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The leadership styles that I would like to mention in the essay are Democratic/Participative Leadership and Autocratic Leadership. Democratic Leaders are those leaders who make the final decision where as they include their group in the decision making process. They encourage creativity, and team members are often highly engaged in projects and decisions. This leadership style is very open and collegial style of running a team where ideas move freely amongst the group and are discussed openly. Every team member is given a seat at the table and the discussion is relatively free-flowing. This style is needed in dynamic and rapidly changing environments where very little can be taken as a constant.
There are various benefits of democratic leadership. Team members tend to have high job satisfaction and are productive because they're more involved in decisions. This style also helps develop people's skills. Team members feel in control of their destiny, so they're motivated to work hard by more than just a financial reward.
The downside of democratic leadership is that it can often hinder situations where speed or efficiency is essential. For instance, during a crisis, a team can waste valuable time gathering people's input. Another downside is that some team members might not have the knowledge or expertise to provide high quality input.
Autocratic Leaders are those leaders who have complete power over their team. Staff and team members have little opportunity to make suggestions, even if these would be in the team's or the organization's best interest. The benefit of autocratic leadership is that it's incredibly efficient. Decisions are made quickly, and work gets done. This leadership style is used best in crises where decisions have to be made quicker, without any dispute.
The downside is that most people resent being treated this way. Therefore, autocratic leadership often leads to high levels of absenteeism and high staff turnover. However, the style can be effective for some routine and unskilled jobs: in these situations, the advantages of control may outweigh the disadvantages.
The leaders I would like to mention in this essay are A. P. J.Â Abdul Kalam &
Atal bihari Vajpayee.
A.P. J.Â Abdul Kalam was born on 15th October 1931 at Rameshwaram - Tamil Nadu in India. He had a secured childhood both materially and emotionally. Kalam is a strict disciplarinian, a complete vegetarian and teetotaller Dr. Kalam went to Schwartz High School at Ramanathapuram. After completing his BSc from St. Joseph's college Trichy, he joined Madras Institute of Technology (MIT), for studying Aeronautical Engineering. APJ. Abdul Kalam, was the eleventh President of India, serving from 2002 to 2007. During his term as The President, he was popularly known as the People's President, and voted "India's Best President". In India he is highly respected as a scientist and as an engineer. In my opinion APJ Abdul Kalam follows Democratic/Participative Leadership.
Atal Bihari Vajpayee was born on 25th December, 1924 at Shinde Cantt in Madhya Pradesh, India. He is the founder member of the 'Jansangh" then political party founded by R.S.S. After entering the politics of the country, he climbed up step by step and now he is the spotless meticulous statesman of the Indian politics. He is the first Prime Minister of India who is regarded as non-controversial heart-throb of the country. He is held in respect not only by his party men but also by other members of the Indian polity.Â In my opinion, Atal Bihari Vajpayee is an Autocratic leader.
A.P. J.Â Abdul Kalam was the first scientist to occupy the Rashtrapati Bhavan. "He is a man, who has taken unto himself, the task of changing the destiny of India. He is a man with a vision." His vision is to make India, a developed country by 2020. He is well known for his speeches. His speeches are very much motivating and inspiring. Once when he gave a speech in Hyderabad, it was appreciated by the Indian republic and was been published in internet as 'a must read speech for every Indian'.
Atal Bihari Vajpayee stands out to be a distinguished man in respect of his choice of words, effective pauses in between, sweet touch of sarcasm and humour, the style of speaking and above all, the quality of judging the moods of his listeners. He can understand the nature and attitude of the listeners and can change his speech accordingly.
I can say A.P.J Abdul kalam as a participative leader where as Atal Bihari Vajpayee as Autocratic Leader. Both leaders held very high and reputable positions in Indian Politics. Former was the Indian President where as latter was the Indian Prime minister at some point of time.
Kalam with his team was assigned in the task of preparing satellite launch vehicle and Rocket Assisted take off system. In 1968, Prof. Sarabhai made a visit to his plant, Kalam asked him to activate the pyro system through a timer circuit, but it did not work. This incident taught Kalam, the best way to prevent errors is to anticipate them so that you will be having a back up option. The failure of timer circuit led birth of a rocket engineering laboratory. Also, Kalam regards Sarabhai as the father of Indian science who generated leadership qualities in his team and inspired them with ideas and examples. During the research, Kalam always motivated his colleagues. His word was the final word but he always encouraged his team members in the decision making process. This encourages the team to be more relaxed and make them feel as important as each others are.
Shri Vajpayee is the first figure, who addresses the U.N.O. in Hindi on 4thÂ October, 1977. He was adorned with "Padma Vibhushan" by the Indian Govt. on 25thÂ January, 1992. This was followed by another honour bestowed upon him by the U.P.Â The following words of his go to prove that he is a true humanitarian and a very sensitive soul:
"O Lord! Never lift me up to such a mighty height as to make me forget to embrace my fellow-beings".
Vajpayee was a Member of Parliament for over four decades, Vajpayee served as India's prime minister from March 1998 to May 2004. WithÂ Yashwant SinhaÂ asÂ finance ministerÂ on his side, he transformed the economic policy framework wholesale. Telecommunications, civil aviation, banking,Â insurance, public sector enterprises, foreign trade and investment, direct and indirect taxes, agricultural produce marketing, small-scale industries reservation, urban land ceilings, highways, rural roads, elementary education, ports, electricity, petroleum prices andÂ interest ratesÂ were all subject to far-reaching reforms during his tenure. He followed Autocratic Leadership where he has the utmost power of decision and his team had much less opportunity to talk.
In the essay, I have discussed about two different leaders- A. P. J.Â Abdul Kalam & Atal bihari Vajpayee and their leadership styles. The leadership styles- Democratic & Autocratic leadership styles are compared and contrasted with related to their work.
Word count- 1225
Essay 2: Leadership and Cultural awareness
Cultural awareness refers to the recognition that not all people are from the same cultural background. It also refers to recognising people have different values, different behaviours and different approaches to life. It says we should all be treated equally, no matter what culture you are and where you belong. You should be aware of others cultures. This could include learning about traditional beliefs, remedies, meanings of words, phrases, gestures, customs, significant days or holidays, activities and rituals. Lots of different cultures have different languages and rituals. Cultural awareness includes continually developing your awareness of your own and others' cultures.Â Cultural awareness becomes central when we have to interact with people from other cultures. Becoming aware of our cultural dynamics is a difficult task because culture is not mindful to us. Our experiences, our values and our cultural background lead us to see and do things in a certain way.
The Treaty of Waitangi is an important agreement that was signed by representatives of the British Crown and MÄori in 1840. The purpose of the Treaty was to enable the British settlers and the MÄori people to live together in New Zealand under same governance The Treaty aimed to protect the rights of MÄori to keep their land, forests, fisheries and treasures while handing over sovereignty to the English.Â
One of the main issues that New Zealand leaders are facing is Cross cultural communication everywhere- at work places, institutions and at public places.
Lack of proper communication always breeds a sense of mistrust among people, and that mistrust of others often leads to unnecessary hostility. "The most important thing is to remain open-minded and respectful in all cross-cultural encounters, so that we can achieve a workable consensus while retaining our own distinctiveness in our interactions". The companies should be aware about their values, expectations and practices while communicating with each other.
Here are few possible situations which can happen in a work place, institution or any other public place.
In many offices, there are managers who are Kiwis where as the sub ordinates are Chinese, Koreans, and Indians and so on. In most of the cases, either one of them mostly finds problem in communication with each other. The reasons could be the accent/slang of the person, the language barrier between them. As New Zealand is Multi cultural society, people from various parts of the world come to live, study, and work.
The same situation could happen in schools or at public places as well. For example, a bus driver is not able to understand what the passenger is trying to convey. The reason being the passenger is Chinese. She cannot speak English, the same with the driver too- he can't speak Chinese too.
In a school, student is not able to understand the teacher because the teacher is Indian and the student is Korean. So the same communication barriers are occurring there as well.
Therefore the main reason for the confusion is the cross cultural communication/multi cultural interaction. In my view, there is no equality in the ways of communication. Treaty of Waitangi is all about equality.
In my opinion the New Zealand leaders should be aware about language barriers among the different employees and finally as a result, leaders could land up by conducting a
Movie week for all staff
More coaching on the global language - English as a part of company requirement (as they are living in New Zealand, it is very essential to know English)
Some training to motivate the staff and avoid the inequality among the staff.
Use of expressions/words that others are not familiar with.
Misunderstanding of what is being said.
Communication breakdown due to no common language.
Overcoming Language barriers
Use of charts, gestures, drawings or facial expressions.
Try and use words which most people understand.
Re phrasing/ translating.
Essay 3 Influences on Leadership
Â Vodafone is a leading global player in mobile telecommunications. It operates in over 26 countries worldwide. VodafoneÂ is a leading global player in mobile telecommunications. It operates in over 26 countries worldwide. As one of the world's largest telecommunication company, Vodafone has a significant role in enhancing people's lives. Also, we understand the fact that we have got significant role to play in managing the business carefully and responsibly. That's the reason Risk assessment activities and interactions with all the stakeholders across the world.
In this essay on Influences of Leadership, I am writing about Ethics and Ethical practice of Vodafone NZ. VodafoneÂ has grown rapidly since it was originally formed in 1984. It has responsibilities to its 60,000 staff and 151 million customers and shareholders. Russell Stanners is the CEO of Vodafone. Â It is New Zealand's largestÂ mobile phoneÂ operator, based in Auckland, and was formed in 1998, after Vodafone purchasedÂ BellSouth's New Zealand operations. The company aims to continue to grow. VodafoneÂ operates in a competitive market; its competitors also want toÂ grow. Vodafone invested millions of dollars in 3G network, same time maintaining 2G networks and are improving capacity in congested urban areas.
Vodafone has consistently illustrated and expressed its inherent acceptance and understanding of principles of responsible governance. Vodafone has been a finalist in the top 200's ethical and responsible governance award category for the last 3 years. It is this year's winner both for it comprehensive and long term commitment to responsible governance and, in particular for actions in the past year that the award judges said "clearly reflects outstanding stakeholder commitment".Â
The company's actions demonstrated best practice responsible governance. Its actions:
â€¢ Were in response to stakeholder need
â€¢ Promoted accountability and reporting against stakeholder targetsÂ
â€¢ Involved working collaboratively across sectors to achieve a positive outcome
â€¢ Prompted an ethical decision to lobby for a change with negative commercial implications.
Vodafone's actions were a "unique response" to some negative aspects of its products on society. Code of Conduct and Business Principles were applied to a problem they faced and accepted that if they were to be consistent with their principles they needed to take a hard line on the use of mobiles in cars. It was, the judges said, "a responsible leadership position" to take.
Russell Stanners , the CEO of Vodafone says,
'The success of our business is underpinned by a strong commitment to ethical conduct. We expect our employees to uphold the high ethical standards set out in our Code of Conduct and our commitment also extends to our supply chain'.
Vodafone' success is based by strong commitment and ethical conduct. The various ethical approach of Vodafone is discussed below:
Setting High Standards: Vodafone code of conduct explain what is been expected by employees and the responsibilities of the company to people, partners and share holders, which requires employees to behave with honesty, integrity and fairness to ensure that they are working as per the code of conduct. Â Vodafone'sÂ Code of Ethical Purchasing sets out outlook for our suppliers, business partners, agents and any other third parties that Vodafone does business with.Â
Training: Training is given to all employees, staff across the group receiving regular communications, online refresher training, face to face sessions and team briefing on various aspects.
Reporting concerns: All the employees and contractors are expected to report any suspected breaches of company's code of conduct through 'speak up' process. Vodafone encourages the employees to speak up about the potential violations of the code to the line manager in the first instance or to 24 hour telephone external hotline. At all times, protection of innocent people remains the priority in Vodafone.
Taking Action: Vodafone investigates the concerns to resolve the issues promptly and take necessary disciplinary action. Any case of reported internal fraud or dishonesty will lead to severe consequences.
Anti-bribery: Zero tolerance approach to any form of bribery.
Proportionate procedures: The programme is managed centrally to make sure a reliable approach, but also allows each market to tailor the programme to address specific risks and meet local needs, through training for example.
Top- Level Commitment: The senior managers take an active role in implementing the programme. The Executive Committee receives regular updates on performance and progress from across the Group. A video was raised to create awareness of our Code of Conduct, with a specific focus on its anti-bribery requirements, is presented by our Chief Executive, Group HR Director and Group General Counsel.
Risk assessment: Each market has undertaken a risk assessment to identify and put in place anti-bribery procedures that are appropriate to its operating environment. This risk assessment is reviewed and restructured on an annual basis.
Word - 822
Total Word Count - 2870