This chapter discusses about the relationship between workplace ethics and work performance among the employees at the â€¦â€¦â€¦..It also explains the purposes, objectives and scope of the study. Besides that, the importance and limitation of the study were analyzed.
Malaysia is a successful developing country and attempting to be a united nation by the year 2020. It is forging ahead to be high-income status, living in scientific and progressive society, and ensure the society that is mature democratic (Economic Planning Unit, 2008). The entrepreneurs play an important role to ensure the stability of economic in the Malaysia. The ethics of the employees will directly influence the successful of the company. Due to the rapid economic growth, the moral and ethical of the society will be affected. For example, the unethical employees like dishonest, disregard the company policy, and do some illegal acts often wish to get a higher level position to ensure they can receive the recognition from top management. Unethical behavior of employees will clearly reflect their work performance in the organization. As employees desire to get success in the future, they need to work cooperation, tolerate, honest and responsible for their action in the workplace.
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In order to deal with the unethical behavior in the workplace, the National Integrity Plan was originated by the Datuk Seri Abdullah Ahmad Badawi in order to instill culture ethics and integrity among Malaysian (Siang, 2004). Thus, it will create a courtesy and ethical society with harmony lifestyles. Besides, university student major in medicine, engineering and law also require attending ethics courses before graduation (Ulang Kaji PTK, 2010). Ethical behavior is important to ensure the successful of an organization and achievement of the Vision 2020. Ethics is generally a principle that determines the moral life and refers to a way of thinking (McDaniel & Charlotte, 2004). Each society has independence decision and attempts to meet the moral standards that are reasonable. According to Nashmad Mohd., good moral values are very important in this competitive world to create community with ethically and dignity (Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka Malaysia, 2011-2012). (5) Successful organization will be built when employees with ethical behavior move on to the real world business (Cantrell & Lucas, 2007). This is due to the good performance of the employees in the workplace. Thus, it is important to create a strong moral foundation in the society in order to build ethical employees.
Nowadays, many organizations faced with a lot of challenges such as illegal and unethical behavior of employees in the workplace (Joseph, 2010). Unfortunately, unethical employees are very common today in the workplace. Organization with more employees who value risk will likely to decrease the performance. Among the most common issue on workplace unethical behaviors are help another colleagues punch a time card, abuse sick time, and do some personal task by using business computer (Cindy Phillips, 2007). Although these unethical behaviors seem like minor infraction, they will influence the work performance of employees eventually. For example, knowing that a colleague late for work every day and without reporting it to top management will lead to the employee has a bad habit. This is also unethical behavior even some of them maybe have a sense of empathetic to avoid trouble for that employee. In order to minimize these unethical behaviors and step for an outstanding country, all of the authorities and Malaysian should instill good ethics and integrity in the workplace.
Workplace ethics are crucial for organizational planning and strategic thinking in this competitive world. Organizations require employees with ethics behavior to increase the performance and productivity of an organization. Thus, the companies are able to compete with competitors. However, there are a lot of leaders that are low morality nowadays (Ahmad & Zin, 2001). A supervisor plays an important role to be a good model for the employees. Supervisor with strong work ethics and habits can inspire employees to be productivity (Carabelli, 2010). For example, manager punctual to go for work and stays late in the workplace can inspire and energize the subordinates to do the same. If managers are able to maintain professionalism and enjoy the work while performing the task, the employees will see that as an example for them to work hard. They will observe and absorb the behavior of manager. Normally, most of the employees will likely to follow suit the work ethical of manager that they adored. Thus, it is crucial for managers to behave well on their work position.
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Knowledge and skills are required for employees to be success in their work performance but the work ethics are also crucial in their lifestyles (Bello, 2012). Employees with strong work ethics will be more productivity and thus promote to high level position. Employees spent more times in the workplaces compare to other places. Thus, they require aware that the importance of strong work ethics in an organization.
Tan Sri Musa Hassan said that, crime rate in Malaysia has certainly increased and admitted that it is at alarming level. He requested that the authorities refuse to hide the facts to the public and tried to concern about it (Ilham, 2013). According to Harper, 33 to 75 percent of employees have engaged in unethical behavior such as theft, embezzlement, absenteeism, vandalism and the others (Bennett, 1995). However, 42 percent of women are victims of sexual harassment in the organization. There are 75 percent of employees engage in the case of stolen from their employers (Porter, Angle, & Allen, 2003). All of these cases show that there are numerous unethical behaviors among the workers and it is increasing from years to years.
Japan is a traditional country, with strong business ethics among the employees. It has a long tradition of hardworking people, and all of the people are punctuality, commitment in a group and readiness to share knowledge, skills and expertise among the employees (Ganeshadeva, 2010). The 5S Philosophy of Japanese is based on five Japanese words that begin with 'S'. The 5S's are Seiri (Sort), Seiton (Straighten), Seiso (Shine), Seiketsu (Systemize), and Shitsuke (Sustain) (Gilliam, Jones, & Costanza, 2005). It focuses on efficient and standardized work procedures in an organization. Once the 5S phases are fully carried out, the organization will be more effective, productive and competitive in the market place. In year 2010, Prime Minister Datuk Seri Najib Tun Razak encourages the organization Japanese to invest in our country. He also mentions that Malaysian should view the attitude and ethics of Japanese to be role model in their daily life in order to achieve the Vision 2020 (Ganeshadeva, The Star, 2010). Generally, the work ethics of Japan organization are different with the local organization either government or private organization. So, I will further investigation to review the relationship between the workplace ethics and the work performance among employees in an organization.
1.2 Problem Statement
The crime rate happened in our country are escalating recently and directly reflect that the important of work ethic in the workplace. The employee who does not follow the work ethic could do something against the law and leave the bad impact to a particular organization.
In mid-April 1982, former Prime Minister, Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad had launched some campaign to ensure efficient and more competitive employees and came with a slogan - "Clean, Efficient and Trustworthy". This concept is in line with the adoption of 'Islamic Values in Administration' policy and 'Leadership by Example' policy. Another former Prime Minister, Tun Abdullah Ahmad Badawi who also came up with a slogan "Combat the Corruption Menace" and thus shows that the effort of prime minister to instill work ethical among society (Utusan Online, 2012). According to Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad, the successful and development of the country come from the good ethical and moral value from the government servant, even though the management and the nation as well (Shuib, Keling, & Ajis, 2009). Therefore, all of the government servants and employees of private sector should be aware and behave as they can handle their daily task and prevent any unethical behavior in the workplace.
While looking at the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) 2012, it is clearly shows that case of corruption are escalating and threating recently (Transparency International, 2012). The index is made based on the corruption issues in a country where the ranking of the country will be listed with the score achieved. This survey is done based on the assessment from different country by experienced observers such as country analysts and businessman. There are no country with corruption free means that the seriousness of the problem. Corruption will totally influence harmony communities, and destroy peaceful countries and institutions.
The anti-corruption activities seem like effective and efficiency recently. Transparency International Malaysia said that Malaysia has improved the rank on Corruption Perception Index (CPI) at the 54th position compare with other 176 involved countries (Rahim, 2012). The country also placed third among Asian countries ahead of Thailand (88th), Philippines (105th) and Indonesia (118th). When CPI introduced in 1995, Malaysia was at the ranking of 23 out of 41 countries. The ranking started to fell into 26 in 1996 and 32 in 1997 and continue drop into rank 56 in 15 years after the CPI introduced.
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This statistic shown that the corruption in Malaysia are getting worse in year by tear and it cause by the lack of ethical behaviors in the organization, thus it will lead to bad work performance and unsatisfactory standard. Therefore, this research shows that the impact of work ethic in affecting the work performance among the employee.
1.4 Research Question
This research intended to answer the following issues:
What is the level of employees' work ethics in the Mitsubishi Electric
(Malaysia) Sdn Bhd, Senai, Johor?
What is the level of employees' work performance in the Mitsubishi
Electric (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd, Senai, Johor?
Is there any relationship between the work ethic with work performance in the Mitsubishi Electric (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd, Senai, Johor?
1.5 Purposes of the Study
The purpose of this research is to obtain the information regarding the relationship between the working ethical values towards the working performances among the employees at Mitsubishi Electric (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd. Hence, the researchers wish that this study will provide guidance to the organization so that top management can focus more on the ethical problems. Strong ethics behavior among employees will increase the performance and productivity of organization.
1.6 Objectives of the Study
The objectives of the research are as below:
Identify the level of employees' work ethics in the Mitsubishi Electric (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd, Senai, Johor.
Identify the level of employees' work performance in the Mitsubishi Electric (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd, Senai, Johor.
Investigate the relationship among the work ethic with the work performances in the Mitsubishi Electric (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd, Senai, Johor.
1.7 Scope of Study
This study is a research regarding the relationship between the work ethic with the work performance based on the perception of the respondents. The focus or main element throughout this research is about the work performance toward the work ethic. This study investigates the ethics of the organization and work ethics, several theories also have been investigated to complete the research. Theories about the work ethics include teleological theory, deontological theory, natural right theory and virtue ethics. However, process theoryâ€¦â€¦such as expectancy theory, equity theory, goal setting theory and reinforcement theory.
In order to gather data regarding to the research questions, questionnaire will be given to employees in the Mitsubishi Electric (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd. These respondents of the research do not include all the employees in the company due to the limitation of time, cost and the amount of respondent. The respondents consist of 100 people of employees in the Mitsubishi Electric (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd. After having all the needed data, it will be statistically analyzed and compiled in the form of graph and chart.
1.8 Importance of the Study
Ethics are certainly important for an individual to be success in an organization. When decisions are made in organization and actions are taken on them, we need to understand what we assume to be ethics, and ethical and unethical behavior, as well as the implications and consequences of those decision and behavior. The importance of this study can be viewed from several aspects which include:
(i) Importance in term of scientific
In scientific, this research is not only increase the awareness of employees regarding the workplace ethics toward the improvement of work performance, it also ensure the people find out their real ability and job performance in the workplace. In fact, employees play an important role to behave and ethical in the workplace to increase the work performance. They also have right to learn the correct way of work ethic and help them to improve their performance. Therefore, the important of this research is to raise the awareness of the employees toward the correct work ethic which can assist the employees to maintain the strong work ethics for a long term period. This research also provides the references and guides for students who wish to do the future research about this topic.
(ii) Importance toward organization
The importance of this study toward organization is to provide the perception and help the top management to understand the function of work ethic and improve the work performance among the employee. Besides that, the outcome of the research also provides the awareness toward the organization regarding the important of work ethic and the relation with work performance. Furthermore, this research also help the organization to discover the work performance of their employees and aware that whether the employees are ethical in the workplace. Hence, organization can conduct some actions to prevent the unethical behaviors to be seriousness among the employees. It can also make sure the growth of organization is in the right path and improve the performance of employee.
(iii) Importance toward researchers
This study can be benefit to the researchers because the researchers are able to understand and figure out the important of ethical behavior and thus directly impact to the work performance. Researchers are able to clear about the types of unethical behaviors and the reasons for misconduct among workers. After done the research, the researchers will be more knowledgeable and aware some aspects need to be concern more to be success in their career.
1.9 Limitation of Study
This research had met some limitation as below:
This research is only can be done in the Mitsubishi Electric (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd.
The accuracy of the outcome of this research is depending on the honesty and understanding of the respondent in answering the questionnaire which will be the instrument throughout the research.
The outcome of the study is valid only at the time of doing this research.
1.10 Conceptual definition
The term ethics is derived from the Greek word ethos that refers to the behavior, character and personality of individual. According to Johnson, ethics has to do with moral behavior in human - specifically, one's moral behavior with respect to society (Quatro & Sims, 2008). Besides, ethics can also refers to clear standards and norms that help people to distinguish right from wrong behavior in making decision in their lives (Josepth, 2003).
According to Mote 2007, ethics is a philosophy that assesses the actions performed, systems, norms, or values â€‹â€‹that distinguish between what is good, true or otherwise.