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UK has always been a favorite destination for students seeking good quality higher education. The tradition still continues and the country still attracts a large number of foreign students seeking higher education. The advancement in technology has brought about a sea change in the way Information is gathered and used. The Internet unleashed the reservoir of information from the nook and corners of the globe for millions across continents. At one place, where the global exposure and ease in access of information opened many vistas for the knowledge thirsty students to enrich themselves with knowledge without limits, the same means and sources of information has also been used by many in unscrupulous methods-to indulge into unfair academic practices.
This essay is an attempt to critically analyze the problem of Plagiarism and other unfair practices among International students of the Universities of UK and tries to suggest measures for checking them. An attempt has been made to view these practices in both cultural as well as educational perspectives.
Plagiarism may be defined as using others ideas and words and presenting them as one's own without clearly acknowledging the source of that information, paraphrasing someone else's writing, providing incorrect references with the intention of cheating and collusion. (Maurer H, Kappe F and Zaka B)
Plagiarism is a larger phenomenon, which is attributed to both domestic as well as international students. But the understanding and perception about plagiarism among the students from different cultural settings differ a lot. Most of the Eastern cultures considers the knowledge as a common property, which is free to be used for anybody in need, and hence the concept of paying royalty for the use of that particular piece of knowledge each time is not considered necessary. This is the reason why the approach is very much evident in the students from these countries who comes to UK for higher studies after completing their graduate courses from their respective countries. A survey conducted under guidance of Mr.Zaigham Mahmood of the University of Derby, among the Students of his university reveals that about 75 % of the Asian students never even heard of the term before coming to UK for post graduate studies.
Maurer et al  categorizes plagiarism as:
Complete Plagiarism: Here the student copy words and ideas from different books or internet, with some reference being given. This qualifies to be plagiarism because the work does not contain a real effort by the student. . (Andrew Northedge 2005) Partial Plagiarism in this type of plagiarism directly copied things and unacknowledged things are included in the assignment.
Accidental: due to lack of knowledge of plagiarism or understanding of the need of correct referencing.
Unintentional: Many times students plagiarize not knowing that they are doing the same.
Intentional: Where student deliberately plagiarize with an intention to deceive, thinking that his act will not come to the notice of invigilator.
Word Switch: It happens, when one copy of ideas or sentences into the assignment and add some words to it to twist the author is another type of plagiarism. It is a good idea to give the gist of the concerned information than to do copy and past.
Self plagiarism: plagiarizing from one's own previously published work.
(Zaigham Mahmood, 2009)
Apart from this, many students finds it difficult even to paraphrase a given sentence. The following two examples illustrates the difference between them:
The automobile revolutionized the American way of life. The earliest significant change was for farming families, who were no longer isolated. The automobile enabled them to drive to towns and cities comfortably and conveniently. Another important change was that people had the freedom to live and work wherever they wanted. In fact, people could work in a busy metropolitan city and drive home to the quiet suburbs. The final major change brought about by the automobile was the building of superhighways, suburbs, huge shopping centres, and many theme parks such as Disney World in Florida.
Source: University of Portsmouth, 2008, Academic Writing Skills, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth - page 19.
Invention of automobiles changed the way Americans live their lives in significant way. The country dwellers found themselves more connected with the main lands, and mobility became a matter of convenience. This automobile revolution was accompanied by a spur in the development of transport as well as entertainment infrastructure. As stated by University of Portsmouth, 2008
The accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere due to human activities will change the climate by enhancing the natural greenhouse effect, leading to an increase in the Earth's average surface temperature. This warming may be partially offset in certain regions where air pollution leads to high concentrations of small particles in the atmosphere that block sunlight.
Source: United Nations Environment Programme in Slaght, J. and Pallant, A. (2004) English for Academic Study: Writing: Source Book. Reading: Garnet Education.
Increased activities by human being that cause a rise in the green house gases in the atmosphere; causing increase in the median surface temperature on the earth. But even this increase in temperature is countervailed by the high engrossment of dust particles in the atmosphere, another effect of air pollution, which blocks sunlight thus reducing the heat on surface.
(Source: United Nations Environment Programme in Slaght, J. and Pallant, A. (2004)
The kind of students that each of the colleges attract has a great bearing on the number of students who plagiarize. The top notch college of the country attracts the best of the students from other countries, who comes to this country with the main purpose of learning. The admission and screening process of these colleges are designed in such a way that only serious and deserving candidates can manage to get admission in them. The students who clear all the entry barriers will be really serious about studies and enhancing their skills. They will put the best of their efforts in academic excellence and the quality of the thesis they produce will carry that mark in them. They hardly think of plagiarizing because their objective is not simply winning the degree certificate. But the trend is different in most of the other colleges. For many, getting a student visa is a first step to migrate to this country, at least for some years. For the ones who come to UK for this purpose, studies are never the prime objective and they find it difficult to cope with the way of handling academics. For many, it takes months to understand the dialect even and another some good time till they are able to write something with confidence. This period of initial perplexity is quite crucial for them and hence many try to do just anything to clear the assignments on time. Sometimes the means they employ may turn out to be dubious like plagiarizing.
Burnett (2002 cited Park, 2003) suggests that a number of international students do not enter British Higher Education Institutions with adequate study skills e.g. essay writing, referencing, note-taking. Biggs and Burville (2003) also highlight the difficulties faced by all students to whom English is a second language of putting source material into "their own words". Ryan (2000) also notes the problems faced by these students in understanding the differences between:
Quoting, Embedding sources and Plagiarism
A number of reasons were suggested by staff in a study by Roberston et al. (2000) to explain why international students may be tempted to plagiarise:
Difficulties comprehending the content of lectures
Difficulties understanding subject-specific terminology
High speed of delivery in lectures and seminars
Difficulties in interpreting the English language.
(Chris Keenan & Peter Jammenson,)
There are certain cultural factors to the reason why students from certain countries tend to plagiarize more. In many Eastern countries, the one with knowledge is highly respected and their knowledge becomes the common asset of the society. The very fact that they are quoted itself is a matter of pride for them and the very ability to quote extensively from other's work itself is considered as a sign of wisdom. That is the reason why most of the leaders and orators of oriental back ground are found quoting in volumes from religious and other books of epic proportions. In many cases students who had spend large part of their life spent in these countries find the dividing line between plagiarism and fair way of taking ideas and quotes very thin.
But when these students get international exposure, it is necessary that they follow the more accepted forms of academic practices and get themselves adjusted to it. They need to put extra efforts to reach up to the level of rest of the students and gain the maximum from the academic sessions they receive from the colleges.
The students from different cultural backgrounds and nationalities give the universities of UK a unique opportunity to grow into centre of excellence where the students of each of these universities gets exposure to different cultures, which students graduating from their respective countries often does not get. Universities of UK should take full advantage of this rich cultural multiplicity to provide the best academic experience for their students. But at the same instance, a strong message needs to be passed on to students of every country warning them of the consequence any sort of unfair academic practices.
The students need to be sensitized and made aware of the seriousness of the problem and unethical nature of Plagiarism and other unfair practices in the first hand.
The tutors also need to be sensitized about the cultural reasons why international students find it difficult to understand the concept of plagiarism at all and special care need to be put to make them not feel culturally hurt or ill treated.
The students need to be given first hand demonstration of source reference and mentioning of sources and quotations in the appropriate manner. Let them see how to do it and the tutor can assist her in doing so after giving a plan of assignment and mentioning a list of reference materials. Some quality training on paraphrasing will also be of great use.
Internationalization of curriculum is another important factor. Case studies and topics relevant in trans-national context need to be included so that students do not feel that what they are studying is complete foreign in nature. Internationalization of curriculum is more important than ever before now owing to the unprecedented growth and development being witnessed in information and communication technology which gave access to knowledge like never before.
Another way to make international students understand the western methods of writing reports and studies is to group them with local students in the initial days in the college itself and assign group tasks. Strict guidance should be given regarding the expected results and let the students interact with each other and bring out result in groups. This will help international students get acquainted with the western ways of doing academic assignment and they can imbibe the positives of it.
Plagiarism and other academic misconducts are endemic to academic circles in different countries in varying degrees.
Unfair practices from the part of students, to a great extend result from the poor perception of the students of the reason why they pursue a particular course of study. Many see an academic degree as a passport for a better paying job and hence do not realize the value of the true knowledge one ought to acquire during the course of one's academic life. This puts a great onus on the academicians, who should instill the value of knowledge and make the students realize through live examples that it is the knowledge that creates value for one and not the degree one holds. As a Vedic rhyme of Hindu mythology says
"It is knowledge that makes you humble;
The humbleness makes you able
Ability draws wealth
Through wealth comes Dharma (virtue) and thus one attains peace"
Students' resorting to unfair practices is the repercussion of a deep rooted cultural decay, which crept in to the educational systems of different countries when the system of education started getting identified as a commercial venture. Knowledge has been given shape of a commodity, by the forces of market, which can be bought and sold. But one should realize that knowledge has a higher virtue above all these notions and once that understanding is attained, one would become a true seeker of truth through knowledge. It is the duty of the teachers at the schools and universities to guide their students to that very path of accomplishment.
International Students and Plagiarism: an analysis of the reasons for plagiarism among international foundation students, Jan Bamford and Katerina Sergiou , Lindon Metropoletain University http://www.londonmet.ac.uk/library/b10884_3.pdf (On 25/10/2010)
Plagiarism among international students, Bethany Hall, Chris Keenan/Peter Jemmeson http://www.bournemouth.ac.uk/cap/documents/Plagiarism%20and%20International%20Students.pdf (On 25/10/2010)
Plagiarism in a Cross Cultural Setting:Educating and Acting; Glenda Campbell-Evans and Bridget M Leggett,Edith Cowan University, http://www.aare.edu.au/07pap/cam07385.pdf (On 26/10/2010)
Plagiarism: Students' Perception, ZAIGHAM MAHMOOD, School of Computing, University of DerbyKedleston Road, Derby, DE22 1GB, UNITED KINGDOM, http://www.wseas.us/e-library/conferences/2009/lalaguna/EDUTE/EDUTE-02.pdf ((On 26/10/2010)
'Five types of Plagiarism', www.lib.ncsu.edu/lobo/lessonplans/14_fiveHYPERLINK "http://www.lib.ncsu.edu/lobo/lessonplans/14_fivetypes.doc"typesHYPERLINK "http://www.lib.ncsu.edu/lobo/lessonplans/14_fivetypes.doc".doc
Chris Keenan & Peter Jammenson, http://www.bournemouth.ac.uk/cap/documents/Plagiarism%20and%20International%20Students.pdf
PART 2: PORTFOLIO
DISCUSS THE POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF GLOBALISATION ON INDIA.
As India is entering into the second decade of Globalization, this essay attempts to critically analyze the effects- both positive as well as negative that Globalization has brought into the country, mainly in the spheres of economy, trade and commerce. Globalization is taken here as the sharper and continuous integration of the world economy, while liberalization refers to deregulation and decontrolling of national economies.
Shedding its protectionist regime and putting and end to the so called 'License Raj', India forged into the foray of globalization in the year of 1991, under the able direction of then Finance Minister Mr. Manmohan Singh. India has been traditionally following the socialist pattern of development with heavy intervention and control of the Government in all spheres of economic activities till the beginning of 1990s. These introvert and protectionist policies of the Government effectively put shackles on the entrepreneurial traits of the Indian corporate and the over pampered companies were simply concerned to save their turf from their equally pampered domestic competitors, thus making a typical oligopolistic economic system inside the country. (Bidwayi, Praful, The right Perspective, Front Line, 21 Dec 2009).
The opening up of the economy resulted in the pouring of technologies, Ideas and opportunities along with immense competition from foreign companies, which rushed in to grab a pie in the lucrative 1000 million plus market of the country. The initial dilemma lasted for hardly 3-4 years and the educated Indians and the Corporate India were especially quick to respond to both the threats and opportunities that the globalization unveiled before them.
India received a great acceleration in the rate of economic growth, from 3.4% of the pre-liberalization period to a whopping 7+ percent year on year since last 6 years. (Nayar Baldev, 2006)
From being a predominantly agrarian economy, India made a paradigm shift. Presently agriculture contributes only 17.2% of the GDP of the country, while Industrial and Service sectors contributing 29.1% and 53.7% respectively. (Dutt and Sundaram, 2010)
The country's economy got stabilized like never before. In 1991, when the whole process of globalization started, India was in the verge of a severe foreign exchange crisis. India's present condition as far as foreign exchange reserve is 200 times better than that of 1991.
The globalization exposed the Indian consumers to the concept of consumerism, which they never experienced before. The amount of resources they can afford to consume has grown up tremendously and if the Indian middle class starts to consume at the rate that the US and UK citizen are consuming at present, the resources available in the earth in no means would be sufficient to meet their demand. The increased consumption increased the degradation of natural resources and pollution as well.
The Great Indian divide, which marked a clear line between the richer India and the poorer Bharat grew bigger than ever before. The failure of central planning to enable the deprived millions to reap the benefits of globalization caused greater resentment among its population and that resulted in the growth of militant extremism inside the country.
Rahul Mukherji, Centre for Political Studies, JNU, New Delhi http://www.jnu.ac.in/Faculty/rmukherji/Rahul_FordPaper.pdf
"India and the Globalization of Business", Dean Nitin Nohria, Harvard Business School, http://www.assocham.org/events/jrd-2010/Speech-Dean-Nitin-Nohria-as-on-29th-July2010.pdf
India's Globalization: Evaluating the Economic Consequences-Baldev Raj Nayar, East West Centre, Washington, http://www.eastwestcenter.org/fileadmin/stored/pdfs/PS022.pdf
Impact of Globalization on Developing Countries (With Special Reference To India), Krishn A Goyal
International Research Journal of Finance and Economics,ISSN 1450-2887 Issue 5 (2006)Â© EuroJournals Publishing, Inc. 2006, http://www.eurojournals.com/IRJFE%206%20goyal.pdf
The Front Line, December 21, 2009
Write a plan for the following report question:
Choose a company that has recently started marketing their products or services in Russia.
Outline their marketing strategy and discuss the problems they have encountered. Your report should include suggestions for overcoming these difficulties.
FORD MOTORS IN RUSSIA:
Ford motors entered the Soviet Russia way back in 1929, through a dedicated technology transfer agreement, under which was established Nizhegorodsky Avtomobilny Zavod, or NAZ, which bore Ford's symbol on the cars manufactured from its plant at Nizhny Novgorod from 1933. But the honey moon couldn't last long and owing to the failures from the Soviet's part, ford stepped back from the agreement. The company had to wait till 1990 to re enter the Russian soil and that too in a very humble manner. In 1996, the company opened its office in Moscow for broadening its dealership network and in 1999 signed an agreement with the Ministry of Economic Development and Trade for building an automobile plant in the town of Vsevolozhsk the company started full fledged operation for the year 2002.
The economy and customer preferences:
In spite of the impressive GDP growth of over 7.4 % over last one decade, the new car market has not been fairly impressive after the initial euphoria that lasted till 2004. Even if the sales of new cars plunged in 2005 by an average of 5.7%, Ford managed to out perform the industry growth figures and successfully maintained its position as one of the most preferred car brands in the country.
The Russian customers have a great preference for Imported used cars and this has been eating up the share of new car market in a big way.
Recession and after- Ford's addition to its product line:
Global recession had affected the automobile sector in Russia also, especially in 2005 and 2006. This in turn forced Ford stall some of its new launches scheduled for 2007 and 2008. But sale of new cars registered a whopping 36 % (The Economist 24, Nov.2010), which lured Ford to launch Mondeo, its mid sized sedan in 2009 in the midst of worsening economic crisis.
Ford is further consolidating its presence in Russia through the extensive dealer network it managed to develop across the country and in spite of the slump in sales in the first quarter of 2010, the company is optimistic about returning to the green as it has received orders for more than 1000 new cars starting from March.
Government's Initiatives and market response:
In an attempt to stabilize the passenger car market, the Government has begun subsidizing the consumer car loans. Loans worth a total 2 billion Rubles is available for buyers to purchase among 30 notified foreign and domestic car makes. It is decided to infuse further RR 12.5 Billion in 2011 to buy excessive commercial vehicles and vehicle components.
Ford hopes, these packages, along with the plan for higher import duties on used cars and special financial assistance declared for phasing out 10 year or older cars from the streets are expected to give a fresh impetus on the sale of their cars.
(Media report, Wards Auto, Byron Pop, 6 March, 2009)
The company should take the recent dip in sales seriously, especially considering the fact that it managed to out perform the market growth rate in the early 2000s. The strategy should base on consolidating its brand image. So, the immediate step should be to increase its media presence by increasing spending on advertisements and sponsoring important sports events etc.