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Autocratic leadership style is basically the style, in which, one person who is mostly a manager makes decisions little or no consent of other people of the organization. At the time of downsizing this type of leadership style can have negative impact on employee's motivation because they would think no matter how much effort they exert, decision will be taken by one person. Employees' moral would be lessening and they will feel demotivated, when they will knew that their suggestions will not be considered by the manger.
Democratic leadership style is successful style suggested by researcher, in which all or most of the employees take active part in decision making process. While downsizing of an organization this type of style have positive impact on employee's motivation because they would feel themselves as an important part of organization. This motivation leads them to exert more effort to save organization standing and to think and provide creative ideas. In democratic environment every employee will know about company's current situation, evaluation criteria, future vision and important decisions so they will be more motivated to do their best for the organization and for themselves.
Two major motivational theories are presented, one by Taylor and other Maslow. Both school of thoughts suggest different tactics for motivating employees on work. According to Taylor's motivation theory, man is an economic animal, always works for maximizing his earning. People always respond as an individuals, because they always think about individual benefit and people can for as a machine for their maximum gain. Taylor focused on only one and simple rule-Money. Taylor suggest that human always work for money. He felt that employees should get reasonable day's wage for fair day's work. If employees do less work, would be paid less and if employee deliver more than fair's day work, would be paid high.
Maslow motivation theory based on 'Hierarchy of Needs'. Maslow has explained that human have different level of needs and after full filing one need they move next. According to hierarchy of needs, 5 levels are presented. Physiological, Safety and security, social, esteem and self-actualization needs. One, who complete the physiological need the move forward to safety need and so on. Maslow said that if management dig out the level of need of employee then it is easy to motivate him according to his need level.
According to today situation, which theory is best for motivation? By comparing above both Maslow got advantage over Taylor. Taylor suggest only money for motivation but Maslow explained many other factors. Although Maslow's theory also has some issues but competitively this is better. Most workers do no need more money but rewards and promotion. Some want respect and appreciation. Today where money is not only factor of doing jobs, people have many other opportunities. Some work for social acceptance and some work for self-esteem. It is easy to motivate employee when management know that what actually an employee want from company.
Men or women everyone in this world have different kind of needs and wants. Sports are one type of major needs present in humans. For a British woman, who is mostly seen with fat, sports such as Olympics can be a motivator in many ways. One of the motivator is fitness of Olympics' woman players every woman participating in Olympics games from all over the world is slim, fit and healthy by physique which triggers same type of need in other women to be fit, slim and healthy like them. This need motivate them to take part in sports or adopt such kind of activities which make them ideal.
Many other factors from Olympics can motivate British woman in many other ways like Olympic players have fame, money, independency, adventurous, recognition, and self-satisfaction, which motivate those women who have these types of needs to take part in sports activities. Patriotism is another motivational aspect for those British women who want to recognize their country best in the world, they are motivated to take part in Olympics and do their best for the country.
Nature of Group
It is well-known notion that 'Human is social being'. This clearly shows that human cannot live alone for long time. People need people with common characteristics and belief for social acceptance. According to literature, Group can be defined as two or more individuals, interdependent and interacting for achieving specific objectives. People joined groups due to different reasons; safety, security, status, social acceptance and self-esteem. Groups are divided in to two types, formal and informal group. Informal groups are social groups based on norms and interest. Formal group is a group, established by management of an organization to achieve specific tasks. Formal groups are also based on interest and job nature. Behavior of group in work
Group Behavior in Work
Group behavior originate from the reasons that add value to the effectiveness of group. The well combined, well defined status and role of each member, able leadership, strong cohesiveness and well established norms a group has, the superior the groupthink. Groupthink is well-defined as "the decline of mental efficacy, reality testing, and moral decree in the interest of group unity." As groups work and network with other groups, so they establish their own unique and matchless set of characteristics including organization of group, cohesiveness, norms, process and roles of participants. Beside this, interaction with other groups, they may chance of conflict within group.
Factors that promote effective teamwork
Factors that inhibit effective teamwork in
At McDonalds, proper importance is given to teamwork. Major tasks are to be done through teamwork.
Lack of communication with the lower staff which deprives them to work effectively in a team.
Teamwork helps in achieving individual's objective.
The promotion system is not good in McDonalds. Active member didn't get any reward from management, leads demotivation among teams.
At McDonalds, Teamwork support by top management.
Lower level members are not given due importance in decisions neither their opinion are considered as much required in promoting teamwork.
Lack of incentives is another reason of inhibit effective teamwork.
Factors, those are reasons for inhibit effective teamwork in McDonalds, can be fixed. Management at McDonalds should follow proper information flow system from upper level to lower level. Management should introduce new promotion and reward system in which active participants should encourage with fair promotions and rewards. Equal importance should be given to all team members. Suggestions from junior level employees should need proper attention. Junior level staff should also include in decision making. Day to day incentives must be given to team members on achieving every task. Incentive system should be managed for less active member to increase their participation.
Internet and virtual teams are most innovative types of collaborative techniques used by many of organizations. These technologies have made processes faster, reliable, efficient and cost effective. Internet and virtual technologies have also provided some companies competitive edge. In design and engineering organization these techniques have been implemented and results are successful.
Virtual teams helps in designing of any model by many engineers at the same time communicating through any medium irrespective of where they are. This technology helps engineering organization to take assistance of engineers which are far from point of design house. Virtual teams and internet help engineering organizations in making their communication faster, better and quick suggestions on design, Cost control and time saving. For example in General Motors there were many problems regarding innovation, new design and cost control. GM designed software which helped them in making their communication faster and better, moreover they created virtual teams which coordinate each other in making design of parts of Cars. Virtual assistance was key success factor for them.
In the same way internet helps engineering and design organization to market their design before actual launch of product and to get quick feedback from people all around the world on product design or concept. These technologies also helps manufacturing organizations as well, design are directly connected to manufacturing plant so that they could manufacture the decided design directly from one computer. On the other hand internet helps them to get quick response, timely feedback, launch marketing campaign; cost reduction etc. internet also helps them to know about latest design, technology, customer preferences, trends and economic situation of the market. These technologies are also used to take expert opinion from different experienced and expert engineers. Internet have also been used by these organizations to get creative ideas from general public, market surveys, segmentation and market opportunities.
Different emergent technologies currently used in hotel industry. Use of software and internet helps Sheraton hotel management to run its operation efficiently. Different technologies can be used in hotel for example online video conferencing, hotel management software, remote access software and data base software. These technologies directly affect the team performance. In hotel, above mention technologies can increase the team performance. With help of online video conferencing, remote access software management can allow team members to work from anywhere. Access to customer data base is helpful for team members to know about customers and make decision in favor of hotel Sheraton.
Dealing with group conflict, due to no production of work by one member, Bob should take some positive actions to resolve this problem. Bob should motivate group member to start working. Bob should tell him that he is important member for group and realize him that without him, group will suffer. Bob should realize him that he is capable and talented member to complete any task. Bob should give him relevant task according to his nature. Bob should appreciate him in positive way and there should be positive and group negotiation with him. Bob should motivate him so he starts working in positive way.