The impact of training and education


Human resources expansion plays a significant role in the process of economic growth and effective component in the structural development plans aiming to improve the economies. According to Beer et al, (1984) HRM plays a role in all management decisions and action which affect the main concept of the relationship between the firms and its employees. (Armstrong, 2009). In this regard, the living standards, the social and cultural life characteristics as well as the society's well-being are considered to be closely linked with the development of human resources. It is therefore, remains a real challenge for the decision makers and business owners in developing countries (Arthur, 1994).

Human resource represents a crucial challenge for most of the developing countries due to its significant role in economic development. Saudi Arabia (the researcher's case study) has attempted to improve its human resources skills to facilitate the implementation of its modern experiences as similar as other Gulf countries, where the role of human resources development remains an essential and considerable challenge in the national development plans.

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Great several attempts by many scholars have been revealed by a review of the literature of human resource development (HDR) to define human resource development. These attempts (have been varied, reflecting the diverse academic and socio-political backgrounds particularly apparent in relation to human resource development. Jacobs (1990) stated that "HRD is a vast area of practice and knowledge, describing it as interdisciplinary field that has borrowed from many areas of study. These include economics, psychology, sociology, learning theory, performance improvement, etc. However, HRD as a technical term was first coined by US writer Leonard Nadler in the late 1960s, and was defined originally as "a series of organized activities conducted within a specified time and designed to produce behavioural change"(Nadler, 1970; cited in Barney and Wright 1998). Nevertheless, HRD is best seen by (McClendon and Thomas, 2000) The training of strategic management, improvement of supervision/ professional training involvements, in order to complete the firms aims while at the same time guaranteeing the operation of the knowledge in skills and ability of individual and employees. It is concerned with the management of employee learning for the long-term keeping in mind the explicit and business strategies. HRD is concerned with the provision of learning and development opportunities that support the achievement of business strategies and improvement of organizational, team and individual performance (Armstrong, 2009).

My own experience enabled me to recognise the extent to which human resource development is important for the employee and the range of improvements the employees may achieve in terms of skills enhancement, knowledge sharing and most importantly in terms of strengthening the morale that the staff feels and the self esteem incentives that makes the employees confident in themselves and perform better and stimulated to show continuous improvements, in accordance with the objectives and targets of the human resource development plan which is usually designed to satisfy the skills development needs and to fill the knowledge gaps. Development is usually an umbrella term and contains all of training and learning. Moreover, it may cover long term of enhancing performances, and knowledge through a wide of range of practices which might involve all of training, coaching, education, or formal intervention. for instance, enhancing the performance of managers is the main activity which comes under management and development. In this sense it is similar to the use of training but the phrase management training is not often used for the reason that it sometimes involves basic or corrective action. (Marchington and Wilkinson, 2008)

As well, it is worth to note that through human resource development, the company can make emphasis on its vision, goals and aspirations for the next phase, whereas the employees would understand and recognise these basic principles and adopt them while implementing the work plan, because if the employee think and perform as the company aspire, it would be the highest degree of success (Abdul Rahman, 2007). However in contrast, from my experience the reduction and restriction of the human resource development opportunities affect the employees performance and productivity negatively as it makes their morale down and make them disappointed and subordinate and they may lose their loyalty to their company, while when nominating me for any training or skills development course I feel that my supervisors appreciate my work and that they aim to enhance my abilities through training sessions. Training as a human resource development tool, provide the employees with considerable benefits and teach them valuable skills and knowledge from the training techniques used, thus it is an informative and constructive human resource development tool that the employees need to gain and understand, because it provide them with comprehensive knowledge about some concepts that are essential for their future career and that have considerable effects on their performance when they return back to their institutions. Through the basic skills of training and and skills development, the employees learn and achieved new knowledge and become acquainted with the real and new concepts of skills development based work, in this regard, when I have undergone training, I felt that my ceiling of knowledge about work concepts has been expanded and my views have become more mature than before, as the scattered information about my specialization and other concepts I used to know without in-depth understanding have become well organised after training by the scientific knowledge I gained, and even I felt that this knowledge will be enhanced with scientific evidence through further revision of literature, research, articles and studies about the concepts I have learnt. This achieved knowledge and concepts have not only enabled me to understand and learn new ideas and to enrich my views, but also to learn from the others' experiences as well as the ways to utilise this knowledge in raising my performance and improving my skills and to replicate the best practises and successful methods and experiences in my work as a way of transferring this knowledge to my country and to share the skills I achieved with my colleagues, which in turn will enhance their capacities and improve their productivity and improve the company. In general, human resource development is a real effective concept to enrich the employees' knowledge, enhance their skills, expand their thoughts and perspectives and correct their vision about the feasibility of the outputs of the strategies to improve the skills (Abdul Rahman, 2007).

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The Saudi government's plans towards economic diversity and expansion, required to develop the skills of human resource in the private sector in order to strengthen this sector and to get it efficient and competitive, so as to ensure the sustainability of economic development, the government has thus, strongly emphasized the importance of strengthening the capacities of the employees in the major companies that dominate the private sector and contribute largely to the national income. In this regard, the government had set a wide range of comprehensive policies that provide attractive incentives to the production sectors, agriculture and mining in addition to creating the conducive environment for private sector to expand its investments and continue its growth through the gradual increase of expenditure while implementing its development plans (Ministry of Planning, 2005).

With these objectives in mind, the field of human resources has to be developed correspondingly. The Saudi educational system needed to provide the economy with an adequate base of trained professionals in order for it to become competitive globally. However, the educational system in Saudi Arabia has, until recently, failed to foster strategic thinking. It has relied on rote memorization, valuing technical skills over general business skills; this has often discouraged creativity and new ideas. The transition to the private sector requires human resources policies that emphasize productivity, increased skills formation and workplace flexibility. This transition invariably implies fundamental changes in national policies.

Policymakers and economists generally agree that manpower development is the cornerstone of the development process. Quality of human resources is the most important indicator of the level of development and must receive corresponding close attention. Human resources development can be argued to be a more realistic, reliable and pervasive indicator of development than any other single factor since it is invariably a necessary condition for all kinds of growth (Ministry of Planning, 2005).

The economic growth of a country requires both financial and human resources (Heneman, Tansky and Michael, 2000). Financial resources have not been a major problem for Saudi Arabia. Obtaining a sufficient level of qualified manpower for industrialization and economic growth, though, is a major problem that needs to be overcome through the development of better educational and training programs (Al-Dosary and Garba, 1997)

The crucial importance of human resource development for Saudi Arabia (and any of the oil producing countries of the Gulf Countries derives from the dilemma that has been created by the combination of a small population, manpower shortages and the scarcity of trained employees in the face of a huge spending capacity, vast development programs and projects. It was inevitable, therefore, that Saudi Arabia imported most of the skilled and unskilled manpower needed for the development of various sectors of the economy: to construct buildings and roads; to run hospitals and utilities; to build industrial plants and administer agriculture projects; and to staff schools and universities. This considerable dependency is expected to last a long time (Al-Dosary and Garba, 1997)

The shortage of skilled and unskilled native human resources remains of great concern to many in Saudi Arabia. It has been emphasized that the Gulf Countries countries, both as a group, and individually, face a number of very real constraints to prolonged economic growth and the chronic scarcity of human resources, both skilled and unskilled, is regarded as the most important. In addition, the quality and standard of native manpower are also key elements of labour force gaps in Saudi Arabia (Al-Dosary and Garba, 1997)

Human resource development in the forms of technical education and training in Saudi Arabia are provided by several public and private institutions. The Institute of Public Administration (IPA), for example, offers pre service training programs, short term in service training for national services workers and training program for the private sectors. The General Organisation for Technical Education and Vocational Training is an additional training organisation which supports short term services and the improvement of skill programs. Thus, special training and development is provided by many Government ministries and agenises or private sectors. (Ministry of Planning, 2005).


To conclude, every firm must recognize the importance of development the knowledge, skills and abilities of its employees. This requires serious consideration to be given to HRD, which in today's changing world is seen as fundamental to the evolution of a flexible, efficient workforce (Barney and Wright 1998).

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No doubt human resource development is essential for the improvement of the capabilities of the employees and add much to the personal experience through the innovative methods and improved ideas which the employees need to show a better performance and to show their potential talents, where through skills development, the employees become aware of the latest concepts of work and what is new in their field. In my view training is very important for the employees where it strengthen the weak aspects in the employees performance and maintain and improve their strong capacities, on the other hand through the sessions of training the employees will be aware of the objectives and aims of the organisation and will learn how to realise these goals. As such training and on job learning has many benefits for the employees and for the organisation; it support the employee very much in terms of improving the skills and experience and provision of new ideas and views and so enhance the performance, while in terms of motivation and incentive, providing the chance for training stimulate the desire of the employee to learn and to give more in his work and strength his self confidence which will be reflected in his performance.