The History Of Organization And Behaviour Business Essay


Organizational behavior is a study of behaviors of individuals, teams and structures and their impact within an organization. This field includes sociology, psychology, management and communication within itself. In modern time, where human is being touching the heights of modernization, behavioral studies have become a vital ingredient of management sciences. It has introduced the concepts of team building, leadership styles and many more. Now the managements of well-organized businesses consider it a significant portion of management. In brief, organizational behavioral studies have developed the academics into practices.

Task 1

1.1 Comparison and contrast among three different organizational structures& cultures:

Organizational structure consists of activities like job allocation, coordination and supervision, which are directed towards the accomplishment of organizational aims. There are different classifications of organizational structures. The comparison of three of them is described below:

Functional Structure: In this type of division, the staff only works specialized task of their function and report on the basis of function e.g. in engineering department, all the engineers are performing there specialized task as a whole. [1]

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Divisional Structure: It is also called "product structure" In this sort of structure; the organization divides the duties by creating different divisions which may be on the bases of geographical location or specific nature of product. [1]

Matrix Structure: this class of structure groups employees by both function and product. Every product may have a separate setup and have each of function within its domain. [1]

Organizational Culture includes the organization values, visions, norms, working language, symbols and habits. In short it is a collective behavior of all the persons associated with an organization. Out of various types of organizational cultures, three are discussed below:

Power Culture: It is a centralized form of culture which is usually found in small scale organization. In this culture, the decision making and chain of commands are basically handled by a sole person without consultation. [1]

Task Culture: This is a team work approach. This is more common in project based businesses where a team work is necessary to complete a designated project. The decisions are made by taking an input from each member about his/her domain. [1]

Role Culture: It is a most common culture now a day. In this culture, every person has been assigned a particular responsibility. He is considered responsible for his own assigned role. [1]

1.2 Effect of relationship between an organization's structure and culture:

Organizational structure and culture both have a deep combination which may affect the performance of TESCOS. A supermarket usually has a complex organizational structure. TESCOS, being a supermarket is Ireland, need to develop such an affective structure and culture to have a full output of its human resource. It is a fact that TESCOS' employees are from multiple nations and cultures. A blend of task culture and role culture is necessary because there use to be number of sections in a supermarket. At every section, there need to be a whole team handling the operations.

A smooth combination of organizational structure, along with affective values and norms shall be aligned.

1.4 Four factors that can influence individual behavior in the workplace in Irish TESCOS:

There are a few factors which actually have a remarkable influence on the workers working in TESCOS. In behavioral studies, these are known with the name MARS Model. MARS is an abbreviation of following:



Role perception

Situational factors

These are seen as four major factors which play a significant role in performance of workers and their attitude in workplace. Moreover, these factors are all together applies on TESCOS. If any one of them weakens, it will affect the performance of employees. All four of them are described briefly as under:

Motivation: It is a psychological feature of an individual or a team which that derives one to act towards the desired goals or aims in a certain manner. It is very necessary for TESCOS each employee as individual as well as a team. [2]

Abilities: In other words; skill, aptitude or potential within a person. This factor is an additional force along with motivation. TESCOS employees work as a team. There are many which may have lesser abilities but within a team it can be enhanced. [2]

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Role perception: Role Perception of the employees acts as one of the most critical components in the workplaces today. If there are no distinct roles are defined in TESCOS and amorphous perception of everyone's responsibility may be an alarming situation for employees' morale. [2]

Situational factors: It means those factors which are in environment whether natural resource or equipment/technology. This fourth factor is also an integral factor along with all three. TESCOS needs to seek for betterment in situational factor every time by improving the technology and techniques. [2]

Task 2

2.1. Three different leadership styles for three different organizations:

Leadership is required throughout an organization extensively. From top management to lower management, every person who has subordinates need to establish a suitable leadership style to lead to success. [3] The comparison of three leadership styles is as given below along with the situational demands of a business organization:

Consultative Style: As it is shown in the name, this kind of leaders give a fair chance to subordinates to give their suggestions about any particular decision making. This style encourages brain storming but the ultimate decision is taken by leader himself.

This kind of style is adopted normally in a situation when a decision has to be taken for a particular situation other than routine decisions. [3]

Participative Style: In this type of leadership some decision making authority has been passed to subordinates up to whom they can make their own decisions. This leadership style provokes the succession planning within an organization and subordinates feel confident.

This style of leadership is usually suitable for that decision making which is on regular basis. It enables the operations to run smooth. [3]

Transactional Style: In this leadership style, leaders focus their leadership on motivating subordinates through a system of rewards and punishments.

This style best fits to the situation where there are objectives really important and to be attained in short while. [3]

2.2 Organizational theory and practice of TESCOS management:

Organizational theory states that "the study of organizations for the advantages of finding out common themes for problem solving purpose, maximizing efficiency and productivity, and meeting the needs of stakeholders"

There are three sub-topics of organizational theory. These are necessary to discuss for establishing understanding the practice in Irish TESCOS. These topics are discussed as under one by one:

Classical Perception:This perception has four basic principles:

1) Find the one "best way" to perform each task,

2) Carefullymatch each worker to each task,

3) Closely supervise workers, and use reward and punishment as motivators, and

4) The task of management is planning and control.

The implication of this perception was found successful decades ago for industries but in modern era, this perception is not fared well. [4]

Neoclassical Perception: This organizational theory was followed by classical theories, when classical theories were proved rigid and less effective. This approach gave emphasis to "affective and socio-psychological aspects of human behaviors in organizations.The human relations movement was a movement which had the primary concerns of concentrating on topics such as morale, leadership, and mainly factors that aid in the cooperation in Organizational behavior. [4]

Contingency Perception: This theory basically negates the both classical and neoclassical perceptions. It states that there is no specified way to manage organization. It differs situation to situation and nature to nature. The leadership style and approach suitable for particular situation matters a lot. [4]

2.3 Four different approaches to management used by different organizations:

Following are the four different management approaches discussed one by one:

Decision Theory Approach: This management approach carries the below features:

Management is essentially decision making and all the members of organization are part of this essence.

Organization is considered as a combination of various decisions made on account of each member. Quality of all these decisions is necessity for organizational success.

This theory demonstrates the methods used by managers to discharge there responsibility.

Management Sciences Approach: The salient features are as below:

Management is problem solving with the help of mathematical tools.

It is a quantitative approach in which problems are solved with the outcomes from mathematical or statistical analyses.

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System Approach: This approach considers the organization as a system containing different parts. Every part of the system has its own function. If all the parts are performing smoothly, the organization will be said to be managed well. It is an abstract approach to manage a business organization.

Operational Approach: This approach states the following features:

Management has universal functionality irrespective of the nature of organization.

The conceptual framework of management may be applied on every type of industry but with vigilance. The core of which is planning, organizing, directing and controlling.

Task 3

3.1. Effect of Leadership Styles on Employees Motivation:

It is the matter of fact that along with individual efforts, there is the skill of leader to lead which decides the success of an organization. [5] The following study is in frame of TESCOS Ireland leadership, which will be useful for analyzing the leadership in TESCOS:

Autocratic Leadership and Its Effects: It is the type of leadership which never takes an input from employees and decisions are being imposed with authority. Where there is a fast paced decision making required, this type of leadership is advantageous if trust of TESCOS employees on abilities of manager is once established, it will be result orientated for structure of supermarket.

Quiet Leadership and its Effects: In this type, the lead sits back and allows the team member to judge the best ways under their portfolios. This kind of leadership will establish a self confidence and will groom the successors within the team of TESCOS employees. On the other hand this style may not be as effective in the times where quick decisions are required.

Democratic Leadership and its Effects: In this kind of leadership, manager takes inputs and suggestions from employees before making any decisions but the ultimate decision uses to be his own. TESCOS Ireland can adopt this way of leadership at the time when there are some extra ordinary decisions are meant to be made. In this way staff feel that they all have their role in making such decision.

3.2. Application of Motivational Theorieswithin the Workplace:

Employee motivation in a workplace is an utmost necessary factor for the successful operations. Motivation brings commitment to the tasks and also innovations. There are a few theories about employees' motivation discussed as under along with their applications:

Theory I; Personal Style:

In this theory different types of people are identified. These are:

Action Oriented: They focus on current time and take direct steps forward.

Intuition Oriented: They focus on future and involve others as well.

Relationship Oriented:Focused on supporting and tend to reject conflict.

Thinking Oriented: They are usually cautious taking action.

Application: This theory applies in a way that people feel connected essentially with their work and structure their work in way that personal style is met.

ii) Theory II: McClelland's theory:

In this theory, the workers get motivated in a following ways:

a) To avoid work with low and high risks and not to work alone or with higherachievers.

b) To seek personal or institutional powers in both ways to pass direction to the others

c) To keep harmonious work relationships, to accept and to be accepted motive.

Application:This theory adds achievement need in the previous one. The key is to surround high achievers with other high achievers. [5]

iii) Theory III: Money as a De-motivator:

This theory proposed that people are influences by two kinds of factors are as under:

a) Motivator Factors: Includes work itself, promotion/growth, achievement and recognition.

b) Hygiene Factors: Includes physical environment, supervision, salary/wage, job security and relation with colleagues.

3.3. Evaluation of usefulness of Motivation Theories of TESCOS:

TESCOS is a supermarket business organization. It is a very important fact that motivation of employees remains intact because the employees there belong from different nations. TESCOS management has to review the employees' classifications and design the motivational environment as the higher achievers work with higher for having a healthy competition and the rest of others can be lead affectively to grow.


4.1. Nature of groups and group behavior:

Nature of Groups: Generally group is a collection of people who perceive themselves as a unit. Groups are majorly of two nature formal groups and informal groups. They are discussed shortly as under:

Formal Groups: These are the groups which are formed by the management in an organizational structure. These groups are formed to accomplish the organizational objectives.

Informal Groups: Informal groups are formed unofficially. These are unofficial associations of people with each other's regardless of structure and objectives. Their aims may be different and irrelevant from the organizational aims.

Group Behavior:

Group behavior is a situation where people interact with each other in small or large numbers. All of them may behave differently to achieve their distinct goals. On the contrary in case of formal groups, they behave in a proper designated way to achieve a same goal or interlinked goals. [6]

4.2 Effective teamwork in organization:

It has been becoming a vital aspect for organizations to develop a trend of teamwork. In this regard, everyone out of team has been assigned a specific role. To create a productive team following aspects are needed to be focused:

Goals and objectives: In order to have a productive team, alignment of objectives is a key factor. The entire team must have integrated objectives so that the maximum output can be attained.

Compensation: It is very much necessary to have a sophisticated compensation plan to build a strong team. It always effects the motivation of individual.

Communication: It happens in two directions; one is within team and the other is with management. It is significant to have such an environment which enhances both communications. This enables a better decision making and quick actions.

Deal with conflicts: Where there are a lot of members in same team, there is always a chance of misunderstandings and conflicts. The handling of these has a major concern for HR management.

Leadership: As discussed previously, leader and his leadership style also matters a lot. A good leader can convert the potential skills into output.

4.3 Impact of technology on team functioning in TESCOS in Ireland:

In this modern era, technology has enhanced the team performance. In some cases it has become hindrance for team functioning. Even then it is the demand of the time to stay updated with the technology. There are following most known technologies are used which are discussed below:

E-mail and Networks: E-mails are used instead of letters and applications more effectively. It is a faster and effective way of communication. This has enabled the team members to have communication across the borders. It will be effective for TESCOS to put the orders in case of urgency. It will also be helpful for the team of TESCOS to get quick approvals.

GroupWare: It is the medium of conversation. It enables the management to have meetings, collaborations online. In this way, the team members know each other closely. The use of groupware will also decrease the traveling cost for TESCOS and the interaction between members will increase.

Hindrance: There are a few possible hurdles may come during team building due to technological enhancement. It has reduced the direct interaction of the team. These technologies have majorly brought the concept of highly formal communication. Lack of informal communication does not give a chance to team members to establish such relations in which they can share the ideas and suggestions freely. [6]