The History Of People Management Business Essay

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Organisation is a social group which distributes tasks for a collective goal. It involves bringing different kind of people from different background into a social group to become one body.

Organisations manage people in it through motivation, inspiration and encouragement. Sometimes organisation or management tends to hire, fire, and discipline or evaluate employees.

Organizational structure refers to how people are arranged and work carried out achieve it goals and objective. When organization structure is so small and face to face communication is frequent, formal structure may not be needed, but in a larger organization, decisions have to be made about the distribution of different duties. Thus, rules are set that assign responsibilities for various functions. It is these decisions that determine the organizational structure.

In an organization of any size or shape, employees' responsibilities are typically defined by what they do, who they report to, and for managers, who reports to them. Over time these definitions are attributed to positions in the organization rather than to specific individuals. It also involves activities such as task allocation, coordination and supervision, which are pointed towards the success of organization goals and objectives. Organisational structure impact is centred on helping individuals; team and organization reach their goals. Recognizing results are achieved through and by people.

Every organisation of a given type must perform certain jobs in order do its work. For example, key functions of a manufacturing company include production, purchasing, marketing, accounting, and personnel.

Organisation impact on the people in the organization through hands-on training session which will enhance and broaden the knowledge and understanding of individual in their various departments. Distribution jobs that require the same knowledge, skills, and resources allow them to be done efficiently and promote the development of greater expertise. A disadvantage of functional groupings is that people with the same skills and knowledge may develop a narrow departmental focus and have difficulty appreciating any other view of what is important to the organisation; in this case, organisational goals may be sacrificed in favour of departmental goals. In addition, coordination of work across functional boundaries can become a difficult management challenge, especially as the organisation grows in size and spreads to multiple geographical locations.

Organisational culture can be define as stated below:

The most visible level is behaviour and artifacts of culture impact on people in the organization. This is the observable level of culture, and consists of behaviour patterns and outward manifestations of culture: perquisites provided to executives, dress codes, level of technology utilized (and where it is utilized), and the physical layout of work spaces. All may be visible indicators of culture, but difficult to interpret. The behaviours and beliefs characteristic of a workplace are its culture. The culture and structur e of an organization affect those who work in the organization. A structure appropriate to the organization helps to develop a healthy culture. For instance, some service users or manager find it difficult to work with people from other background. In this wise, organization ensure discriminatory act is averted in working environment. It helps people in the organization on how to create a conducive atmosphere for both staff and customers.

Organizational cultures are created, maintained, or transformed by people. An organization's culture is, in part, also created and maintained by the organization's leadership. Leaders at the executive level are the principle source for the generation and re-infusion of an organization's ideology, articulation of core values and specification of norms. Organizational values express preferences for certain behaviours or certain outcomes. Organizational norms express behaviours accepted by others. They are culturally acceptable ways of pursuing goals. Leaders also establish the parameters for formal lines of communication and message content-the formal interaction rules for the organization. Values and norms, Individual Differences.

Personal differences impact behaviour at work because; The workplace brings together people from different backgrounds, philosophies, cultures and personalities. Diverse workplace can encourage cooperation, teamwork and creative thinking. Personality differences can mean that individuals take varying approaches to work style and interacting with other employees, managers, clients and competitors. Understanding how personality affects behaviour in the workplace can help determine what might be motivating workers to behave in certain way.

Personal differences have both negative and positive impact to work. For instance, on my first day at work I found it so complicated to relate with my co workers due to my differences with people, especially with strangers. With this new environment I found myself, I find it so difficult to explore my potential with my work because of the faces. In this wise, my behaviour to work was very poor at the time, but I later get along with all the strangers who later became my friends.

Managers have to perform many roles in an organisation and how they handle various situations will depend on their style of management. A management style is an overall method of leadership used by a manager in dealing with differences in behaviour within an organisation or workplace. Management must devise some strategies/styles on dealing with differences at work and it must be out of partiality. Dealing with individual differences at work should not be one sided and avoid any form of partiality.

There are so many benefits and its effects on individual and organizations as a whole. Some individual may find it complex to cope with work and family issues, but the flexibility arrangement which permit individual the need to balance home and organization commitments.

Benefits for organization may include:

Retention of trained staff/employee.

Increased in productivity

Decreased absence.

The organization is seen to support its diversity.

Ability to allow employee to continue to develop and grow in their career and to match the natural cycles of family commitments that everyone experience.

Access to a talent pool which might otherwise been unavailable whilst improving recruitment.

With all these organisational benefits, it helps my organization in meeting up their expectations, achieving their goals e.t.c. For instance, there were vacancies for some job roles in my organization in which our organization put in recruitments for new staff. After employing new employees. After which the profession had undergone some trainings with the new staff, my organization had to put them on six months probation and also outlined the policy and procedure bidding new member 'that it will take them 6-12months before leaving the organization'. Opportunity was given to member of staff to enhance their knowledge as they are the asset to the organization.

Benefits for individual may include

Ability to balance work and home commitments more readily.

Increased quality of life

Reduced stress.

Ability to continue to work

Greater level of job satisfaction

Accessing to interesting and better paid work

Ability to maintain career development and personal growth during a period of temporary increased family commitments.

Motivation is the key of a successful organization to maintain the continuity of the work in a powerful manner and help organizations to survive. Motivation is finding a need inside the employees and help to achieve it in a smooth process. Motivating the staff leads to broaden their skill to meet the organizational demands. Motivating create an avenue for staff/employee in performing excellent.

Goal setting theory is a way of motivating workers/employees. The value of goal setting is so well recognized that entire management systems, like management by objectives, have goal setting basics incorporated within them.

Goal setting is accepted as among the most valid and useful motivation theories in industrial and organizational psychology, human resource management, and organizational behaviour.

Unethical workplace behaviours create chaos and impact the organization in a variety of ways. To maintain job satisfactory among workers, it is important for the actual values of the organization to be aligned with the espoused values of its mission statement.

Organisation ethics encompasses the rules, roles, and values that inform conduct. It is the context of compliance behaviour, risk management, business strategy and growth. There are varieties of service that help to strengthen ethics in my organisation.

Ethics Training: promote ethical conduct by developing awareness and communication skills. With this, staff knows how best to react/behave to either customer or among themselves.

Online Ethics Training: it provides stand-alone e-course as well as online pre-work and refreshers to enhance face-to-face ethical conduct training.

Learning Needs Assessment: it helps staff to identify the most relevant learning objectives for ethical conduct training.

Individual Risk Profile: it enables individual to identify and overcome barriers to ethical conduct.

Culturally appropriate communication:

Code of conduct: communicate your organisation's code of conduct across cultures and languages.

Co-operates Social Responsibility means the ethical behaviour of business towards its stakeholders. Organisation ensures that developing and updating their programs and policies, and attempting to measure their social and environment performance, whilst at the same time engaging in consultations with stakeholders and, during this process, communicating their values to employees and giving employee the avenue to contribute their opinion to the growth of the organisation.

Rewards, appraisal and incentives, helps motivate employee in their area of work. With these, employee tends to work effectively and adequately.

Motivation is what influence or drives actions and behaviour-usually towards a goal and a reward that satisfies our needs.

Employees are motivated when they expect that their actions are likely to achieve a goal or receive a reward that satisfies their needs or desires.

Motivating employees is about influencing them to move in the direction set by organisation, and creating the conditions where they want to persist in applying effort to achieve organisational goals.

Motivation theories :

Content theories:- it focuses on the content of motivation, or the needs that motivate employee/organisation to take action and achieve goals that satisfy these needs. Content theories include:

Maslow's Hierarchy of needs: people behaviour and actions are driven by a 'hierarchy' of needs where lower level needs, such as survival, must be satisfied before we are motivated to meet higher level needs, such as 'feeling connected' and self-actualisation.

Alderfer's ERG Theory: uses empirical research to modify Maslow's hierarchy of needs to: Existence, Relatedness and Growth ('ERG'). Alderfer's needs can operate at the same time, rather than in a hierarchy. Where higher level e.g. self-actualisation needs are frustrated, we seek out greater satisfaction of a lower level need.

Mentoring is an act of support and encourages people to manage their own learning in order that they may maximise their potential, develop their skills, improve their performance and become the person they want to be. While coaching is to train or instruct either a team or a group.



Ongoing relationship that can last for a long period of time

Relationship generally has a set duration

Can be more informal and meetings can take place as and when the mentee needs some advice, guidance or support

Generally more structured in nature and meetings are scheduled on a regular basis

More long-term and takes a broader view of the person

Short-term (sometimes time-bounded) and focused on specific development areas/issues

Mentor is usually more experienced and qualified than the 'mentee'. Often a senior person in the organisation who can pass on knowledge, experience and open doors to otherwise out-of-reach opportunities

Coaching is generally not performed on the basis that the coach needs to have direct experience of their client's formal occupational role, unless the coaching is specific and skills-focused

Focus is on career and personal development

Focus is generally on development/issues at work

Agenda is set by the mentee, with the mentor providing support and guidance to prepare them for future roles

The agenda is focused on achieving specific, immediate goals

Mentoring resolves more around developing the mentee professional

Coaching revolves more around specific development areas/issues

Benefits of training and development go a long way for individual in an organisation. In my work place, the management ensures all staff of the organisation undergoes training every 3-6months which enables the staff to be updated in their area of work and bring together staff by sharing our opinion with one another. Training and development is an act of learning, assessing, evaluating and developing individual towards their work ethics.

Training and development enables individual to be effective, efficiency

It enables individual to work in line with lay down rule to achieve a better outcome.

It broadens individual knowledge and gives more insight to what work responsibilities.

It enables individual to know their roles and responsibilities.

People management strategies can be review in an organisation by going through the strategies in place how effective and efficient it works? Effective communication is paramount in an organisation and how effective it has been. For instance, in my organisation, we communicate with one another through media communication through computer/internet, telephones fax and so on. But there is policy that governs data protection and confidentiality, which is strictly adhere to. Management ensure that strategies in place are strictly in use and there is good impartation on the staff and the how well the organisation has reached its goals and objectives.

The impact on people of management strategies used in an organisation, these reflect on individual input in an organisation and how well the strategies in place have been used. The impacts on people reflect on the how well the organisation is able to reach their targeted goals and objectives and how productive the strategies are. Strategies used in an organisation and well implemented will attract increase and at the same time competition from other entities or organisation.

There are various strategies to promote performance in organisation such as:

Employee appraisal: is used to review employees' performance and potential. There may also be a link with a reward review. Appraisals can help to improve employees' job performance by identifying strengths and weaknesses and determining how their strengths can be best utilised within the organisation and weaknesses overcome. They can help to reveal problems which may be restricting employees' progress and causing inefficient work practices.

An incentive is any factor (financial or non-financial) that enables or motivates a particular course of action and it is an expectation that encourages employee to behave in a certain way. It can be classified into various classes such as remunerative incentives, moral incentives such as the right thing to do, non-monetary incentives such as social recognition and awards, etc but a common form of incentive for government employees is a financial incentive under the name of "performance-related pay" (PRP) or "pay for performance" ..

All these strategies increase organisational performance if strictly adhere to.