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If an organisation is looking to achieve its corporate goals, then addressing its leadership culture is perhaps the best place to start. This traditionally means starting at the top of the organisation with those who can most greatly influence and shape culture.
Increasing leadership effectiveness at both the corporate and individual level is that enduring, impactful leadership within organisations must start at the top and become part of an organisation's culture. The best leadership development initiatives at the individual level will not benefit the organisation long-term if the organisation cannot provide the supporting organisational culture, including structures, processes and systems necessary for individual leadership to develop within a corporation.
Mullins (2005,p 314) concludes that "it will be important to develop skills in empowering leadership, innovation, communication, aligning performance for success and strategic decision making".
Developing a culture of innovation and productivity requires a leader with a vision to understand the market dynamics and to move people in the organisation to change. Once the vision is set, leaders have to join in to get the organisation where it needs to be.
Organisational culture is the foundation which outlines how work is done in an organisation; this is established through goals, plans, measures and rewards. Aligning organisational culture with strategy is a powerful means of gaining competitive advantage and leadership.
The senior executive team has requested a report on the process carried out by the human resources in recruiting and selecting future leaders, who can create and lead the appropriate organisational culture together with the development and management of new products according to the organisation changing needs. All this is to support the achievement of the organisation's corporate goals.
Research has been devoted to understand the relation and association between leadership and culture of the organisational theory and how these concepts might have an impact on the organisational performance.
The aim of this report is to give practical evidence of the links between organisational culture, leadership style and product development / innovation. This is achieved through research from books, journals and internet. The study shows that the relationship between leadership style and performance is interceded by the nature of organisational culture.
3.0 Recruiting and selecting future Leaders (Question 1)
Recruitment is an essential role of the human resource personnel. An effective recruitment function will assist the level of performance in the organisation.
Strategies for recruitment are developed and followed by organisations to engage the best people for their organisation and to make use of their resources optimally. A recruitment strategy should be well designed and useful to attract the most knowledgeable candidates to apply in the organisation.
Recruitment processes involves a logical process from selecting the candidates to arranging and preparing for the interviews. This requires resources and time. The recruitment process starts when a manger instigates an employee request for a specific or an anticipated vacancy.
According to Flippo, (1984) "Recruitment is the process of searching the candidates for employment and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organisation". Beach (1975), states that, "Recruitment is the development and maintenance of adequate manpower resources".
3.1 The Recruitment Process
The following processes are needed for a recruitment to be successful:
To have in place a recruitment policy together with functional systems that give existence to the policy.
An assessment is needed to establish the organisation's present and future human resources requirements. For this activity to be effective these requirements must be assessed and a priority is assigned for each job category and for each unit and or division of the organisation
Identifying the potential human resources team and the likely competition for the knowledge and skills available within the organisation.
Carrying out a job evaluation and job analysis to classify the individual aspects of each job and calculate its relative value.
Assessment of qualifications profiles, drawn from job descriptions that identify responsibilities and required skills, abilities, knowledge and experience.
The power of the organisation's capability to pay salaries and benefits within a specified period.
The actual process of recruitment and selection to be identified and documented as to ensure fairness and loyalty to equal opportunity and other law.
This is a very delicate area within the business - it was recommended to get information on the recruitment process from a financial institution. This exercise was done to evaluate a 'real' recruitment process. Therefore, a one to one meeting was organised with the Human Resources Manager of APS Bank Ltd - Malta. An analysis of the processes used was carried out and the most important elements were identified. Â The outcome of this meeting is detailed in 'Appendix A'.Â Â
3.2 Recruiting Future Leaders
Leaders are the solution to the success of any organisation. Selecting future leaders is a very important process within an organization as one has to make sure that the leadership recruitment process is right. Handy (1999) states that, "leaders are needed at all levels and in all situations"
What are the best qualities in future leaders to look for?
Successful leaders are born and have certain natural qualities which distinguish them from non-leaders. Managers are people who do things right and leaders are people who do the right thing. There is a profound difference between management and leadership, to manage is to accomplish and to have charge of or responsibility for while leading is guiding in direction, influencing and giving an opinion.
A leader needs good aptitude in order to understand his mission and help others to understand it. Intelligence is the easiest quality of leadership. This can be measured by previous academic performance. He or she should be confident in what he or she performs. Does the leader who is being recruited believe in the organisation? Confidence has to be established in the actual situation. Example, if we simply ask a person about the level of confidence, he or she may misinform us by replying what we want from them. Sometimes, one can justify the person's personality from his manners and behavior.
Honestly is a very important quality in a leader. If this is lacking, he or she cannot be trusted. This quality is very difficult to judge during recruitment, but there are some indications to reflect on: During the multiple interviews, is the candidate constant in the discussions or replying depending on the interviewer? A leader should show dedication to what he or she is doing, and is capable to convince others to make commitments. Here is where past involvement can be analyised: Are there any long-term commitments done by the candidate such as charities, hobbies, or activities? Did the candidate perform leadership role in any of these tasks?
For the accomplishment of a mission, a good leader must have a good sense of imagination to resolve problems and change directions where needed. Since imagination is not easy to ascertain, formal tests and puzzles exist, these will give an overview about the thinking skills of a person and his or her approach to challenges. The applicant's work and school records may confirm. The model leader should take decisions both timely and acceptably. Does the candidate take decisions quickly? Or are all decisions difficult to take? This is difficult to measure, although this can be measured during the probation period.
A leader should be firm and have guts to face difficulties. This is referred to as emotional toughness. The leader can be asked when he or she showed courage and the evidence of emotional toughness. Simultaneously, a leader should be able to comprehend and understand the feelings of others; this quality is referred to as emotional resonance. The leader should know when his subordinates are frightened in hard times and satisfied in good times. When necessary, the leader should be able to measure inappropriate feelings. Emotional resonance cannot be calculated, however, it can be noticed in a planned setting.
The handling of changing needs easily is a very valid quality in the future leader. Adaptability can be evaluated in many different ways. Was the candidate in an agreement to losing his or her job or to other important changes in their life? Did the applicant manage an organisational change in the past? Where there any changes in the recruitment process? What was the candidate reaction to these changes?
Quinn Mills (2007) states that "it makes sense to look for these qualities not only when an organisation is recruiting for future leadership, but also when it is assessing its management team for leadership development".