The issues that lie within Change Management


Change management is a type of management which is the responsible for the change in company or organization.It is responsible for the change in projects of company.It might be change in form of structer,management and product.It is a process in which company must empowerment to accept the change in the product of company.In some cases it would be deal the chang in the company,s running project and responsible for the approval of it.

A-Introduce at least three approaches to change management,highlighting differences in each approach

1-Many change management models

there are many models which are the key source for change in company.There are three models would be given.There are many change management models,

Transition cycle

the most common one is the Kubler Ross transition (grief) cycle. Originally titled 'The 5 Stages of Receiving Catastrophic News' these stages are:

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Kubler Ross have given the theory according to the acadamic research.The root cause for theory would be provided by research in clinical enveroment.But later on the health of theory would be tested in management process.


For example,You are ready to go college,But you return to your car and take start.You are surprised that your car has a problem and could not startin,You must become traumatic situation,and tried to start again and again.


You try to start your car again and again.You have to chek all the systems of car and tried again.


You become anxious and project your anger on car


Realise that you are going to be late from college.


You are getting in tension.And woried about the problem.


On this stage,you will be able to realise that the problem with your car.

ADKAR model

ADKAR model for individual change management was developed by Prosci. This

model describes five required building blocks for change to be realized successfully on an individual level. The building blocks of the ADKAR Model include:

Awareness - of why the change is needed

Desire - to support and participate in the change

Knowledge - of how to change

Ability - to implement new skills and behaviors

Reinforcement - to sustain the change

John Kotter has set out an eight-step strategy for change management:

Establish a sense of urgency.

Create the guiding coalition.

Develop a vision and strategy.

Communicate the change vision.

Empower employees for broad-based action.

Generate short-term wins.

Consolidate gains and produce more change.

Anchor new approaches in the culture

Lewin;s change management model.

Kurt lIewin purposed a model for organisation change in the 1950s which has become a cornestone for understanding organisational change.his model is often referred to as the unfreeze-Transition-Refreeze model, comparing orgnisational change with the physical changes in the shapes of ablock of ice.

It is relatively easy model to understand, requiring the user only to recognize the three distinct states of change.once this is done, it is possible to implement the change required.Mangers start by creating a motivation to change-unfreeze.They then move through the change process by promoting communication and empowering employees to adopt new working pratices where necessary-transition.The process then ends when manger return the organisation to a sense of post-change stabbility necessary to creat the confidence to move forward-refreeze.

2-Evaluate the approachesyou have chosen above by relating them to various examples of management change

2.1 Business use of Change Management Models

In business I have found that while the Kubler Ross grief model is a valuable change management model, staff and managers find it 'difficult' to understand and relate to… so I often use a simplified version with only four stages:




Acceptance or Commitment

The graphical version is listed below. I occasionally change the last one from commitment to acceptance depending on the 'depth' of change, and the reaction I see in participants. I encourage the 'users' of the model create their own words. When they own the model they are more likely to use it.

2.2 Why change management fails (Kotter)

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In his book "Force for Change: How Leadership Differs from Management", Kotter lists the following as the main reasons why change fails:

Allowing to much complexity

Failing to build a substantial coalition

Understanding the need for a clear vision

Failing to clearly communicate the vision

Permitting roadblocks against the vision

Not planning and getting short-term wins

Declaring victory too soon

Not anchoring changes Select a number of stratagic intervention techinques and assess their value by discussing them with refference to your chosen organization

3 Select a number of stratagic intervention techinques and assess their value by discussing them with refference to your chosen organization

3.1 Change Process/ Methodology:

Following the above change model Tesco strategic management will firstly develop the project team for the initiation of the oyster card project. A team/ project leader will be selected depending upon he required skills and experience. A team leader will create a clear vision about the installation of oyster top up machines at TESCO retails outlets in UK. After creating a comprehensive vision he project team will develop a concrete Project Plan and utilized all the available resources of TESCO including human resource. Will take assistance from the current IT team to link the oyster top up machines through networking and execute the necessary IT support to the newly developed project. Furthermore, work force would be hired and trained for the project and finally a test run would be executed for successful launch. After a launch, an appropriate monitoring will be done to review the short comes of the project and continuous feed back will be taken from the stake holders i-e employees and customers. In this scenario a desired state will be achieved and result could be seen in terms of revenue.

As far as TESCO is concern, its driving force is leading position and rapport in retail industry and availability of huge finances along with structured frame work of outlets. In additions technology advancement and skilled work force is also considerable driving force in TESCO, however, established work patterns, complacency and lower profit margin would be resistance occurring factors. But driving forces at TESCO are stronger as compared to restraining forces.

3.2 Stakeholder Analysis and WIFM

In their book Organisational Transitions: Managing Complex Change (1987) Beckhard and Harris describe and illustrate two techniques for analysing relevant sources of energy.

They analyse respectively the 'sources and potency of forces for change', and the 'readiness and capability' of individuals and groups to enact change.

First, the nature of the change demanded must be specified, using tools and techniques associated with environmental and organisational analysis.

Then all the forces for change, both inside the organisation and external to it, are listed along one axis of a grid.

On the other axis the potency of the forces is indicated, as high, medium or low.