Motivation is the word which is derived from 'motive'. Motive means needs, desires, wants or drives within an individuals while motivations is the process by which a person's efforts are energize, directed and sustained towards attaining a goal. The definition of motivation has three key elements which are energy, direction and persistence. The energy is a measure of intensity or drive. The efforts need a direction that benefits the organization to be channelled in. Lastly, the employees must persist in putting their maximum efforts to achieve the goals.
Motivation is very important to an organization. For the company that we chose, SK Jewellery Sdn Bhd, this is a good reference for us to discuss about motivation and rewards topic. SK Jewellery is a typical company which focus on the sales performance of branch and individual. In such competitive environment, appropriate motivation and reward system are acquired for employees.
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According to Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, there are five needs within an individual. Maslow grouped these five needs into two categories: higher-order needs (social, esteem and self-actualization needs) and lower-order needs (physiological and safety needs).
Maslows Need Hierarchy Model
These needs become the motivators to drive an individual to achieve the goals.
Physiological needs are the needs for basic amenities of life.
For Safety needs, it includes physical, environmental and emotional safety and protection. Job security and financial security are also in this category. An individual needs a stable job to ensure their financial security (income) to survive in this reality and competitive environment. SK Jewellery provides the high basic salary for employees for about RM1500. Moreover, as customer service executive n SK Jewellery, this can be a stable job. It is because for this relevant area (jewellery area), an excellent customer service executive needs to accumulate the working experience and the knowledge about jewellery to apply in the jobs. SK Jewellery provides the chance to employees to ensure the job security.
Social needs include the need for love, friendship, belongingness, care and acceptance. In the work place of SK Jewellery, the relationship between colleagues is very good and stable. A nice and comfortable job environment is created to reduce the stress of employees. The attitude of employees also decides the service of company. SK Jewellery always provides the best and friendly services to the customers. This helps employees to increase the acceptance. Additionally, employees satisfy their jobs and they are motivated to put their efforts to attain the goals.
Esteem needs divide into two categories which are internal esteem needs (self-respect, confidence, competence and achievements) and external esteem needs (recognition, power and status). Employees are motivated to prove their capabilities to show their best job performance. SK Jewellery always gives the recognition to the employees according to their work performance in order to motivate them. The employees can increase their self-confidence to improve in sales technique.
Self-actualization includes the need for growth and self-fulfilment. This includes the drive to become what one is capable of becoming. Actually, in the company, employees always seek for growth like improvement in job performance. Here is
According to Maslow, an individual is motivated by unsatisfied needs.
SK Jewellery has well structure to maintain its business operation. A well structure will helps a company lead to succeed. Motivated employees in the organization become the important asset for the company. However, how to motivate the employees? Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory is just the basic needs for individuals only. In workplace, there are many motivators, not only the five needs.
Herzberg two factor theory is also applied in SK Jewellery. Herzberg theory proposed that intrinsic factors associated with job satisfaction were what motivated people while extrinsic factors associated with job dissatisfaction simply kept people from being dissatisfied.
Herzberg classified these job factors into Hygiene factors and Motivational factors.
Hygiene factors are needed to prevent dissatisfaction. These factors are essential for motivation purpose in workplace. However, these do not bring the positive satisfaction for long-term. SK Jewellery has well salary structure, employees' status, interpersonal relations, physical working condition, fringe benefits and job security. For company policies and administrative policies, SK Jewellery implements the inflexible policies.
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SK Jewellery gives the reasonable basic salary for about RM1500 per month, haven't include the incentives. SK Jewellery ensure that the wages sre competitive in order to eliminate job dissatisfaction. This amount is quite attractive if compare to the competitor in same domain like Poh Kong, DeGem and Tomei.
SK Jewellery also guarantees the employee's status if the employee has good work ethics. Company provides different kind of jobs status for employees from different position.
The relationship of the employees with his peers, superiors and subordinates in SK Jewellery are nice and seldom has conflicts. It is because SK Jewellery adopts the open-minded strategy. Every morning, there is a short meeting between supervisor and non-managerial employees. Everyone can state his or her own opinion, then the problems or conflicts can be solved together. This creates a culture of respect and dignity for all team members.
Physical working condition
As SK Jewellery is in service industry area, a nice and tidy working condition is provided to gives the comfortable feeling to employees and also the customers. Safety is the most important aspect in work condition due to the stocks are all expensive.
Like other company, employees in SK Jewellery enjoy the health care plan. Employee has the mediclaim if the receipt can be provided. Additional discount for employees to purchase of jewellery is given. Employee training programme is also given in order to improve the selling skills.
Company policies and Administrative policies
However, SK Jewellery has inflexible policies. The working hours is very long, that is 12 to 13 hours per day. It is start from 9.30a.m. until 10.30p.m. depends on different branches. SK Jewellery also has the specific dress code by wearing the formal uniform. Employees enjoy the 6 off days per month but the off days are all arranged by managerial level. Sometimes, there is difficult to apply the holiday if crash with another employee and the employee does now want to change the day.
Motivational factors yield positive satisfaction. These factors motivate the employees to achieve higher performance.
The employees should be praised and recognized for their accomplishments by the managers.
Sense of achievement
The employees must have a sense of achievement. This depends on the job. There must be a fruit of some sort in the job.
Growth and promotional opportunities
There must be growth and advancement opportunities in an organization to motivate the employees to perform well.
The employees must hold themselves responsible for the work. The managers should give them ownership of the work. They should minimize control but retain accountability.
Meaningfulness of the work
The work itself should be meaningful, interesting and challenging for the employee to perform and to get motivated.
SK Jewellery also has the motivational factors in the work place. The employees have their own responsibilities to achieve their personal sales target. They have the right work ethics. As customer service executives, employees everyday may face different types of customers. It will be very challenging. Promotional opportunities are also given to employee who has the capability.
There are 3 acquired needs which are major motives in work for the McCelland's three needs theory. The three needs include needs for achievement (nAch), needs for power (nPow) and needs for affiliation (nAff). This theory mainly focuses on the needs for achievement. An employee who has high needs of achievement is motivated to strive for goals by finding the proper solutions for problems. Hence, this also can be used to explain that why motivation is important.
Goal-setting theory says that specific goals increase the performance and difficult goals, when accepted, result in higher performance than do easy goals. Working towards the goals is the major source of job motivation. SK Jewellery is a company which more focuses on the sales performance. Hence, for every branch, there is different branch targets which are from RM180 000 to RM230 000. Moreover, employees also have uniform individual targets which are RM30 000 for each person. The theory Y* managerial level in the SK Jewellery believes that the employees have self-efficacy which refers to an individual belief that he or she is able to performing a task. (*McGregor's Theory Y is the assumption that employees enjoy the works, seek responsibility and can exercise self-direction.)
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Equity Theory focuses on how employees compare their inputs-outcomes ratios to others' relevant ratios. The core of equity theory is the principle of balance, A perception of inequity will cause an employee to take an action to balance it. The employees may not compare their inputs-outcomes ratio. They may so compare it with another peer within the present job in current organization or with the peers working in other organization or with the past jobs held by him with others.
SK Jewellery set the sales target for every branch and for individuals. By obtaining the sales result. The competition between colleagues and branches are started. The sales performance of each outlet keep updating once per week. Inequity makes the team member in the branch co-operate to compete with other teams. They are motivated to be better than others. Moreover, the individual sales performance competition is also held once per month. The top three of the competitions will get the extra incentives and recognition from company. This encourages the employees to put more efforts when working. They may compare themselves with others to gain the improvements. The motive to get recognition from company drives them to achieve the goals.