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The human resource management department in organizations has acquired increased strategic emphasis, the importance of its alignment human resource management (HRM) and business strategies is well-acknowledged. To have an effective HRM department is essential in order to be able to meet the market demands with skilled and qualified employees at all times. Technology and HRM have great influences against each other, HR experts have to be flexible to adopt technologies that allow the reengineering of the HR department, and also prepare to hold organizational and work-design changes caused by technology, and are able to maintain suitable managerial climate for innovative and knowledge-based organizations. Technological advances are enforced mainly by high expectations from human resource professionals for enhancement in speed, cost and effectiveness.
The information technology in human resources management application, will be helpful for the re-definition and optimizing human resources management operation flow.This also raises the working efficiency, improves the grade of service, and thus increasing the information and professional human resources management platform's productivity. Certainly, in as much as information technology has contributed to the growth of human resource management, it is also important to highlight that human resource management will continually to grow in all ramification.
But the information technology also to a certain extent steady developed certain function for the human resources.
This research will analyze all aspect of the usage of technology in human resource management and how opportunities are still there to aid the advance of human resource.
Understanding of HRM
De Cenzo and Robbins (1996: p8) defined HRM as the part of the organization that is concerned with the people as a whole and renders support in all aspect to them. Sequel to this, is the definition given by Bratton and Gold (2003: p7), that HRM is the strategic approach to managing employment relations with emphasis to the capability of the employees so as to sustain competitive edge. Lastly, Alan Price (2004: p32) gave a rather accurate HRM's definition as that part of the organization responsible for recruiting capable, dynamic and committed people, so as to manage and reward their efforts which will lead to competencies for the organization.
The most important part of the organization is human resource management. Having a human resource management is not just the fact but having an effective one tat is able to align the organization goals into action is the most important thing. Finding revealed by Evan et al (2002) shows that human resource management is a core part and asset of any organization because it is very important in the sustaining of business success. Cross (2000), shows that human resource management inter-connects all people in the management and development of the organization. Likewise, human resource management is the driving force of the organization.
According to the business dictionary, human resource management is defined as an administrative activity associated with planning, recruitment, selection motivation as well as developing people through work. (http://www.businessdictionary.com)
Information technology on the other hand takes a proactive definition which looks at the
Today, human resource management is now faced by many problems which is fast making it less effective in many ways.
PRESENCE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN HRM
The importance of technology can't be ignored wisely because of the many advantages it gives to employees as well as the overall success it provides for human resource management which equally translates to the overall organizational structure in a positive way. Information technology, by no doubt has helped to value the workforce as a relevant asset that defines the overall organization's culture and philosophy.
The use of information technology in human resource management can be seen visibly in the mode and operation of human resource management. Today, the training and selection method is done via the use of information technology and this is fast making the overall process more effective than ever as a whole. Jerman-Blazic, (1996) stated that the use of internet and information technology offers much quicker access to latest scientific and technological innovations of the companies and research institution. This particular true because human resource will continually pay attention to transformation of employees in the organization just as technology would be driving tool to accompany this objective. Acquiring and gathering fresh knowledge whether supplementary or existing ones can only be attained via information that is technological in nature. Further to this, this researcher feels that information technology offer awareness and it is the driving force of changes as well. This observation can be seen by the research conducted by Lindstrom, Moberg & Rapp (1997) which says:
"With Internet and (more broadly) Information-and-Communications-Technology (ICT) development in the full swing for the last two decades, organizations have been provided with 'a whole range of new possibilities for performing work and structuring organization"
In another review, "new technology may also be required for implementing a low cost strategy if the technology can improve efficiency" (Mondy, Noe & Premeaux 1999, p148).
The adoption of information technology assists closely in the cost analysis of any intending project that the human resource is undertaking since there are improved efficiency in all ramification. The process of human resource planning requires some level of technological application which will be incorporated into the overall strategic implementation of the company. Mondy, Noe & Premeaux (1999) also concluded that aligning information technology to human resource management supports the overall implementation of plan as well as conducting analysis.
Likewise, in time and labor management, the use of information technology can't be ignored because it is advantageous. IT enables the gathering and application of employee time and work information. It enables the tracking of employee in a scientific way that allows for easy analysis. It also enable human resource managers or senior personnel to know which employee is actually performing and the ones that are not performing and show improvement. Drucker's work (2001) also added to this view by supporting that IT tracks employee's performance.. It is a known fact that many organization differ in their approach to human resource planning and practices.
E-HRM IN THE TODAY ORGANIZATION
Ernst finds that "electronic human resource management (e-HRM) is a web-based tool to automate and support HR processes. The implementation of e-HRM is an opportunity to delegate the data entry to the employees. eHRM facilitates the usage of HR marketplaces (e-recruitment) and offers more self-service to the employees" (http://www.thestep.gr)
The need to gather and have conceptual knowledge in this modern world is fast becoming a necessity and thus the adoption and use of information technology in human resource is no longer a new thing. When human resource and information technology are brought together, we see that there formulation leads to what we call e-HRM. A term used to denote the adoption of information technology in the human resource management department or policies.
Information technology and human resource management is now known as "e-HRM" (Zhang & Wang). IT has brought about revolution in organization through the adoption just as firms are now having corporate website which is now shifting the manual form of doing job to the computerized one such that mistake are eliminated to the minimal level. Consequently, the process of hiring new employees has been challenging and quite tasking. Tim Knox, in his article entitled "expert strategies for hiring best employees" suggests the use of information technology of hiring potential candidates to the job. The traditional view should be discarded and give way to the claims of Tim. Today, many companies through the human resource department are now employing employee through the Internet and other technological means. This is helping to reduce the demanding circle of having to be so physically in all the process that requires attentions. Kanungo's (2006) work can be used to support this argument as he labelled out that IT is so relevant and important also in the profit accumulation of the company. Knowledge management is very crucial and important for gathering knowledge that will be useful in all ramifications and surfaces of the organization. Since human resource department works with all departments, there is a need to understand that information technology is very essential and important as well.
Likewise, recalling Jens et al (2010) work, one is able to see that HRIS and eHRM is used only at the professional and bureaucracy level. This view is thus misleading because not all human resource managements are operating at the bureaucracy level. Supporting this claim is the work of Mukama (2003). HRIS would only benefit the organization and has nothing to do with bureaucracy.
Information technology in human resource management plays a major role not only by the usage but also by the implementation and evaluation. It is a know fact that IT has helped to move human resource management forward to a level in which organizational activities are now less demanding and easy to use. There is now a pressing need to understand the role and use of information technology in all aspect of the organization as well. This is because many literature reviews on this research topic focused on information technology in the overall organizational context while others focused on Human resource information system (HRIS) and e-HRM. The human resource management has more than enough functions and thus the use of information technology should applies; researchers on this topic should bear this on their mind always.
This research focused on all areas that information technology is making impact in the human resource management, however, there is still a need to further research on impact of IT in developing nation as it is obvious that are not adjusting fast to this trend.
Word counts excluding references: 1,589.
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