2.0 Human resource management specially deals with the training and development of employees. Human resource management is the function within an organization that specially focuses on recruitment, management and providing the right direction for the people who work an organization. It includes training an individual after the employees is hired and to provide opportunities to learn new skills and beneficial for the tasks and any other development activities. It is responsible for training, assessment, selection and rewarding of employees and people are an asset that must be hired, satisfied, development and retained.
2.1 Armstrong and Long writes -
Strategic Human Resource Management deals with large organizational concerns connecting to some changes in an organizational culture, effectiveness and performance, matching resources and change in structure to cater the needs and requirements in future and the management to change overall, it will judge any of the critical and big people problems which affect or are affected by the strategic plan of the organization.
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Another important principle, articulated by Michael Armstrong in his book A Handbook of Human Resource Management, is that business success "is most likely to be achieved if the personnel policies and procedures of the enterprise are closely linked with, and make a major contribution to, the achievement of corporate objectives and strategic plans." Another guiding HR's responsibility is to find, protect, lead, and extend employees whose aptitude, skills, dedication to work and desires are well-matched with the working needs and aim of an organization. Other HRM factors that figure out the business culture whether by encouraging incorporation and support as team work from corner to corner of the company, introducing quantitative performance measurements are also commonly cited as key components in business success. HRM summarized Armstrong is a strategic approach to the acquisition, motivation, development and management of the organization's human resources. It is committed to determining a suitable corporate culture and initiating programs which maintain the foundation of the project and guarantee its success. Organization should also take into consideration about modern technology and implement new technology too and find the skillful employee and trained them accurately in their field. Technology can help organizations meet their business aims in the future by helping managers organize their personnel proficiently to make sure that they get the appropriate and complete training and development in sophisticated atmosphere by offering new ideas on the procedure of increasing production and output.
3.0 The Michigan Model was established by Fombrun, Tichy and Devanna (1984), which give emphasis to the interrelatedness and consistency of human resource management activities for sake of improving their performance, companies must construct a direct relation between their corporate and human resource strategies and structures. In this model the human resource management cycle consists of four input components that are Selection, Development, Appraisal and Rewards.
These four human resource behaviors aim to raise organizational performance. This approach proposes reactivity to corporate strategy and requires putting together many key factors like proper structure, organizational practices, managerial task and people and this would then allow the organization to control the above components of human resource management through selection, development, appraisal and rewards.
The publication of Fombrun et al`s Strategic Human Resource Management (1984) generated early interest in the `matching` model. Devanna et al`s framework argued that Hr system and organizational structure should be managed in the way that is congruent with organizational strategy. This is similar to Chandler`s distinction between strategy and structure. In the Devanna et al`s model human resource management strategy and follow and feed upon one another and are influenced by environmental forces.
According to Devanna, Fombrun and Tichy (1984), the critical management task is to support the formal structure and human resource system as they bring forward the strategic objectives of an organization. The current which shape policy choices with in HRM can also be understood as the interaction of stakeholders concerns with situational reasons such as labor market conditions legal restrictions. These policy choices affect longer term results like as individual well being, organizational effectiveness and societal benefits. Thus cultural concerns may have an impact on the HRM policies applying by a firm. Management surrounds by some external factors like Political, Economical and Cultural forces. In political forces the countries or management laws come in. Organization cannot do work alongside to the law. So they have to run their management in the restrictions of the law. Cultural factors authorized that people of different cultures are there within a single organization and they should work together by knowing the values and importance of different cultures and employees working in an organization. Same as if the different cultural people come from different nook and corner of the world they need and invest money which affects the overall economy of the management or an organization.
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
4.0 The challenges in Human Resource Planning are given below-
Human Resource Management has been affected by a large number of movement and development which includes changes in technology, ethical issues, globalization, demographics of the workforce and demands to show that its practitioners add value to an organization. The Changing labor force conveys important challenges for human resource specialists, mainly when there exist a need of recruitment and selecting staff while hiring which the organization requires. This decides how to deal with employees within an organization and when they are a part of the organizations human resources. The challenges that are face could be the demographic trends and workforce trends. (rudman, 2010)It will also be better educated, experienced and highly talented, with more self-centered than trustworthy to their employers.
Changes and advancement in technology have affected how traditional HRM activities are managed. As an instance payroll and information systems can easily be handled more effectively and efficiently by making use of better technology (Adler, 2003). So this advancement in technology is evidenced by the greater usage of technological learning opportunities such as online journaling, blogs, wikis etc. (Slotte and Herbert, 2008).
Ethical issues have increased for managers and organizations. If the ethical nature is bad in some organization then it affects the identity and reputation of a particular organization. If a organization has its own mark and identity in the competitive era only then the more skillful people comes in the recruitment process. Reputation is one of the mark and sign of the company which becomes the reason of its success and downfall. (Frank and Taylor, 2004).
The high rate of labor mobility is argued to be a major discouragement to the wide terms of training and thus becomes a wall to employeesââ‚¬â„¢ career development. Further challenges also exist for designers of any programs preparing individuals for new professional roles when the sites of such vocational performance are focused to important modification. Such a modification and change can proved to be very important for new knowledge and practice. So finally it could be argued that any practitioner training only attains significant result if it deals with the fundamentals of the changing situation of work and occupations (Allexperts, 2007)
5.0 Human resource planning is mainly deal with making assessment of an organization`s position in relation to its labor market. It is frequently used to put together the data on which plans of action can be based. Some of the stages of procedure are given below-
The setting of the strategic direction involves focusing on supporting human resource policies to help out the achievement and accomplishment of an organization`s mission, goals, visions and strategy. The business goals are the core of any human resource strategy and in order to support business and human resource, measurement of internal potential of an organization to convey the business goals needs to be made.
Designation of the human resource management system is the second stage which focuses on the design, alignment of the human resource management plans, policies and practices and selection. Many alternatives may be unlocked to the organizations like drawing on history best practices. Then organization concludes the future requirements of company mainly the human resource requirements which corresponds to one of the most challenging tasks in front of modern business organizations.
Organization next stage is to produce the required human resource which deals with recruitment, selecting, classifying, training and assigning employees depends on the strategic planning of an organization`s workforce plan. A complete workplace plan will identify suitable training priorities according to the requirements and needs of an organization.
Then action planning is done. It is the traditional approach to career planning, performance appraisals, reward management and employee development must be reappraised by taking into account of characteristics and visions and also the duty outcomes as reproduce in the human resource management plans, policies and practices
Implementation is the last process in which measuring the organization`s progress towards its required result. Organization can successfully measure the impacts of different inputs on performance. It is necessary for an organization to chase the following steps like evaluating organizational and cultural climate, applying succession planning, using experimental measures and reworking and settle it in an organization. (African center for community, 1994)
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In conclusion, above all else it is people who create and expand a competitive core. The strategic planning of human resources can make a contribution to overall strategic planning by make sure that the company has the right, skilled and talented people and they are managed productively and giving best outcomes.