porter and Lawler's Theory over Vroom's Theory:
Porter and Lawler also hypothesize certain criticism loops that create this theory more vibrant over time in comparison with Vroom's Expectancy Theory. The feedback loops are as follows:
The first and foremost is the extent or degree to which the performance leads to the rewards, the probability of perceived effort-reward is enhanced.
Another situation occurs when the satisfaction is observed after getting a reward, it likely to persuade the prospective value of that particular award i.e. valence. The characteristics of this effect vary with reward to reward i.e. outcome.
Figure 5: Original Motivational Model by Lyman Porter and Edward Lawler
The Figure 5 locates forward these inter associations as they were visualized originally. As they were the foremost statements, Porter has stimulated on to other accomplishments and has created no considerable contributions towards the development of theory of expectancy. However one perceives that Porter focuses on his efforts through assimilation of macro variables in the expectancy model.
Lawler's Subsequent Statements:
As we know that Lawler initiated the thinking of expectancy into the initial version of theory of job characteristics only. He also altered the theory in various respects, while the general alteration is not noticeable. He described certain factors which may persuade the probabilities of effort-reward and thus sustained the trend to build the model vibrant over time, in comparison to static approach of Vroom's (Lawler 1971, 1973). The most significant alteration is the additional loop of feedback i.e. performance to expectancy of effort-reward and moreover to the impact within the limits normally. Hence we can say that the sharp performance will give up superior self-esteem and thus consequently elevated expectancy. Moreover a much clearer difference is prepared between the rewards associated with intrinsic and extrinsic values.
Figure 6 shows the chain of central motivation pertaining to the expectancy theory, devoid of loops of feedback and subsidiary forces. This is the basic model as given by Lawler (1981), and it is the model that he carry on to support (Lawler 1994). While more newly (Lawler 2000) he has written about the theory of expectancy, without changing the basic model. In this model, the expectancy of effort-to-performance signifies the expectation i.e. the evaluated probability that if effort is exercised, the outcome will be victorious performance. However the performance may be unsuccessful in various cases like the complexity of job, deficient in the process of evaluation, or the lack of required proficient skills in individuals.
Performance-to-outcome expectancy means the expectation or the evaluated probability that effort must be successfully exercised in order to accomplish the desired outcome viz. financial rewards. An effective incentive system is that which specifies a certain level of payment for numerous units of production. The individual perceives this and expects to be paid the nominated amount on the completion of particular amount of units produced. It is known as performance-to-outcome expectancy. But it gives desired results only when the results like pay, has valence i.e. the attractiveness or the value. If the individual has just inborn a destiny and does not concern about the comparatively minute amount of pay implicated, then the extra pay as an result will not work and hence the working situations improvement is also not feasible.
The difference between the first and second level of results exit back to Vroom (1964) who utilized the terms "other" and "focal". Galbraith and Cummings (1967) were precise in using the terms of Figure 6 to implement to this dissimilarity. The thoughts involved are significant. An individual may worth pay in its personal right, as for example an entrepreneur who visualize the earnings of his business and along with the individual earnings in the form of feedback on how effectively he has accomplished by his individual efforts i.e. the performance's index. But the pay may also be referring as the second-level of results. An individual may desires the money in order to attain a prosperous life-style and make an impression on others who are out looked as significant. Then pay should be measured in terms of its instrumentality in order to gain the outcome of second level i.e. more affluent life style. If the pay included is not adequate to achieve what is wanted then it can be said that it is lacking behind the "instrumentality" and the "impact of motivation".
The Intrinsic outcomes are the outcomes which come from within an individual like sentiments of achievements, of performing critical task, of freedom. The Extrinsic outcomes are mediated or offered by the external forces like a superior or boss, other members of work-group, the organization. This is also an important difference. The motivational level in a particular situation of job is articulated in expectancy theory which has been termed by a formula. A well structured Questionnaire has been used in order to evaluate the components of this formula along with the scores achieved are introduced in it.
Based on the above variables, the model provides following formula:
Motivation= Effort of Performance Expectancy * Sum of all the Operating Factors (Performance of Outcome Expectancies * their Valences).
Figure 6: Lyman Porter and Edward Lawler's Expectancy Model
Source: (Miner, 2005)
Following ideas have been inherited in this formula:
An individual's motivation to perform a particular task is decided by the performance to result expectancy increased by the outcome's valence. The valence associated with the first-level results considers the valences and instrumentalities of the associated second-level results. The association is multiplicative; no motivation subsists when either performance-to-result expectancy or the valence is zero "0".
As the performance level has numerous outcomes pertaining to it, the sum total of the products of all the performance-to-result expectancies * the combinations of valence has been calculated for all the results seen as appropriate to the specific performance.
The sum total of performance-to-result expectancies * valences is then multiplied by the expectancy of effort-to-performance. The multiplicative association shows that if either effort-to-performance expectancy or the total sum of performance-to-result expectancies times their valences are zero "0", motivation is also zero "0".
In the nutshell, the strength of an individual's motivation to perform well is prejudiced by:
The individual's belief that effort can be transformed into performance, and
The net charisma of the measures that are perceived to branch from good performance (Lawler 1981, 232-33). (MINER, John B., 2005)
J. Stacy Adams Equity Theory (1965)
Stacy Adams who is a behavioral scientist and workplace psychologist of the United States, is the founder of the Equity Theory in 1963 which is also known as Social Comparison Theory, after he has received his doctorate in 1957, he acted and served as a research psychologist within the Crotonville Program in General Electric, where it was the starting point and initiation to develop his theory and conduct the pertinent early studies (Adams, J.S. 1965). Since that time, a lot of researchers and psychological scientists conducted microscopic analysis and investigations of the issue of fair distribution, moreover, studied and examined the relationship between income and remuneration (i.e. the term remuneration here is the relative amount of remuneration not the absolute amount), reasonable allocation and compensation, and staff motivation and enthusiasm, which the Equity Theory has focused on and revealed. The Equity Theory is somehow correlated and relevant to other former theories in context, such as Charles Handy's extension and interpretation of Maslow's theory, Herzberg's theory and few other pioneers of workplace psychology (Guerrero, Andersen, and Afifi, 2007).What made Adams theory different and outstanding from the others that it integrates and incorporates the degrees of employees' dependency on each other, in other words for instance, the varying levels of injustice will consequently result in a corresponding level of dissatisfaction, and this sense will not only impact the individual's behavior, but also will affect the group's behavior, awareness and cognizance feature more strongly and obviously than in earlier models. On the other hand, the other theories treated the employees as independent entities, and ignored fact that those employees exist and interact with the social system and cultural environment in which they perform. In fact, what usually happens in such social framework, peers and employees starts inclining to judge other employees and compare themselves to them after they notice the rewards received, job performance and states of affairs, therefore, the Equity Theory is known as a much more sophisticated and complex motivational model that extends beyond the individual self, and incorporates comparison and influences of other employees' situations, thus it looks beyond than merely assessing the effort (inputs) and compensation (outcomes). The Equity Theory on job motivation acknowledges defined variable factors that impact each individual's recognition and appraisal, which in turns will address and influence their approach and attitude towards their work, and thereby with the whole organization. Thus, the Equity Theory is established on the assumption that employees and workers that formulate the organization's base expect justice (Ashworth, L. & McShane, L. 2012), fairness and equity in treatment by their organization, moreover, those workers and employees as much as they look for the most optimum satisfaction in their careers and jobs, as they also look for the fair rewarding and incentive system that are adopted by the organization, and the term reward here, doesn't just reflect the monetary or financial meaning, but the reward system that could be psychological and social too.
Adams endorses and affirms the Equity Theory by distinguishing two major variables on the basis of inputs (i.e. contributions by the employees where they exert efforts, perform and deliver to the organization) and outcomes (i.e. reward systems and compensation whether financial or social and psychological, recognition and promotion by the organization) and in consequence the comparison and differentiation which is yielded in either equity or inequity is a result as an endeavor to evaluate the fairness level of the rewarding system that's adopted with the inputs formerly mentioned. Hence, to build a clear vision about the measure of the equity and inequity, the resultant ratio of an employee should be compared with other's ratios in the same attempt to measure and judge fairness.
Furthermore, to elaborate more on the refined definition of the ratio, it demonstrates a psychological status of the employee representing values exchange between the employee and the organization, when the employee in terms of the inputs he performs and delivers to the organization, feels that the reward system or the compensation provided are adequate, consequently satisfaction and motivation (LINSTEAD, S. and BREWIS, J., 2007) are achieved, yet the equity is not achieved unless this employee compares the outcomes he's getting with other's input-outcome ratio analysis, then when he feels that he's receiving a fare outcome, at this point the equity is achieved (Bartol, K.M. 1999). However, when the employee gets inadequate compensation or reward in relation to his own input and contribution, or in other words when the inputs out-weight the outcomes, then a sense of de-motivation is yielded, thus impacting and affecting the others, and generally the extent of de-motivation is proportional to the perceived ratio between inputs and outcomes anticipated. Fundamentally, it's concluded that the evaluation of Equity as a term doesn't rely on the so called "input-to-outcome" ratio solely, in spite of that, it relies on the comparison between somebody's ratio and other's ratios, in conclusion, workers and employees evaluate equity on the basis and the perception when a peer earn and obtain equal reward for less work, or on the other hand a greater reward for equal input (DANA, S.W., DODD, N.G. and BROWN, F.W., 2003).
As quoted from Newstrom and Davis (2002): "If employees perceive equity, they will continue to contribute at about the same level. Otherwise, under conditions of inequity, they will experience tension that will create the motivation to reduce the inequity. The resulting actions can be either physical or psychological, and internal or external." (Newstrom & Davis 2002, p.124), which is translated into three combinations that can be constituted as a result from the social comparisons, these are equity, over and under reward. From another perception as Miner has argued and investigated earlier that the workers' and employees' feeling of inequity, would trigger their reaction to motivation in a way to balance out the inequity, on the basis of taking his perception into account, such reactions which are either over or under rewarded would follow a pertinent approach or trend where inverted tactics take place, thus, the core of this approach is the adjustment of the perceived imbalance in the general exchange relationship.
Moreover, the practical application of Adam's Equity Theory in the organizational context, may be perceived as complicated and impractical by some researchers, but on the other hand the theory is pragmatic and might be applied to provide deeper insights than the other former theories in the area of organizational motivation, yet, the Equity Theory, underestimates two essential factors in theory, and determinants in practical application, which are the inter-cultural variations, and the intra-individual differences, and that was a consequence of Adams research and studies that were initiated and conducted in the United States, where the basis of the norm is pay-for-performance. Taking a look over the culture and the factors influencing the business environment in the Middle East, it's noticeable that the situation is totally different, where those who have the power may be entitled to more outcomes than the others, and here light should be shed over the scenario of our research, specifically examining the situation in the United Arab Emirates, where formerly the popular and active topic was the comparison between expatriates and UAE nationals input-to-outcomes ratios, where they both perform the same jobs within the same organization, but the locals entitled approximately triple salary, due to the support and power provided by the government, nevertheless, our discussion here to relate the theory relevantly to our subject from a more sophisticated perspective, where we examine and investigate the motivation among UAE nationals themselves and their motivation status when they either perform in the private sector versus the public sector correlated to the outcomes they receive, in such scenario, in what context could equity be defined? And in first place could equity be attained in such a case? However, going back to the second factor which has been underestimated by Adams theory, which is not incorporating or taking into consideration the individual variability among employees within the same organization, irrespective the fact that the Adams was being detail oriented in his investigations and research.
For instance, the individual differences might be as follow, some employees are risk seekers by nature, thus such people tolerate the inequity more than others, where on the hand, other employees might be self-motivated seeking their satisfaction from doing the job right. Therefore, from an overall look into the organizational rewarding systems, they generally fail to produce inequity tensions that aim at motivating such employees in the organizations. Irrespectively, the former limitations inherent in Adams Equity Theory model, they do not affect the importance, essentiality and relevance of the theory and its application in the practical organizational context, but even it's considered as one of the most articulated theories of motivation (Miner, J., 2005), and the optimum application in the organizational context requires close and sustainable scrutiny and examination of every employee's behavior in order to assess their persona relatively to their job satisfaction.
Lastly, the final theory which will be studied and discussed also represents and endows pertinent requirements from the practitioners in the motivation area where different approach is applied, since David C. McClelland's Achievement Motivation Theory has roots other than the learning theory.
David C. McClelland's Achievement Motivation Theory (1953)
Since 1930's and the pioneering researches and studies of Harvard Psychological Clinic that's rooted in human personality theories and stated in Explorations in Personality, has summarized and provided the starting point for the future studies, specifically, those related to motivation, following this interest area and the emergence of such concepts, McClelland while chairing the Department of Psychology at Wesleyan University has examined deliberately and developed the Achievement-Motivation Theory(David C. McClelland, 1965), and has promoted improvements in employee assessments methods and techniques (i.e. advocating competency-based assessments and tests), in his theory where he has correlated the achievement to motivation (i.e. where achievement is referred as the individual's enthusiasm and preference for success under certain competitive conditions), in an attempt to explain how employees could express their preferences for a particular outcome, which is considered a general issue in the organizational context, where it reflects a challenge for practitioners in the area of motivation.
Nevertheless, the theory was developed on the basis of both inductive and deductive approaches which are driven by three essential motivational factors, categorized as achievement motivation (i.e. attainment of realistic yet challenging missions and objectives, career advancement and progress, the need of sense of accomplishment), power/authority motivation (i.e. this driver that creates the need to be influential, impactful and effective, the intensive need for leading and ideas' privilege and the need to enhance personal status) and affiliation motivation (i.e. this driver produces the team players, people with high levels of social intelligence and have the motive to build and sustain excellent relationships with others), while he emphasized on the first one, collectively the inductive and deductive approaches were correlated to both vast research studies, and models of entrepreneurship, respectively (Miner, 2005).
The main drivers of Achievement Motivation Theory are to realize and accomplish tasks and objectives, which specific people enjoys by instinct and naturally, in this context Kilduff and Baker (1984) had argued that such people enjoying those drive do not constitute more than 10% of the population, and they're difficult to be identified, but the idea is that, once they are recognized and offered the proper environment for achievement, they'll exceed the stipulated objectives and outperform those who had low achievement needs. McClelland argued that most of people exhibit and possess a combination of that characteristics and drivers whether achievement, affiliation or authority. However, some people demonstrates biased attitude towards a particular motivational need, consequently, those motivational drivers would impact and influence their behavior or managing style. The theory suggested that an intensive affiliation motivation would affect manager's decision making capabilities, as a result of undermining that manager's objectivity, based on the need to be liked by others, while on the other hand, a strong authority motivation people will perform and produce determined and precise work ethic, commitment and loyalty to the organization, but while such people are attracted to the leadership role, they lack the possession of required flexibility mindset or social oriented skills.
McClelland firmly believed in the achievement motivation people, and they were of his particular fascination, in his perspective such people can be the best leaders, who make things happen and achieve results, and not only achieving their results, but even this extends to influence other people to effectively utilize the organization's resources, in consequence to achieve the organization's objectives and missions, yet, such people as stated earlier in the context demand from their staff, to the extent that all the people are similarly achievement focused and results driven, which in contrast is not the real life scenario, and this could be because of his priority to achieve the organizational objectives, which lies above people's varied interests and needs.
Finally, Achievement Theory had identified the third driver of motivation, which is power/authority motivation, as stated by (Newstrom & Davis 2002, p.105) that power motivation is the "driver to influence people and change situations", from a different angle but on the same line of thought, Miner had described the progress and development of the power drive, by presenting a path of four stages, he examined and demonstrated that consequence of stages specifically in those people whose authority and power are the dominating motivational driver. The first stage is represented through relating themselves to powerful people, consequently experiencing the feeling of strength and authority, followed by the second stage, which is intensifying their authority feeling by being oneself, then comes the third stage, where those people would enjoy practicing and experiencing the power through influencing and impacting other people to the extent that they support and help other employees to address and establish their weaknesses. In the last stage, the motivational pattern is prevailed, where others are not only influenced for their one's self, but for a greater and more common reason to achieve the organizational objectives (McClelland, D., & Burnham, D., ( 2003).
Moreover, those people with strong authority motivation are usually divided into two classifications, stated personal and institutional, the ones with a personal authority driver have the desire to influence and impact other people, while the ones with the institutional authority drive, have the need to organize and support the team's efforts to further the organization's objectives, thus, the institutional authority motivation people are the team players.
Since the early ages of motivational theories studies, researches and examinations, till the most recent years, irrespectively of the chosen theory to be applied, in a motivational organizational context, such theory should be advanced and fostered properly to deliver the effective inherent advantages desired and to extend beyond than just adopting theoretically a hypothesis. Some parts of the theory might be emphasized or utilized more than the other parts, depending on the desired objective by the practitioner or according to the organizational goals, thus, the ultimate objective is to generate predicated and accustomed motivational forces aiming at increasing and improving overall organizational performance (Raven, J.,2001).
Peter Drucker also suggests that antimateralism in relation to the rewards is totally a myth in fact; economic rewards are considered as the right of the employee and that should be provided to motivate the employees. According to the views of Peter Drucker, an organization should provide monetary rewards and recognition in order to motivate the human resource. Monetary rewards motivate employees to perform well in the organization. Monetary rewards helps in the accomplishment of individual requirements of the employees which further enables them to perform well in compliance with organizational objectives, goals, vision, mission (Motivation and Motivation Theory).
UAE is the federation of seven Emirates and its culture is a mixture of various global cultures. As per as the information revealed, from the historical perspective of UAE infinite merchants and traders have resided on Arabian Gulf Coast, and prevail their own cultural traditions here. UAE is mainly a Gulf Country and hence its fundamental culture is Arabic. The most common religion followed by UAE's people is Islam; moreover several multi-ethnic communities reside here serenely. The UAE's culture has progressed along with its growth and globalization. The distinctive unique feature of UAE's culture which attracts tourists includes its art, craft, architecture, food, festivals, dance and music, religion and language and entertainment and leisure. UAE's culture is a combination Cultural Hybridization, Stereotyping, Cross Cultural and Inter Cultural Meet (Al-Ali, 2008).
The cultural tradition of UAE includes thoroughbred camel racing which is a part of UAE's Bedouin heritage, it is considered as most profitable and widely broadcasted sport. UAE's traditional music and dance reflects the impression of Arabic culture. The forms of local music and dance delineated its culture more efficiently. Music plays a vital role in the entertainment laboring folks for many years. But due to globalization it has been replaced by the western culture and music up to some extent. As per as the music and entertainment of UAE is concerned, modernization leads to avail international singers, music bands, stage performers, dancers in the region. Corniche is the best tourist leisure destination spot in the UAE, moreover cruising at Arabian Gulf and spa resorts are also the great source of leisure and entertainment (Al-Ali, 2008).
The UAE was considered as the federation of tribal desert people prior to the formation of federation in the year 1971. According to Robertson (1992) the impact of globalization can easily be recognized in the socio-cultural development of the UAE along with the economic and is considered as key motor of change. In fact, modernization has not appeared without cost. Economic development of UAE brings a drastic change in terms of health care services, education, transport, social, financial services, communication and broadcasting services etc. but it affects the traditional values and beliefs of the UAE culture up to great extent. One of the most important remarkable social changes is the fragmentation of families (Al-Ali, 2008).
In the earlier years, three generations of a family unit lived together, with the younger adjourning to their elder ones. The Generational relationships pertaining to the financial issues have become superfluous; hence senior family members do not have the considerable influence on the younger people and the generations lead to live separately. However the changes in the social structure of UAE can easily be seen through following areas:
Lifestyle, Food & Clothing: The socio-economic development in the UAE infrastructure leads to position the country among the top highest per capita incomes economy globally. The lifestyle of the UAE also faced a tremendous change pertaining to the socio-economic and business scenario. UAE people become entrenched traveler pampering their tastes and preferences for innovative experiences and make sure their children are accorded their every requirement (Davidson, 2005). As a result the families in the UAE created unsustainable expectation related with financial benefits. The tastes of Emiratis got widened towards the ubiquitous chains of fast food due to exposure to western food culture (Long 2005). Meals have been prepared and consumed at home still but the only difference is the addition of new ingredients in the conventional dishes, for example rice or bulgur i.e. cracked wheat has been replaced by lamb with spaghetti. Hence inactive lifestyles and accessibility of rich food cuisines in UAE result in various diseases like high rates of diabetes, obesity and the diseases associated with smoking like lung cancer etc. The impact of globalization undoubtedly affect the wearing patterns of UAE as well, the Arabic traditional clothing has been replaced by the western apparels and other global dress codes (Al-Ali, 2008).
Language: The most significant impact of the globalization on the UAE is the marginalization of the Arabic Language; UAE is switching towards more and more usage of English for recording and transmitting news and entertainment. The reason behind such change is that the use of English assists in the mutual exchange of views and ideas and creates better associations with others, hence providing common support and a probability for better accomplishments (Al-Ali, 2008).
Business: The globalization poses great impact on the business sector of UAE as well. The traditional business hours which permits long breaks in midday on account of the hot temperature of summer are being substituted by fiat and air-conditioning in order to comply with the global business environment. Moreover the conventional Islamic weekend holidays of Thursday and Friday are currently being substituted with the weekend holidays of Friday and Saturday with context to the global business scenario (Al-Ali, 2008).
Dysfunction of Change:
As we have mentioned earlier that the cohesiveness of family has been broken across the generational lines, hence the traditional family values get ruined. Other adverse effects of globalized changes are social and economic issues like delinquency and drug abuse (Al-Ali, 2008).
Outflows of Funds: The social and economic infrastructure of the UAE has been the developed with the help of the services rendered by the expatriate workers. As per the data revealed by the Abu Dhabi Chamber of Commerce and Industry in the year 2005 more than 90 % of the UAE labor force comprises of non-nationals. The funds remittances to the native countries by expatiates leads to arise the constant liquidity issues in the UAE's balance of payments (BOP) (Al-Ali, 2008).
Â UAE Labor Market:
Since the last decade, the UAE has observed a tremendous growth rate in its economic development; whose credit is definitely goes to its oil and natural gas business. The liberalization policy of UAE government, various free trade zones encourages foreign investors to conduct their business operations in UAE. This proves to be a major barrier in front of Emirati people to get prominent employment opportunities. The labor market of UAE has dominated by the immigrant labor force both in public as well as private sector. Foreign labor force has captured 99% of private sector business in UAE and 88% of both public and private sector as a whole. These figures clearly show the pathetic situation of UAE local people in the employment sector. Globalization leads to excessive involvement of foreign people in real estate, tourism and financial sector of UAE which hampers the growth and development of UAE nationals in these sectors.
As per the data revealed by the labor ministry of UAE in the year 2010, the number of expatriate workers in the UAE symbolizing the stamina of the oil-rich economy is 3.8 million. A hasty financial and economic boom in the region of Gulf led to more than replication of the number of expatriate workers from 1.8 million in the year 2001 to four million in the climax year of 2007 prior to it slumped to 3.8 million by 2010 due to economic tightening in the stir of the global economic meltdown of 2009.
There are lot many issues due to the expatriate workers in the UAE. The first and foremost issue is that the immigrant or expatriate workforce may act as barrier and challenge the country by endorsing their own government's welfare or that of a planned crime within the alliance or federation. Secondly the expatriate employees frequently require a higher rate of payment for rendering their services and practically they transfer all the revenues and income to their countries rather than expanding or investing that amount in UAE. This affects the economy of UAE very badly in terms of revenue deficit, fiscal deficit, balance of payment, gross domestic product and gross national product etc. Last but not the least, immigrants or expatriate workforce exaggerate preexisting segments of society within the country since they learn to be the chief workers in non-oil industrial sector of the UAE, while the local Emiratis of UAE usually prefer to get employed for the government sector (United Arab Emirates - Overview of economy).
The domination of expatriates over the UAE nationals is projected to have developed in around 8.2 million with UAE local citizens making only 11.47 percent. The UAE attracts personnel from across the globe, primarily from the Asian subcontinent and the Arab region. The key issues pertaining to the expatriate workers in the UAE are the Remittance of local revenue to the other countries. The dominance of expatriates in the employment sector affects the career and growth opportunities of the local Emiratis people a lot (Suter, 2005).
Emiratization policy may be referred as the strategic initiative of UAE government which aims at providing maximum employment and growth and development opportunities to the local people of UAE in private as well as in public sector. The rationale behind the Emiratization is to overcome the threat of immigrants; as immigrants use to take a majority of advantages pertaining to the employment and business sector resources in various Emirates against their services.
Kasim Randeree in his research paper: Strategy, Policy and Practice in the Nationalization of Human Capital tell us about the policy of Gulf Cooperation Council leaders which is associated with the Nationalization of labor force. But the policy is quite difficult to be implemented due to various barriers viz. immigrant workforce, problems faced by the public and private employment sectors, the importance of national women at workplace, unemployment problems for local workforce due to lack of training and learning facilities, requirement for sustainable progress and effective control of human resources. The paper also focuses on the Emiratization objective of the UAE government; with the barriers and in the path of accomplishment of Emiratization objective and strategies and policy to remove those barriers. This paper also reveals the principles and practices associated with effective Human Resource Management (Randeree).
Emiratization is the answer of the Emirati government to the excessive participation of foreign nationals in the working environment of the country which limits the options available for the domestic population to avail the large number of job opportunities created in the Emirati organizations. Providing of platforms for employment to the people of the country includes the modifications in the law pertaining to employment rules and the provision of various employment quotas which would prevent over recruitment of the foreign expatriates in the companies. The government has also provisioned for the conduction of training and development programs so as to be enable the people to develop and enhance their skills as well as gain the necessary knowledge of the areas of work which they are unfamiliar with (Randeree). Emiratization policy proves to be very helpful in motivating the local human resource towards their dedicated contribution in the work field.