The History And Background Of Motivation Business Essay


Motivation theories can be categories broadly into two different types that are content and process theories. Content theory is about what motivates people and it is concerned with personal requirement and objectives. Maslow, Herzberg and McCelland inspect motivation from a "content" perspective. Process theory is about the "process" of motivation and is concerned with how motivation takes place. Vroom, Locke and Adams inspect motivation from a "process" perspective. In the early 1940s, Abraham Maslow presents his theory of needs. This determined the primary needs that human beings have, in order of their importance - physiological needs, safety needs, the needs for belonging, self-esteem and self-actualisation (McLeod 2007). This hierarchy proposed that people are motivated to satisfy basic needs before moving on to the more advanced needs (Saul McLeod, 2007). This hierarchy is always shown a pyramid. The bottom parts of the pyramid consist of the most primary needs, whereas the more advanced needs are discovered at the top level of the pyramid. All the needs at the bottom of the pyramid are primary physical requirements including food and shelter. Once these lower-level needs have been satisfy, people will move to the next level of needs, these are safety and security. When people moving up the pyramid, needs become growly psychological and social. Then, the need for love and friendship turn into important. As going up the pyramid, the need for esteem and feelings of achievement take priority. Maslow stressed the significance of self-actualization, which is a procedure of growing and progressing as a person in order to accomplish personal capacity. Physiological needs include the most basic needs such as food, air and water. Maslow trusted that these all are the most basic needs in the hierarchy as the needs change into secondary while these needs met. Security needs involve needs for safety and security. Security needs are critical for staying, but they are not as require as the primary needs. Some of security needs consists a stable employment, health protection and protection from the atmosphere. Social needs include needs for love, belonging, and emotion. Maslow believed that these need is not basic as physiological and security needs. Friendships and families are such relationships that accomplish this need for acquaintance, as this involve in society. After these three needs have been satisfied, esteem needs do growly significant. It includes the need for the thing that inspects on self-esteem, individual value, social acknowledgment, and achievement. Self-actualising needs is the top level of Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Self-actualising people are self-conscious, care for individual development, less interested with the view of others, and concerned meet their capacity.

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Frederick Herzberg thinking on work and motivation and carry out a widely-reported motivational study his two-factor theory known as the Motivator-Hygiene Theory. To know more for employee behavior and motivation, Frederick Herzberg carry out studies to define which elements in an employee's work condition caused contentment or dissatisfaction. The research consists of access in which employees where requested what pleased and displeased them on their task. Herzberg discovers that the elements lead to job contentment were not the same from those create job dissatisfaction. He performed the motivation-hygiene theory to illustrate these outcomes. He was known the satisfiers motivators and the dissatisfiers hygiene factors as "hygiene" in the meaning that they are believed maintenance factors that are essential to avoid dissatisfaction (Anon 2005). Herzberg's research was based on depth interview skills, known as important incident technique. The difficulty with this way is that respondents basically be related good times in their jobs with things under their individual control. On the other way, were more related with elements in the surrounding, under the confine of management. He established that job satisfiers are associated to job details and job dissatisfiers are allied to job context. Herzberg marked satisfiers as motivators and known dissatisfiers as hygiene factors. The hygiene factors, which are for the most part affected with the work condition, can be illustrated through Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. Maslow was a famous psychologist who defined that human beings needs to take priority from others. Besides the details of water, air, food and sex, Maslow lists out five levels: the physiological needs, safety and security needs, love and belonging needs, esteem needs, and self-actualisation needs, with the order. The first three needs, physiological, safety and social are all in the hygiene factor of Herzberg's Theory. This informs us that the hygiene needs are the primary needs of individuals. This compatibility of Herzberg's theory and the Hierarchy of needs confirm that Herzberg's theory is not the same from Maslow's only in the method of classification. Herzberg classifies primary needs of human beings as hygiene factors. This means primary needs do not lead motivation but simply create a better work condition. When basic needs are fulfilled there would be no dissatisfaction among workers, but these need do not motivate them or provide them satisfaction, it just clear up dissatisfaction. esteem needs and self-actualisation needs are the two top needs of the hierarchy of motivation factors. When these needs have been fulfilled, it would provide employees satisfaction. There must not be any factor of dissatisfaction before satisfaction can really be accomplished. Thus, it is simple to apply Herzberg's Theory paired with Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. This takes to expand Herzberg's Theory as it reduce its appliance as a plan to stimulate employees. By determining the needs in Maslow's hierarchy, the hygiene and motivation factors can be gained and afterwards fulfilled. Herzberg admits that real motivation take place from within a person but not from the surrounding or outside factors. However, there are some weaknesses in Herzberg's Theory, which is the demarcate extent of contentment. Some job factor extents are not genuinely motivation or hygiene factors. Herzberg apply a basic demarcate extents, which be able to cause mistake in his detection. After that, these undesignated job satisfaction extents are more easily to be ordinary feeling investigates, which imply that they were not depend on practical job skill or condition. The justifiability of the deduction shown by Herzberg is also suspicion. Herzberg missed to admit the presence of well-off personal dissimilar. Different individuals may have different needs and thus, different motivators. Herzberg's Theory can be used by managers to stimulate workers. By determine the hygiene factors, managers can satisfy the primary needs of workers and clear up any factor of dissatisfaction. They are in a good mode to be stimulated when workers have no dissatisfaction appearing from the job condition. Employees can be motivated by satisfy their esteem and self-actualisation needs by applying the theory. This comprises a induction of accomplishment when they have carry out their tasks satisfactorily. Therefore, managers can achieve this need by strengthen job satisfaction. By strengthen job satisfaction, workers obtain a higher induction of accomplishment and job enjoyment. When workers are satisfies with their works, the ordinary state of mind raise and so does output. Thus, benefits of this theory is managers can exactly work on primary needs, once determined, and then move upper level needs for their workers. Through this method, workers are more absolutely fulfill with their work satisfaction and work condition. This can cause organisational nationality features and work promise. Workers who are have work content need minimal motivation from management to go through well. When work content is advance, workers are more ready to do more. This action is term organisational nationality action where workers loose in work doings, which are not rewarded. From the other side, the Herzberg theory could also be a disadvantage to employers where workers with low motivation needs are related. There are those who do not correspond to the common of Hierarchy of needs. Ordinary less-trained workers do not need for accomplishment and self-actualisation. Primary hygiene needs are all it apply to fulfill them. If employer fails to determine this class of workers, the theory can be provocation if applied. Despite of being motivated and having induction of accomplishment, these workers can only be annihilated by the job satisfaction. They may be also be dissatisfied, although their primary needs have been satisfied. Next, some hygiene factors are motivators to some individuals for example money. Herzberg's theory stated money is a hygiene factor, however it is a motivation for a lot of workers. It motivates them to work tougher in order to obtain acknowledgement, which can gain a higher wages. Herzberg's theory is antithetic with Maslow's hierarchy of needs and thus it is simpler to perform. But the methodological bias that have cause the theory questionable to certain level. Employers can use the theory to stimulate workers by determine the hygiene and motivation factors. Specific differences must still be taken into account as not every worker get to admire this way.

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Any system that concerns the rewards of an individual worker to the fulfillment of the organisation that people works for is known as performance-related pay, or PRP. Performance pay plans link pay to a measure of individual, group or organisational performance (Anon 2001). Such systems are planned to motivate workers and to align their skill more intently with the purposes of the organisation. The pay is regularly financial, but it may also be non-financial. Payments under such programs are usually made respectively from normal salary payments. Because of this, the recipient appreciates that they are changeable, divided and not safeguard. It is a basic assumption of agency theory that paying individuals to achieve results will motivate them to work harder and result in better outcomes for the organization (Bender 2004). Sometimes the raise in annual basic salary for a worker is also performance related. This can be advantageous in reserving employees for who are at the top end of the pay extent for their work grading, but whose capacity is still fine. These workers are more multiplex in today's flatter organisations, where the occasions for promotion to a higher grade are lesser than they were in the multi-layered organisations. Performance-related pay plans are most ordinary used for employers in private-sector organisations. Technological, clerical and manual workers are less often involved, although their capacity can be more readily measured. These plans are familiarly self-funding and the enhancement in capacity even more than pays for the rewards. Some reviewer argues that pay is not a primary motivator in the office. They appoint Frederick Herzberg's say that the job oneself is the origin of true motivation, backing up their appliance with studies. Others aim to PRP on the field that it prominent the distinct between the highest-paid and lowest-paid workers in an organisation. Employers pay as a multiple of ordinary pay has been increasing in recent years. Performance-related pay plans have disadvantages. It can be hard to plan a target and equitable estimate of performance that does not stress the individual's skill at the expenditure of that of the team. It can also be hard to base fulfill on the right time. If they are in short-term, they may not be in the best advantages of the organisation as a whole; if they are in long-term, they may not be adequately motivating to the participants. Poorly planned performance-related pay programs can obstruct with other enhancement programees. One company, for instance, found that its try to apply a just-in-time system were obstructed by the reluctance of staff to assume the essential training. The training obstruct with their output in the short time, and thus with their take-home pay.

Reward strategies include membership and seniority-based rewards. The largest part of the most pay cheques is depend membership and seniority. Workers get regulated salaries or wages, and many advantages are similar for everybody in the company. The bonus assigned every year by many companies is also a form of membership-based ay because it is a regulated percentage of the worker's annual wages. Other rewards increase with seniority, such as the amount of paid holiday leave (McShane 2005). Base pay sometime raise based on the number of years a employee work for a job. Big companies typically raise every worker's salary for every year with age, even though certain companies are moving towards more performance-based pay. Next reward strategy is job status-based rewards. Almost every organisation rewards workers for the status of their job in the organisation. The national awards institution has set up many of this hierarchy of pay across jobs and industries in Australia. With the shift to firm bargaining and personal contracts, some companies are depending more on job evaluation to identify the worth of each job within the organisation. Jobs have more value and are placed in higher pay grades if they require more skill and effort, have more responsibility and have difficult working conditions. Organisations that do not based on job evaluation still tend to reward job status based on pay investigation information about the external labour market. People in some higher-status jobs are also rewarded with bigger size offices, superior dining rooms and company-paid car. In the other hand, competency-based reward is also a reward strategy. Competencies are the ability, knowledge and other related feature that lead to superior performance. Competency-based pay rewards workers for their knowledge, abilities and characteristics that bring about appetence behaviours. They subvert the organizational hierarchy, lessen the number of pay levels and recompense workers for their illustrated competencies, such as creativeness, customer service, and technical knowledge. This can motivates workers to obtain skills and knowledge by way of some jobs, better than wait for preferment within a high pay career.

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Motivating employees is an important role for managers. Some studies demonstrate how, in a current environment, the work of Maslow and Herzberg adopts more than Taylor's. Previously, as the work of Frederick Taylor demonstrated, motivation theory linked very intently to pay and yield. Individuals required to be motivated in a totally different way as people have a lot of needs now. This was demonstrated by the work of Abraham Maslow. Frederick Herzberg find out there are also factors within the workplace that both satisfy and dissatisfy workers. Lower order needs are met by the organisation offering good pay and a secured working condition. Higher order needs are also provided for the employees through training and development, as well as the occasion to do creative and challenging work. Employees are motivated by being admitted for their accomplishment and by having occasions for progression, no matter how of the level at which they began working for their company. Motivation is fig but an effort by the employers to assist people centralise their minds and abilities on doing their task effectively and efficiently. Trust is another way to motivate people to go through at their best. Effective interpersonal communication also serves to open up an environment that motivates workers. If the workers are conscious what the expectations of the employer are they can carry out their jobs more effectively. A really motivating environment is one where employees think that their ideas are admirable and how they can experience a sense of belongingness. In today's intricate business situation employees not only want thank for their job but also to be acknowledged as people and not just workers. In organisations today are using a variety of programmers to accomplish targets together with their employee's satisfaction. These workers incentive programmers are not just restricted to sales person but involve every worker to help meet corporative goals. These workers include everybody in the linkage from line workers to office crew. These programmers are framed to employee feeling and allow them so that they take more individual responsibility and accomplish the self actualization goals. These employee incentive programmers are frequently carry out as employee training programmers and new employ management systems. Maslow's hierarchy of needs concept presume that lower level needs must be fulfilled or at least relatively satisfied before higher level needs become motivator."