The Main Functions Of Human Resources Business Essay

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In an organisation main function of the Human Resource Management is to provide direction for the employees and focuses on management and recruitment. In an organisation HRM is a function which deals with the issues of people like hiring, compensation, wellness, benefits, employee motivation, communication, administration performance, management organization development, training and safety.

(1) What Is Human Resource Management? By Susan M. Heathfield, About.com Guide

Human resources mean an organized way to guide people how to manage an organisation. It's a new way of correspondence between people and the organisation due to which the talented people by utilising their skills and abilities work together for the organisation to achieve better as well as best results.

Human Recourses is a part of an organisation which deals with different areas such as administration, finance, employee, operations, training etc. It develops an environment between administration and the employees of an organisation to utilise their skills, ideas to get the effective results. It also declares boundaries and limits between the managers and the labours by working under which an organisation can come up with interesting results.

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Human resources are based upon the individual as well as the team ideas and the organisational structure. The more traditional usage of human resource within corporations and businesses refers to the individuals within a company, firm, or agency, and to the portion of the organization that deals with hiring, firing, training, and other personnel issues, typically referred to as human resources management.

HRM is also be used more in terms of human resources development. Human resource management is the strategic  approach to the management of an organization's most valued assets and the people working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of the objectives of the business. 

The terms HRM & HR have largely replaced the term personnel and professional management as a description of the processes involved in managing people in an organization. In the same way (HRM) means employing people, developing their resources, utilizing their abilities, maintaining and compensating their services in respect to the job and organizational requirement.

Human Resources Policy (Requirements)

Human Resources Policy can be explained with the help of the following points. Theses points will also help us to know about the legal aspects, developing a policy and its implementation.

Objective:

The objective of HR policy is to determine the responsibilities of management and employees to report matters such as suspected official, misconduct and complaint-handling processes upon the acknowledgment of allegations of suspected official misconduct etc.

Application:

HR policy applies to all Kingston Ltd employees, volunteers, contractors, consultants and others who exercise power or control resources for or on behalf of Kingston Ltd.

Delegation:

The "delegate" is as listed in the Kingston Ltd Human Resource Delegations manual as amended from time to time.

HR Policy for Fraud, Corruption and Mismanagement:

Developing the Policy:

The following points will explain about the development of the policy.

Obligations to Disclose Official Misconduct:

This policy describes that all employees of Kingston Ltd should disclose fraud, corruption and mismanagement. This obligation is also reflected in memorandum of association of the Kingston Ltd.

The Kingston Ltd (Code of Conduct) also extends this obligation to include volunteers, contractors, consultants and others who exercise power or control resources for or on behalf of Kingston Ltd.

Reporting Official Misconduct: (Requirements)

This policy states that any material printed is regarded as an uncontrolled copy. It is the responsibility of the person printing the document to refer frequently to the Kingston Ltd. In the same way all employees of Kingston Ltd, volunteers, contractors, consultants and others who exercise power or control resources for or on behalf of Kingston Ltd have a responsibility to report such matters that a person suspects involves, or may involve, official misconduct.

Disciplinary action may be taken against an employee who fails to report acts or suspicions of official misconduct.

Official Misconduct:

It is connected with the performance of an employee's duties that is dishonest or lacks impartiality, involves a breach of trust or is a misuse of officially obtained information or material required.

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The conduct could, if proven be a criminal offence or serious enough to justify dismissal. Conduct which may constitute official misconduct includes and is not limited to:

Misuse of Kingston Ltd assets and/or equipment e.g. vehicles, fuel cards, mobile phones, computers etc.

Unauthorised release or disclosure of confidential and/or patient information.

Conflicts of interest including contracting and/or approving a contract on behalf of Kingston Ltd with a firm or business in which an interest is held.

Assault in the workplace of fellow employees, patients or other persons.

Utilising the Kingston Ltd computer network for accessing or transmitting pornographic images.

Misuse of Kingston Ltd property.

Other serious misconduct which would tend to bring Kingston Ltd into disrepute and which is likely to result in disciplinary action, including dismissal.

Causing, or attempting to cause or conspiring to cause, detriment to another person because (or in the belief that) another person has made or may make a public interest.

Wilful neglect which may be defined as malicious or reckless conduct. Official Misconduct and related matters are defined in sections.

Conducting a private business during working hours and/or utilising Kingston Ltd resources.

Theft and/or fraudulent dealings of the property / possessions of Kingston Ltd patients.

Referral to the Crime and Misconduct Commission:

General of Kingston Ltd to refer allegations of suspected official misconduct to the (CMC) Crime and Misconduct Commission, Area General Managers, Clinical Chief Executive Officers, District Managers, Executive Directors and state wide divisional heads (Executive Managers) who are made aware of allegations of suspected official misconduct must refer those matters to the Director-General, via the Director, Ethical Standards Unit. Area General Managers, District managers and Branch Directors are not to report allegations of suspected official misconduct directly to the CMC.

Requirements for Reporting Official Misconduct:

The Director, Ethical Standards Unit is to ensure all complaints of alleged official misconduct; theft, fraud etc are assessed and referred to the CMC. Ethical Standards Unit may conduct preliminary inquiries to establish the bona fides of a complaint.

In exceptional circumstances, the Director-General may authorise the use of covert investigative techniques, such as covert video surveillance or the engagement of private investigators.

Crime and Misconduct Commission Action:

The CMC will advise the Director-General on whether the CMC will proceed to investigate the allegations of suspected official misconduct or whether the matter will be referred back to Kingston Ltd for appropriate action.

Applying the Policy:

Awareness of Official Misconduct Obligations:

Executive Managers are to ensure that all employees and volunteers are made aware of their obligations contained in this policy. For consultants, contractors, and agency staff this responsibility rests with the External service Provider, not Queensland Health.

Reporting Matters Involving Suspected Official Misconduct:

An employee who observes or is made aware of any act which may involve fraud, corruption, administration or other conduct which the employee suspect involves, or may involve, official misconduct, has a duty to immediately report those matters to their immediate line manager. Volunteers and others who are not employees are to report such matters to the person who supervises their work.

An employee may report matters of suspected official misconduct directly to the Executive Managers where the disclosure involves allegations in relation to the conduct of their immediate line manager. The line manager is required to immediately notify the Executive Managers of the receipt of such allegations. The Executive Managers must then immediately refer the allegations to the Director, Ethical Standards Units.

Internal Investigations:

Where an internal departmental investigation is to proceed, this will be undertaken by the Ethical Standards Unit, unless determined otherwise by the Director, Ethical Standard Unit. Such investigations will be undertaken in accordance with the Investigations Procedures Manual.

HR policy to reduce Employees Turnover:

Attendance and Absenteeism Policy for Kingston Ltd:

A proper attendance and absenteeism policy can help Kingston ltd's business to ensure employee's attendance to complete work. In accordance with the nature of work at Kingston Ltd, the attendance and absenteeism policy may describes the number of days on which employees can be absent from work. A good administrative attendance and absenteeism policy is bifacial for business success and growth.

Supervisor's Role in Managing Absenteeism:

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In most of the cases employees who are absent from work are not ill. For many firms and organisations, it is responsibility of immediate supervisors to mange absenteeism at primarily level. It is known to these supervisors that the specific employees are absent from work. These supervisors are will aware of actual facts about the individual's absence and are capable of handling these types of situations perfectly at initial stages.

Employee Attendance Policy on Hourly Bases:

Outstanding attendance is an expectation of all employees of Kingston Ltd. Attendance on daily bases is mainly important for hourly based employees whose customers and co-workers have the on-time product shipping and delivery. Emergency on-time alternatives are made available to employees for such unorganised events as immediate family problem, personal illness and doctor appointments.

HR Policy for Professional & Personal Development:

Introduction:

Kingston Ltd offers a wide range of opportunities for employees to undertake personal and professional development. Kingston Ltd support's development activities such as acquisition skills, competences and knowledge which are related to the changing demands of the higher professional environment, the individual's current and future roles within Kingston Ltd, and to statutory requirements enhance the individual's capacity to contribute effectively to Kingston Ltd's strategic and operational plans and objectives, and foster individual development and improve personal effectiveness and satisfaction.

Since Kingston Ltd does not have the resources to overtake all the development activities that are required to be identified as desirable falling within these categories and development.

Need of Identifying Development:

Kingston Ltd's strategic objectives are pursued through:

Kingston Ltd's Human Resources Strategy, taken hold in June 2002, which reflects the essential role of PPD in meeting the goals and challenges faced by Kingston Ltd, Kingston Ltd's strategic, operating and staff development plans.

Such documents are easily available to all employees of Kingston Ltd and provide the overall framework within which the employee's personal and professional development needs are to be considered.

The need of development for all the employees should be reviewed at least once in a year as part of the Personal Development and Review process.

Professional & Personal Development: (Resourcing)

The fundamental resource to support personal and professional development is the employees Development Fund. Every firm and Organization maintains an annual employee's development plan, which covers for both individual and collective development needs. These types of employee's development programmes required special allocation of funding.

Kingston Ltd always planned to set the 2% of net profit to finance personal and professional development programmes. The time value allocated by the employees for development activities is not depending upon the targeted resources.

Personal & Professional Development: (Activities)

Personal and Professional activities which are used most frequently are listed below.

It is the responsibility of the Manager of Kingston Ltd that he has to ensure that all arrangements are made for the induction of the new recruitments. The Human Resources Manager organises a business-wide introduction day for new recruitment at least once a term. Induction at the Company's managerial level should contain general introduction to the work of the company or provide briefing for a specific role of the job. Where it is necessary he should inform about the company's development policies. The Human Resources manager also has to prepare and hand out the induction pack to employees for their guidance.

The Manager of Kingston Ltd may also ensure employees attendance at qualification courses, conferences and seminars.

A full range of development events is organised within Kingston Ltd for employees Learning Development. New policies hand let and the broachers for annual activities organised by company are also published and delivered to the staff. All the staffs have to ensure the company for their attendance in these activities and training programmes. Kingston Ltd will have to liable to meet the expenses according to its own policies.

Only the manager of the Kingston Ltd is authorised to approve the leaves for the personal and professional development programmes.

Employees are may be allowed to participate in training of different development projects. Positions for employees to enrol in advanced responsibilities or projects to enhance their experience. Advanced work activities can be assigned which an employee can be asked to perform individually or as a team worker, and which can involve partial or complete absence from their routine work and activity. It may be possible for employee to expand their responsibilities of their positions, but this should be in a proper and appropriate way as can make the position as reshape and reassign the responsibilities and also can change the grading of the position.

A member of staff of Kingston Ltd may be seconded to another part of organization or to another organization. For this purpose the staff should have to take any approval from the manager of the Kingston Ltd.

Research is like the life blood of an organization and it is only made for the development of the company and as well as for the development of the staff. This is the company's policy that it should also have to apart a portion of profit for the research and development programmes.

Professional approach can help in a range of goals, objectives and needs of Kingston Ltd and can be a developmental activity for an employee. Special procedures and policies can also be determined describing the framework of responsibilities.

Basically human nature need changes over the period of time to perform the tasks effectively. It may also of rotation of job changing the work nature of staff or transfer him from one department to another within the organization or to the other branch/ section of the company.

HR Open Door Policy:

Open door policy means all the staff members should have freedom to share his opinions and suggestions. Managers of the Kingston Ltd always ready to hear and solve the problems of his staff members. Your organisation has adopted an Open Door Policy for all employees, which means literally, that every manager's door is open to every employee. Our open door policy means that employees have easy and safe approach to talk with any manager at any time about anything.

Responsibilities of an Open Door Policy:

In Kingston Ltd you have the responsibility to address your issues with a manager. If you have any problem, complaint, suggestion, or an observation, Kingston Ltd's managers want to hear from you. By knowing your views, the company is able to change their policies to improve, to register complaints, and to foster employee concerns, understanding of the processes, and decisions taken by the Management.

Pursuing of an Open Door Policy:

Many of the problems should be solved in coordination with company's manager or with the immediate supervisor; this can be encouraged as the first effort from employee's site to solve a problem.

An open door policy also means something that any employee can also raise his issue, problem before the higher management or to HR department it doesn't matter how an employee approaches the problem, complaint, idea or suggestion, but he may find his managers at all stages of the organization would like to explain or to solve his problem.

Benefits of an Open Door Policy:

In case of resolving the problems, supervisor and managers benefit by gaining valuable insight into possible problems with different existing ways, methods and procedures. Whereas there could not be an appropriate answer or solutions to every issue or problem, Kingston Ltd's employees have the opportunity all the time utilizes the open door policy to demand the solutions for their issues and problems.

Comparison of HR Policies of two different Organisations:

Skin Craft Company:

The skin craft leather manufacturing company is based in India and doing business very well. I have conversation with its Human Resource manager regarding their HR policies.

Absent Policy:

The company has many points regarding policy which are cleared and all employees are fully aware of these policies. Company always publish its policies and give written pack to its employees. The company have about 28 paid leaves in one accounting period and to take out these employees should have to make request in writing before 20 working days. The staffs are also allowed to take 6 unpaid/ sick leaves within one accounting year. But if the staff member has any emergency they should have to inform his team leader immediately that he can make some arrangements to cover the shift.

If any of staff member is fail to inform his team member for his absents then he will be worn verbally for three times but after third time if he is doing same then he will receive written warning and after this process of rustication will starts.

Professional & Personal Development Policy:

The company always make consideration for the personal and professional development of the staff members. For this purpose company has to maintain a separate fund to finance this programme. To maintain this fund company has allocated 2% of the net profit. Company also have some contract with training institutions for the purpose of personal and professional development of its staff members. Job rotations are also made for this purpose. Company also bear expenses for its employees for their training to enhance their personal and professional skills.

The company also send its staff to attend seminars, and other business gatherings for the training and professional programmes the company may give full or partial leave to its employees to attend the coaching classes. Thais is the open offer for all the employees to attend training programmes. But the most experienced and educated employees are recommended for such programmes and after completion of the programmes the person will be promoted on the analyzing of learning.

Open Door Policy:

Skin Craft company also have strong policy regarding the open door policy which has many aspects, all the staff member are allowed to share his opinions and views regarding the working and development of company, if any staff member has also any problem regarding its work or even its personal he will always well come by the management of the company and management is liable not only hear his problems and has to find out the solution which is convenient for him.

The managers also have to make sure those employees the he will not disclose these issues to any others person all the information will be kept confidentially. The Skin craft has this policy and this is very best policy to build the relationship between management and lower level staff. But unfortunately the company is failed to obtain the desired results because it cannot implement this policy effectively. The reason behind it that in like such countries the low level staff hesitate to communicate with its bosses frequently and most of the time they do not have direct access to its boss.

Mainland Leather Garment Company:

The mainland leather Garment Company is doing its business in China and is well established and well known it not only produces products but also supply its products into different regions of the world. I have telephonic conversation with its HR manager regarding its policies.

Absentees Policy

The company have 24 paid holidays within one accounting period if any staff have to utilize these holidays he have to fill written holiday request form and should have to book holidays before seven working days. Company has also unpaid/sick leave policy and eight unpaid/sick policies are allowed within one year. But if any person is getting sickness or any other emergency he should have to contact his immediate boss for the emergency so that he can divide or make any other substitute to cover the shift.

Company also have the policy that he will announce bonuses to that person who has no or less numbers of sick leaves which are announced to reduce the sick leaves. If nay of person is fail to inform about his sick leave from work on time he will be warned. And if he commits same jobs three time respectively they after three verbal formal warnings he will get written warnings. This policy benefits both company and employees. Where company has reduced and assured the attendance of employees for smooth running of the business on the other hand the employee will get bonus.

Professional & Personal Development Policy:

Mainland leather Garments Company has also predefined policies regarding personal and professional developments of the employees that the company has to maintain separate funds for the training purpose. It is very necessary for the company's growth and development where it concentrates on the adoption of new and latest technology it should also have to organize some training programmes for its staffs.

The human are real assets for the company and for the time being as new techniques are invented the company has to fund its employees to learn these techniques for this purpose the company set a 9% of profit. These training classes will be conducted indoor and outdoor and to accomplish this task the company will release or give leave partially or fully leave which will be paid. Job rotation will also make for the purpose of developments. These job rotations may be within the company that means from one section to other sections or from one department to another department

Open Door Policy:

Mainland Leather Garments Company also practicing the open door policy and all the staff members are fully aware of these policies they also know their duties and responsibilities within the organization. All the staff members are openly invited to share their views and reviews for the development of the business and if these are convenient for the company then they will consider. If any staff member has difficulty regarding work he can share it to the managements and management is liable to sort out the things and will try to find out the best solutions. The company is practicing this policy very effectively and due to this a good atmosphere has established between the employees and managements and company is growing with good growth rate.

Conclusion:

In the light of all above I analyse that the policies of an organisation are made with accordance of the nature of business, nature of work and culture of the region. The HR managers are putting their best efforts to make such policies which are beneficial for the company and for the staff as well. But the most important thing is that how they implement the policies either they are able to implement the policies effectively or not if they are successful in implementing the policies effectively then the company will flourish according to set targets and if they are not able to do so then all the efforts are useless.

The HR manager should be enough competent that he will make right policies for the organizations and also implement them effectively. And he should also consider opinions of other staff.

Task: (02)

Organizational Structure:

Organizational Structure can be defined as the way or method through use of a hierarchy that a group, business, organization, people or objects collaborate to achieve success on one common goal. (3)

Organizational Structure Design Strategy:

As it is a hard task to start a new organization, but it doesn't matter how large or small the firm may be. They all need a good structure to move on in a better way. To do so you must need to have the information about strategies, designs, and implementation of different types of organizational structure. Depending upon the type of business you are about to start. 

Your company's structure will act as the backbone and concerning decision making and organising other processes. Before starting your business you should decide that which structural system you want to implement in your company. If each employee in the organization knows what he or she is supposed to do, there will be fewer chances for bad or poor judgment. Infect by organising the management in a proper way can lead the company to take accurate decision which can affect the work in a better as well as best way. Proper choice of structure and implementation can come up with a great result.

An Organization Chart: (Example)

Corporate Theory of Organizational Structure:

First thing is to determining that which type of organizational structure you want to implement i.e. Functional and Hierarchical. Then, you should develop a strategy to start organizing your firm, business, company, or group. In which way you want to implement the structure keeping in view the jobs to be allocated to the employees in each section of the organisation, once you have decided about that then you can have different options by considering which you can achieve better results.

Choice of the best structures those suites your organisational requirements can get you the best result and leads you to success. By implementing in the right way, by introduction the right policies, by posting the right people in right place you could make a group or team like networking of different departments and can get best results in the end.

Organizational Culture

Gareth Morgan has described organizational culture as: "The set of the set of beliefs, values, and norms, together with symbols like dramatized events and personalities which represents the unique character of an organization, and provides the context for action in it and by it."(4)

Following points can describes the element of organizational culture:

Unprofessional language should not be used

Customs and rituals.

Atmosphere, the feelings evoked by the way members cross pond with each other and with their environment.

Logos or signatures may be unconscious but can be found embodied in other cultural elements.

Essential strengths of the organizational culture approach:

For the effective and smooth running of business you should implement such policies which are familiar to the culture of the surrounding community.

It requires leaderships to acknowledge the impact of their behaviour on the organization's culture.

We choose and operate in environmental domains according to how we construct conceptions of who we are and what we are trying to do. And we act in relation to those domains through the definitions we impose on them. The beliefs and ideas that organizations hold about who they are, what they are trying to do, and what their environment is like have a much greater tendency to realize themselves than is usually believed. (5)

Application of Two Models:

Guest Model of HRM:

This type of model that was introduced by David Guest has six dimensions of analysis for HRM. It summarizes the HRM strategies, HRM practices, HRM outcomes, behaviour outcomes, performance outcomes, and financial outcomes. The idea of this model is based on the fundamental elements of the HRM approach, such as commitment that have a direct relationship with valued business consequences.

HRM strategies, the HRM manager should have to develop such strategies which are very understandable and practicable for the employees they should have not faced any difficulty in the adoption of the strategy, he should also helps and should have proper check and balance that what are the employees views and concerns about these strategies these should not be contravention to the culture of the society. After practicing the HRM strategies the HRM manager should also have determines the outcomes of the strategies he should analyse that either these policies are producing required results or not.

Compensation and Rewards:

The traditional Compensation and Reward system is still observable in the organization. HRM models have potential for informing the understanding of how organizations design and HRM systems. The compensation and rewards might be use and also be more effective in the employment relationships, strategy, and management that can result for a better understanding on strategic human resource management systems.

Business outcomes, Rewards of work and Employee outcomes are inter related with each other that means if the employees are talented and performing well and getting proper rewards of their services then they will do their best for the growth of business and their sincere efforts and jobs satisfactions are causing the growth of business and new inventions are made and ultimately the profit of the business will become high. If the profit of the business is high then the company declare some bonuses and benefits to its employees.

Task: (03)

Human Resource Policies of Kingston Ltd:

HR department develop many policies for the human resource but we have described three policies in details their critical analysis and recommendation as well.

Paid Holiday Policy:

The company has clear and definite policy regarding holidays. All national days, bank holidays boxing day any memorial day, Christmas day are to be considered as holidays the employee will get full payment on the holidays and if anyone is working on that day he will receive one and half pay and but to get full payment the employees must have to do work one day before and one day after then the paid holiday to accrue the holiday payment.

Critical analysis:

This is the perfect policy from all aspect but the only one weak point is that the normal employees who may work on these holidays are getting one full and one half pay rates which are objectionable. They may prefer to stay home instead of working only for one half pay rate due to this the working of business may effect. If all other employees are getting full pay without doing anything so the staff that is doing work on the holidays should get double pay than normal.

Recommendations:

Human Resource Manager should also take serious action regarding these matters. He should revised only one point of this policy that the employees that are on the rotas should be doubled pay then the normal on the holidays. Then they can get more satisfactions and they should be asked before final rotas. Once the employees of an organization are satisfied with their jobs and with the policies of the company they will do their best for the development of the company.

Recruitment policy:

The recruitment and selection is the main prime element of the success of organizations. The management should be very careful regarding this matter for the recruitment the Kingston Company has following points in this policy

Is consistent and fair;

Is non-discriminatory form the aspects of sex, races, religion, disability, age etc?

The new selected candidates should have to assure the practice of rules and regulations of the company policies.

If someone is violate the law he will be prosecuted.

The probability period is of six month and company can take his position with a prior notice.

Critical analysis:

The probability period should be of three months. The six month period is very long and the employee may not satisfy with the policy. This is only the point which is objectionable for the new recruitments. The six month the person having no job security become mentally disturbed and this may affect on his productivity.

Recommendation:

One month is enough is for the new employees to understand the company's atmosphere and policies and once he became familiar with the working environment of the company he will try to his best for the company and for the company once the person can understand the company's procedures and policies, the management is able to analyse his performance and on the behalf of the performance they can offer him contract to sign.

Training and development policy:

For the training and development purpose the Kingston Ltd has following aspects.

All staff should have to participate in accessible and relevant training and development which is economical in the use of their time within the normal working days

Experience learning methods which take account of individual learning styles;

All the employees should have to Participate in training which takes due account of prevailing legislation.

Critical analysis:

The probability period should be of three months. The six month period is very long and the employee may not satisfy with the policy. This is only the point which is objectionable for the new recruitments. The six month the person having no job security become mentally disturbed and this may affect on his productivity.

Recommendations:

In this policy all the employees should have to participate but before conducting training programmes the management should have to take the survey of staff on performance basis and they should have to categorised them into different groups for example the staff who is extra ordinary should have placed into different group and the staff which takes more time in learning new things should be placed into different groups. Through this we can save time and money as well.