The management of organizational justice

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What is organizational Justice?

The main issue- how companies could apply organizational justice to common workplace issues. Through the application, companies would be able to reap the benefits of organizational justice even in difficult times of downsizing. Organizational Justice is seen from the perspective of the employees

3 types of organizational justice-

Distributive justice focuses on the outcomes received by the individuals and there are three rules that could be applied. The article focus on the equity theory and it is used to contrast against the equality theory to highlight how companies could reconcile the differences between them.

Procedural justice- means by which the outcome is allocated. The concept of procedural justice is important a fair process would mitigate the harmful effects of unfavourable outcomes leading to the fair process effect.

One proposes that employees use perceptions of the current process to predict how they'll fare in future encounters with the organization. The other states that employees want to feel that they are part of the organization, and fair procedures are a sign that they are indeed valued and accepted by the organization. (Kim)

Link to the benefits.

(Would having one stronger aspect be workable?)

Interactional justice (effective tool for managing the subordinate perceptions, emotions, attitudes and behaviour.

Procedural and interactional justice would improve organization commitment,
Application of organization justices to common workplace issues with the aim to show how the theory would reduce workplace conflicts and ensure that employees receive a just

Identifies other theory perspective

Attitudes (Values, Personality, emotions, cultures)-Fairness (Distributive Justice, Interactional Justice and Procedural Justice) - Behaviours (Either commitment to organization or Organizational Retaliatory Behaviours)

Hence, the whole extract does not focus on the attitudes that would affect fairness but plunges straight into an explanation of organizational justice.

Article mentions the consequences of an organization without justice but fails to provide any substantial evidence on the effects of organizational retaliatory behaviours. This would be useful for companies comparing the benefits brought about by organizational justice and those without.

Idea of culture affecting the distributive justice (would this be considered assumptions or theory)

The distributive justice rules mentioned here have been argued to be used in different types of situations, but there is scant research about when employees use one rule instead of another to evaluate a decision in an organization. Some psychologists have recently argued that one of the factors may be the employee's culture. For instance, someone from a more ‘collectivist' culture may be more likely to use an equality rule of justice, especially among members of his or her close work group. (Kim)

The study also measured collectivism (horizontal), and we found that for those individuals with a high level of collectivism, procedural justice for others had a direct effect on their personal perceptions of organizational support. This did not happen for those with a low horizontal collectivism. This suggests that collectivists look at how others are treated as well as themselves in order to understand how an organization feels about them. How an organization treats the group, or individuals within the group has a direct effect on collectivists' feelings of support. It is important to keep in mind that collectivism occurs in all cultures and is not simply a culture-level variable (i.e. people from Mexico and Japan only are collectivists).

The long and the short of it is that various types of justice directly affect how people feel in their organizations. Organizational justice is a very important variable to consider when examining employee motivation and support. This can be applied to team building, restructuring, or basic mangement/employee relations work.

The social psychological literature on attribution theory can be integrated here if desired. Some organizational justice researchers (e.g., Ployhart & Ryan, 1997) have begun to look at how attribution theory plays a role in justice judgments and in reactions to organizational decisions

Individual beliefs are shaped by the personality and the perceptions of people. (Could we bring in the Mars Model??)

Value System..

In social-psychological research, “fairness” is essentially an attitudinal concept. An event, action, or decision is judged as “fair” or “unfair” based upon the individual's beliefs about the decision and his or her value or normative system as it relates to those beliefs. (VT)

Folger and Cropanzano's (1998) Fairness Theory provides a more complex discussion of the mechanisms by which perceptions of justice might be changed (see Chapter 7).

The social psychological literature on attribution theory can be integrated here if desired. Some organizational justice researchers (e.g., Ployhart & Ryan, 1997) have begun to look at how attribution theory plays a role in justice judgments and in reactions to organizational decisions.

Attribution theory explains how a person attributes his success/failure to internal/external factors. Organizational justice comes in when a person for example attributes his failure not to his incompetence (internal attribution) but to organizational injustice (external attribution).

Additionally, students might be interested in how one might measure perceptions of organizational justice in the workplace. Several different scales of organizational justice perceptions exist - see Colquitt, 2001, for an example.