The Importance of Occupational Stress for a Company

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Executive summary

This report describes what is occupational stress and illustrates the importance of occupational stress for the company. First, this report is based on the background of Apple Inc and research the reasons for occupational stress of the staffs and the influence of occupational stress. In this report which collected Apple's background information and financial situation, through these data and market background to analyze why Apple staffs have occupational stress to get a certain conclusion. Some of the issues are from the staffs work environment, some issues are effected by the impact of the market environment and analyze the causes of occupational stress such as workload, staffs' status, economic factors all would affect the levels of stress. Then it according to which the reason to list some suggestions for how to solve the occupational stress for the company. Occupational stress the need to resolve both from the perspective of the company and employees.

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Content

1.0 Introduction

2.0 Main body

2.1 Methodology

2.2 Results and Findings.........................

2.3 Discussion

3.0 Conclusions and recommendations

4.0 Reference:

1.0 Introduction

Occupational stress is a big problem for many workers and which affect their work status and also would influence the development of the company. This report will introduce the occupational stress of staffs who work in Apple Inc and analyze the causes of the occupational stress and will give some solutions for Apple Inc to change this phenomenon.

Apple is a company which focus on design, manufactures, and markets mobile communication and media devices, personal computers, and portable digital music players, and sells a variety of related software, services, accessories, networking solutions, and third party digital content and applications (Annual Report 2014). Apple has become the second-largest information technology company in the world and which is also the third-largest mobile phone maker in the world (Annual Report 2014). Apple became the first U.S company its values is over $700 billion and became the largest publicly trade corporation in the world on 25th,11,2014 (Financial Post 2014). There are 437 retail stores in ifiteen countries which has 72,800 staffs work for them as of 2014 (Annual Report 2014). Apple also operates the online Apple Store and iTunes Store which has become the largest music retailer in the world. Apple is a big company which annual revenue in 2014 totaled US$182 billion (Financial Post 2014). Apple has the high level of brand loyalty which also become the world's most valuable brand. Apple devotes itself to use its innovative hardware, software and services which will provide the best user experience to the customers (Annual Report 2014). The strategy of Apple is design and apply its own operating systems, hardware, application software for their customers. Apple believes knowledgeable salespersons who provide the high-quality service and buying experience for the customers can attract and retain more customer for company (Annual Report 2014). So Apple are pay more attention on training the salespersons that can express the value of the products and put up the best service. According to this situation, the staffs who work for Apple will have the large occupational stress.

Occupational stress which is the stress when the people are working. World Health Organization's give the definition of the occupational stress "is the response people may have when presented with work demands and pressures that are not matched to their knowledge and abilities and which challenge their ability to cope (World Health Organization 2015). " Stress sometimes happen in a widely work environment which have little support from their manager and colleagues will make people feel occupational stress during their work time (World Health Organization 2015). Sometime the bad management and practice will bring the pressure or challenge for staffs (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). Occupational stress which is unavoidable at the workplace, it is a normal condition. Owing to the condition of the contemporary work environment which has large demands form staffs (Lazarus 1991). So the occupational stress is acceptable even which can help staffs to keep alert, motivated and remind them to learn more knowledge and technology to keep them to be excellent (Lazarus 1991). However, the occupational stress becomes excessive which will hurt staffs' health and psychology even affect the performance of the company. The problem of occupational stress has become the great concern focused by many people. People always need to through work to reflect their value in this society so the stress keep increasing for staffs (Szymanski, 1999). For example, the global economy is changing rapidly which would affect the company development. Thus the company need to increase their develop speed and efficiency and change their company cultures to be stronger to develop in the market. According to this condition which would give more occupational stress for staffs, they need to more things to adapt the change of the company and economic.

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For the development of Apple Inc, through the right ways to face occupational stress, will help staffs relieve stress which is very necessary. Therefore, this report will analyze in detail about the causes and impact of occupational stress from different aspects. Finally, this report will give some suggestions about how to relieve occupational stress, which can help staffs work better and help Apple to have better development for their future.

2.0 Main body

2.1 Methodology

To finish this report there are some point need to achieve:

1. Use the secondary research to collect the information of Apple Inc

2. List the data of the Apple Inc

3. Identify the cause and effect of occupational stress of the Apple's staffs

4. List the results and findings

5. Give the following recommendations

2.2 Results and Findings

Figure 1 Different areas Sales Data

2014

Change

2013

Change

2012

Net Sales by Operating Segment:

Americas

$ 65,232

4%

$ 62,739

9%

$ 57,512

Europe

40,929

8%

37,883

4%

36,323

Greater China

29,846

17%

25,417

13%

22,533

Japan

14,982

11%

13,462

27%

10,571

Rest of Asia Pacific

10,344

(7)%

11,181

4%

10,741

Retail

21,462

6%

20,228

7%

18,828

Total net sales

$ 182,795

7%

$ 170,910

9%

$156,508

Figure 2: Sales by Product:

2014

Change

2013

Change

2012

Net Sales by Product:

iPhone

$ 101,991

12%

$ 91,279

16%

$78,692

iPad

30,283

(5)%

31,980

3%

30,945

Mac

24,079

12%

21,483

(7)%

23,221

iPod

2,286

(48)%

4,411

(21)%

5,615

iTunes, Soft ware and Services

18,063

13%

16,052

25%

12,890

Accessories

6,093

7%

5,706

11%

5,145

Total net sales

$182,795

7%

$170,910

9%

$156,508

Figure 3: Unit Sales by Product

2014

Change

2013

Change

2012

Unit Sales by Product

iPhone

169,219

13%

150,257

20%

125,046

iPad

67,977

(4)%

71,033

22%

58,310

Mac

18,906

16%

16,341

(10)%

18,158

iPod

14,377

(45)%

26,379

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(25)%

35,165

In the figure 1 which shows the net sales increased 7% and 11.9 one billion from 2014 to 2013 (Annual Report 2014). This due to the sales of iPhone; Mac; iTunes, Software and Services; and Accessories was increased (Annual Report 2014). From the figure 1 and 2 display the reason of successful increased net sales and unit sales is introduction of iPhone 5s and 5c in 2013 and in 2014 the expanded distribution is owing to the launch of iPhone 6 and 6 Plus. Apple's net sales and unit sales increased was mainly due to the MacBook Air and MacBook Pro which updated in 2014 for a faster processor and saled at lower prices to receive a strong demand (Annual Report 2014). Net sales of iTunes, software and services was mainly due to a net increase in revenue from growth through App Store, AppleCare and licensing. For the iPad's net sales and unit sales in 2014 compared to 2013 which declined because of the lower unit sales. During 2014, growth in total net sales also continued to decline also because of the negative effects of iPod sales. All Company segments increased net sales in 2014, the growth was strongest in Greater China and Japan operating segment showed from the figure 1 (Annual Report 2014). In the first quarter of 2014, the company launched the iPad the air, its fifth-generation iPad and iPad mini with Retina display. In June 2014 Worldwide Developers Conference, the company announced iOS 8 and OS X Yosemite (Annual Report 2014). In September 2014, the Company launched the iPhone 6 and 6 and release iOS 8, announced the Apple Pay, which began used in the United States in october 2014. Then the company also previewed Apple Watch is expected to be in early calendar 2015. The company launched the iPad AIR 2, iPad 3 Mini, iMac with Retina 5K Display and updated the Mac mini; and released OS X Yosemite in 2014 (Annual Report 2014). During 2014, the company completed the acquisition of the business, including the music beats, LLC, which offers a subscription streaming music service, and beats Electronics, LLC, which makes the acquisition of Beats headphones, speakers, and audio software (Annual Report 2014). These are the condition of the Apple Inc which will affect the work condition of the staffs.

2.3 Discussion

There are lots of causes of occupational stress in different areas such as in workplace, change in the workplace or home life but in this report it would just analyze the cause from workplace of Apple staffs. In workplace the workload is a big issues for staffs, quantitative workload, qualitative workload and under load all will affect staffs (Calnan,Wainwright, Forsythe, Almond, 2001). Apple staffs have the large workload which need to do lots of things such as introduce the all function and data of products which customers interested as well as recommend new products to customers. The staffs need to remember all things with any Apple’s products and also need to remember the new products which are launch recently. In the workplace, the staffs' status also will influence the levels of stress (Calnan,Wainwright, Forsythe, Almond, 2001). Although the work pressure has affected the potential of employees; those who have very little impact on the company will make major decisions. However, less powerful staffs are more likely to suffer from stress than powerful staffs. Managers and other staffs all easily to work overload. Under the overload work the staffs in Apple all will feel occupational stress. In fact, the managers of Apple they will have more stress because they need to a lot of importation decision of the company’s operation. They need to consider lots of different condition of their decision. Anyone decision they carried out which are related to the large number of staffs, all spent their lots of time and energy. In 21st century, economic factors is normal issue that staffs need to face it and it also increase the stress levels for the staffs (Calnan,Wainwright, Forsythe, Almond, 2001). Now there are computer and communications times which have affect all companies need to be more efficient and productive (Calnan,Wainwright, Forsythe, Almond, 2001). However this phenomenon make the greater competition in the market and which would put more stress on staffs. For the Apple staffs the compete globally between each company is the most serious problem which make them feel very stress. Each year, Apple need launch different types new product to their customers to ensure the sales volume and retain and attract more customers. But different types of products launch will affect each sale of products such as sale of iPhone increased but the sales of iPod decline sharply. So the staff need to improve the sale of each product which is a tough thing for them.

When Apple's staffs feel occupational stress, they will can not work seriously, sometimes will create unnecessary mistakes when they are working which also would bring some losses for the company. Occupational stress makes staffs inefficiency, it will affect the company's performance. So pay attention to occupational stress on the staffs for Apple is very necessary.

3.0 Conclusions and recommendations

Apple Inc is a mature company, which has advanced technology, good products, and achieve a very good reputation and sales, but if Apple wants to maintain its current success and achieve better development, it must focus on staffs occupational stress. Staffs are very important for Apple Inc, if no staffs do the research of the product and develop new products, develop the strategies for company, implementation sales that would not be the success for Apple. So Apple Inc need to focus on the company's development and also requires to pay attention on the situation of staffs to ease their occupational stress which would will bring better development to Apple.

Apple Inc need to ensure the workload is same with the staffs abilities which can make sure the workload staffs can received. The manager also can give the monitor workload and give the staffs some chance to train themselves and improve their skills. In each stage of staffs can give them some rewards to encourage staffs to work better. The managers of Apple also need to make more communications with staffs to realize the condition of the staffs work.

Telecommuting is another way for the company to help them reduce occupational stress (Gajendran & Harrison 2008). Employees defined telecommuting as "an alternative work arrangement in which employees perform tasks elsewhere that are normally done in a primary or central workplace, for at least some portion of their work schedule, using electronic media to interact with others inside and outside the organization (Gajendran & Harrison 2008)." Telecommuting get a high rating of support that it allows staffs have more ability to control over how to arrange their work. Staffs working at home will have less stress which also can get balance between work and life and give the higher performance to their managers.

The staffs also need to learn how to release the stress. The staffs need to have more communication with their manager and tell them the issues, feedback and stress then the staffs would receive some suggestion to help release the stress. The staffs also need to take care of the health through the enough sleep exercise and healthy diet which would help staffs to cope the demands at work better. Ensure take a rest every day or outgoing to relax themselves. Staffs also can take everything in plan that will help them manage their time. Finally, staffs need to deal with the stress positive without worry too much. According to these ways will help Apple Inc to solve most of staffs occupational stress but the stress can not solve thorough so keep pay more attention on occupational stress will help Apple development better.

4.0 Reference:

Apple Inc. (2014) ANNUAL REPORT

Available at: http://investor.apple.com/financials.cfm (Accessed: 30 March 2015)

Financial Post (2014) Apple Inc market cap tops US$700B, double what it was when Tim Cook took over as CEO

Available at:

http://business.financialpost.com/fp-tech-desk/apple-inc-tops-us700-billion-market-share-on-strong-iphone-and-ipad-demand?__lsa=81c3-5ac6 (Accessed: 30 March 2015)

Gajendran,Ravi and Harrison,David. (2008)Telecommuting Win-Win For Employees And Employers.Journal of Applied Psychology92.6 (Accessed: 4 April 2015)

Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress Appraisal and Coping. New York: Springer. (Accessed: 2 April 2015)

Lazarus, R.S. (1991). Psychological stress in the workplace. In P.L. Perrewe

(Ed.), Handbook on Job Stress (pp. 1-13). Corte Madera, CA: Select Press. (Accessed: 2 April 2015)

Szymanski, E.M. (1999). Disability, job stress, the changing nature of careers, and the career resilience portfolio. Rehabilitation Counselling Bulletin, 42, 279-284. (Accessed: 2 April 2015)

Szymanski, E.M. (1999). Disability, job stress, the changing nature of careers, and the career resilience portfolio. Rehabilitation Counselling Bulletin, 42, 279-284.(Accessed: 4 April 2015)

World Health Organization (2015) Stress at the workplace

Available at: http://www.who.int/occupational_health/topics/stressatwp/en/

(Accessed: 30 March 2015)