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Different point of view concerning selection are floating on the surface these days by some organizations who claim that selection is quite simple in theory whereas it is pretty complicated in practice. In other words, many sudden factors can affect the selection procedure including environment, culture, economic and social pressures which can not be comprehended beforehand in science. "The gap between science and practice in personal selection is an ongoing concern for Human Resource Management" (Klehe, 2004).
1. Action Plan
The recruitment and selection of staff is a key area in ensuring that any organisation can function to the highest standards. The whole process can be time consuming and expensive. It is vital, therefore, that the process is as effective as possible so that the investment produces the right person for the job. here are a number of methods ranging from references, interviews, personality test, ability tests, assessment centres, etc. which are traditionally used in recruitment and selection process. The mechanisms used have varying levels of success. Poor recruitment and selection is a waste.
A systematic approach to the process of selection will help Sara and Khalifa to ensure that all the necessary information is available to them before recruiting the new works manager. The Key Steps of the action plan for Sara and Khalifa must include the following attributes for filling in the position of the works manager.
Ensure that the job asked to be filled is actually necessary
Produce the Job Description
Produce the Person Specification
Establish the remuneration and benefits package that will be available in consultation with the recruitment consultant.
Decide the most appropriate method of attracting suitable candidates
Produce the copy for the 'advertisement' where appropriate
In response to replies received, acknowledge and send application forms on time together with full details of the post (Job Description)
When application forms are received, acknowledge receipt and inform the applicants of the procedure that will be followed with an indication of time scale
Consider applications with recruitment consultant and draw up a 'short list' for interview
Notify successful applicants of dates of interview OR inform that they have been unsuccessful
The fact that there has been a person in a post doing a job in the past must not be taken as absolute evidence that the post is still required.
The job description that Sara and Khalifa develop for the recruitment and selection of the new works manager should include the key aspects of the job. These are:.
The Job Title
Who the post holder reports to and to whom they post holder is responsible for.
Where the job is to be performed (location)
The main purpose of the job. This should indicate the aims of the job in relation to the business objective of the organisation.
The main tasks of the job defined should clearly state what is done in terms of activity. The objectives should be (SMART) Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and Timed and should be expressed in terms of activity, standards required and conditions under which they are to be achieved.
The following points should be covered while describing the job.
Salary and benefits
Source and Means of Attracting Candidates
The most appropriate means of attracting candidates needs careful thought. Consider all the options and their implications.
Newspaper Advertisements. The newspaper to be used will depend on the type of post being advertised and the sort of person who is likely to see it. For example, there would be little point in advertising for key person's job in the local news paper while a new Chief Executive may not be easily found though the local news paper.
Job Centre. Where the job is suitable, this can be a cost effective means of attracting applicants.
Agencies. A good agency will be able to do much of the screening thus saving considerable time and effort. While they do charge fees, this needs to be weighed up against the cost of administering the applications.
Head Hunters. These can search, for the very best possible candidate. There is a cost factor to be considered and the risks that they could subsequently try to head hunt them from you for someone else.
The preparation of advertisement is a skill in itself. Professional help may well be appropriate. The advertisement is part of the Public Relations of the organisation. Race Relations, Sex Discrimination and Equal Opportunity considerations must be borne in mind. The cost of placing an advertisement is high and so every word counts. The content of the advertisement will determine whether it will be successful in getting the right applicants. Advertisements needs to attract the right sort of person and for this reason, advertisements must include factors that will create a good response.
The advertisement needs to include:
The benefits of working for organisation
Salary and benefits
How to apply
Closing dates for applications and proposed dates for interviews
Acknowledgements and Further Actions
How the Human Resource Manager or Personnel Manager deals with the applications has a very important effect on the corporate image. It is important that applicants are kept informed of what is happening; otherwise they may lose interest and go elsewhere. Comparing the information received from the applicants, to the job description and person specification will help in drawing up the short list. Notify all short listed candidates the dates for interview and ensure they are confirmed. Notify even the unsuccessful candidates.
2. Person Specification - Works Manager
The person specification defines the qualifications, experience and personal qualities required by the post holder. It will need to include:
Physical make up. Height, weight and physical characteristics such as hearing, vision, bearing, health, appearance, speech
Attainments. This includes educational qualifications, professional qualification, experience, training, etc.
General Intelligence. This would include the capacity for reasoning, degree of quickness and accuracy.
Special Aptitudes. This should define any special skills, required
Interests. This should consider how relevant outside activities are to job success. Items such as outdoor activities, constructional activities may have a bearing on the job itself
Disposition. The acceptability of the person to others they will be working with or ability to manage with working on their own. It will also include stability and reliability.
Circumstances. Which include domestic circumstances, age limits for the job, ability to deal with irregular work hours or be away from home, etc.
Remuneration and Benefits
There are a number of factors to be agreed:
Salary Scale or Range
Other benefits such as health care plans, social facilities, company car, employee discounts
Key job tasks - Works Manager
For appointing a works or production manager in the company, Sara and Khalifa must ensure the short listed candidate from the action plan to recruit and select the most suitable person has the following individual qualities and skills for performing the responsibilities that will be endowed. To gain insight into the desired capabilities of the works manager, the job description and the person specification of the candidate has the following:
Overseeing the production process, drawing up a production schedule.
Ensure planned efficiency and performance standards are met or exceeded.
Ensuring that the production is cost effective.
Develop and track improvement in reduction of planned man hours.
Coordinate, set up and implement standard operating procedure for all production operations.
Making sure that products are produced on time and are of good quality.
Manage the adherence to prescribed procedures to ensure first pass quality meets or exceeds planned goals.
Working out the human and material resources needed.
Ensure complete compliance to prescribed Quality Management Systems and 6 sigma processes.
Estimating costs and setting the quality standards.
Track competencies of subordinates and provide leadership and development as required to achieve the objectives.
Monitoring the production processes and adjusting schedules as needed.
Monitoring product standards and implementing quality-control programs.
Liaising among different departments, e.g. Suppliers, managers.
Optimize resource utilization by implementation of an effective production organization.
Working with managers to implement the company's policies and goals.
Ensuring that health and safety guidelines are followed.
Ensure coaching and development of resources to meet business's objectives.
Supervising and motivating a team of workers.
Reviewing the performance of subordinates.
Person Specification of production manager
Bachelor's/Master's degree in the related field.
3-5 years experience in production at same position.
English, computer: good.
Proven track record in managing production, preferably with an engineering or automobile spare parts manufacturing unit with multiple projects.
Experience managing and developing manufacturing designs.
Demonstrated ability to manage multiple projects simultaneously, set priorities, identify and address problems, meet deadlines, and stay within budget.
Ability to create and manage production budgets.
Proficiency with word processing, spreadsheet, and electronic editing programs.
Strong interpersonal skills; a team player and independent worker.
Experience coordinating work with other managers, co-workers and subordinates.
Demonstrated effective verbal and written communication skills.
After establishing the desired qualities required for the job, the first step is to establish the job position to the candidates by stating expectations. This can be done by asking the short listed candidates called for the interview/selection the question" what do you wish to accomplish?" This definition can take a variety of forms, and can be developed using such documents on key performance objectives and by listing the functional responsibilities and activities.
From the above expectations, the position can be divided into the knowledge/skills that are essential to complete those expectations. This identification of knowledge/skill factors is simple acknowledgment of their importance to the position.
Each position should be supported by from six to ten knowledge / skills constructs, each with a brief description. The person who fills the position should posssess:
Oral and written communication skills,
Knowledge of the industry,
Knowledge of accounting systems,
Knowledge of the computers operating system, and
Skills in data base management.
Once the list of knowledge/skill constructs has been prepared, the next step is to determine the level of knowledge/skill required for each factor. To do this, imagine each factor on a range ranging from zero to some theoretical maximum, with 0 representing no knowledge/skill required and 10 as the highest level the theoretical maximum.
After ensuring the above, determine the level of the knowledge / skill for each of the constructs identified. This level determination acknowledges that while the knowledge / skill factor is required, the level required is not the same for each. Nor is the highest (10) always the best. It is important to acknowledge that not all factors can be quantified to the same extent. There may be some knowledge and skill constructs that are quite subjective by their nature. These should be valued according to their relevance and importance to the job requirements.
3. Evaluation of the recruitment strategies used by Watertech
The recruitment of Mr. Abbas Al Foori has been recommended to them by a recruitment agency in Sohar. Sara and Khalifa appointed him after considering his CV and a short interview. Both Sara and Khalifa had any previous HR experience or any idea about the recruitment and selection procedures. They hired the services of the recruitment agencies and selected Mr. Abbas Al Foori as he was strongly recommended by the agencies. Also, Sara and Khalifa did they involve anyone else in the decision. They only verified the CV of Mr. Abbas Al Foori, which impressed them. Their decision to appoint Mr. Abbas Al Foori was arbitrary and unscientific.
Sara and Khalifa considered interview to be more effective in assessing Mr. Abbas Al Foori's attitude and personality rather than fully focusing on the skills and technicality of Mr. Abbas Al Foori. Although, interviews are the best method of selection in all times to some people, one of the major barriers to interviews being successful is the vast number of people who seem to insist on making interview decisions on some form of sixth sense or 'gut feel'. Often this can be due to the fact that they do not use an interview as a means of obtaining evidence upon which to base a decision, but merely as an exercise to ratify a decision that they had already made, based on information contained within documentation (Storey, 1992).
4. Suitable selection tools/instruments that could be used in future for the selection process
This method is one of the most used in today's business and it is basically a combination of three acknowledged methods. First you have a set of exams followed by an interview and finally an investigation about the candidate's history and experience in previous work places (Torrington et al, 2005). The classic trio, mixing three main techniques of selection is considered to be a very traditional way of choosing candidates for a new job, and some people still think that it is one of the best methods used in the present day as well.
Based on several researches, the classic trio is used by many organisation operating in diverse places all around the world. This method can suite several businesses due to its being flexible and adaptable in many fields. For example a research done on the hospitality industry in Europe indicates that three quarters of the companies use the classic trio, and there is little evidence of employers seeking other kinds of methods in this industry (Nickson et al, 2005). The classic trio was also found adapted in most supermarkets in the UK as a method of selecting new employees (Nickson et al, 2004). Another research indicates that most restaurant franchisees are also satisfied with the classic trio as a method of selection because it gets to their expectations (Nerilee, 1996). Numerous other examples can be demonstrated here on the subject of adapting the classic trio as a selection method.
Another very interesting research on the affect of selection and recruitment on future performance was done on many graduate students from different professions in the UK. Most have agreed that classic trio is the most common method they encountered during their applications for jobs period, and it is also the best method they came across in terms of assessing their qualifications and experiences (Scholarios et al, 2003). Due to its being very intensive and the verity of tools used in this method, the results are usually more accurate than any other method of selection.
On the other hand opposed arguments are also growing these days regarding this method. Many claim that because classic trio is one of the most famous and used methods nowadays, it has been adapted by many organisations without any further evaluation regarding its reliability and validity to the organisation. It is becoming somewhat like a default method used by organisations whenever they want to start any new selection scheme. Many are just saying since everyone is using it we might as well try it like them (Millmore, 2003). It is also slightly more costly compared to other methods, some organisations prefer to use either examinations or interviews only without completing the whole classic trio program mainly because of the expense of conducting all three methods together.