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The Human Resource planning, recruitment and selection process is done under Huamn Resource officer Mr. Aftab Butt and I worked with them and learned about the responsibilities and activities associated with them. He is the person who assists Manager Huamn Resource in hiring procedure and assessment methods e.g. designing job advertisements, developing competency criteria and effective selection process in coordination with different departments, carry out orientation of employees in junior management cadre and workers. And carry out any other job to meet organizational objectives. For this planning is the most important function.
The penalties for not being correctly staffed are costly. Understaffing loses the business economies of scale and specialization, orders, customers and profits. Overstaffing is wasteful and expensive, if sustained, and it is costly to eliminate because of modern legislation in respect of redundancy payments, consultation, minimum periods of notice, etc. Very importantly, overstaffing reduces the competitive efficiency of the business.
Planning staff levels requires that an assessment of present and future needs of the organization be compared with present resources and future predicted resources. Appropriate steps then be planned to bring demand and supply into balance.
Thus the first step is to take in METRO for planning is 'satellite picture' of the existing workforce profile (numbers, skills, ages, flexibility, gender, experience, forecast capabilities, character, potential, etc. of existing employees) this picture shows the existing rate of supply and what will be the demand of employees to meet the future needs
Future staffing needs will derive from:
Sales and production forecasts
The effects of technological change on task needs
Variations in the efficiency, productivity, flexibility of labor as a result of training, work study, organizational change, new motivations, etc.
Changes in employment practices (e.g. use of subcontractors or agency staffs, hiving-off tasks, buying in, substitution, etc.)
Variations, which respond to new legislation, e.g. payroll taxes or their abolition, new health and safety requirements
Changes in Government policies (investment incentives, regional or trade grants, etc.)
At the end the supply schedule is compared to the demand which shows that employees are either understaffed, overstaffed or according to the needs of companies. If employees are understaffed then company will perform recruitment function and hire new employees, and in case of overstaffing the company will perform downsizing. And at this time the rate of downsizing in Metro is 10% from every department.
Recruitment and selection process is a very important part of staffing. Every company whatever their length should follow the recruitment and selection policy. To achieve any company's objective, qualified personnel are needed to be ensured at all level in an organization.
In Metro Hi-Tech I learnt how the recruitment process was done. Recruitment of staff is preceded by an analysis of the job to be done (i.e. an analytical study of the tasks to be performed to determine their essential factors) written into a job description so that the selectors know what characteristics applicants must possess, what qualities and attitudes are desirable.
In Metro Hi-Tech these steps are taken to recruitment process:
A vacancy arises, sometimes this is due to the creation of a new job, on other occasions it may be because an existing member of staff has been promoted or is retiring.
The job description is updated and an employee specification is written. The job description lists the duties of the job whilst the employee specification gives details of the experience, skills and abilities needed to carry out the job.
A vacancy advertisement is written and is circulated via news papers, internet recruitments sites like Pazee.com, and employee referrals are also a major source in metro.
Application forms are sent out along with copies of the job description and employee specification and must be returned on or before the closing date that has been set.
A shortlist is compiled of applicants who are going to be invited to attend for interview. This is done by the recruitment panel that compare each application from with the requirements of the employee specification,
Interviews are held. The panel will use the same set of questions with each interview. The interview may include a selection test.
Sources of Recruitment:
The main sources of recruitment in metro are
Internal promotion and internal introductions (at times desirable for morale purposes)
Web based recruitment.
A job description is a key document in the recruitment process. The job description must be produced for every vacancy and drafted prior to taking any other steps in the process. It indicates the potential candidates the range of duties and responsibilities of the post. It is used during appraisal to help evaluate the performance of an individual. It is a tool for performance management to ensure that the post-holder is fulfilling the appropriate duties to a required standard. I learnt how done job analysis and develop job description in metro.
Effectively, selection is 'buying' an employee (the price being the wage or salary multiplied by probable years of service) .in Metro hi-tech the selection is done by internal experts. Interviewing is carried out by individuals (e.g. supervisor or departmental manager), by panels of interviewers or in the form of sequential interviews by different experts and can vary from a five minute 'chat' to a process of several days.
In Metro after a substantial amount of applications have been received, the line and the HR managers again work together to shortlist the applications. This is done by carefully going through all the application and by giving different weightage to the following criteria:
Quality of early schooling
Extra Curricular activities
Overseas travel and education
The HR Department then issue call letters to the short listed candidates along with blank application forms by Date, time and venue for the preliminary interview is advised and candidates are asked to bring along completed application forms. A two-member panel of HR and line management carries out competency-based interviews focusing on functional skills and managerial and supervisory skills.
After the preliminary interview is cleared people applying for different jobs are tested in different ways. The following management competencies are assessed by a panel of cross functional assessors In the case of management selection:
Rational decision making
The Huamn Resource department is responsible for overall administration. The Huamn Resource department provides details of remuneration package and terms and conditions of service. The department also prepares appointment letter, service agreement and finalizes other documentation for service record.
Grading Criteria of Employees:
1: Manual Workers:
Helpers: they are non graded persons
Semi skilled workers: after getting some training the helpers are promoted to this grade
Skilled workers: semi skilled workers are promoted to this grade after getting some more technical training in their area
2: Supervisory Grade:
Skilled workers having two years experience are promoted to supervisory grade. it includes three grades
S1 Junior supervisor
S3 Senior supervisor
3: Executive Grades:
Employees from supervisory grades are promoted to executive grades only when they enhance their qualification according to the requirement of the job. They include
E1 Junior executive
E3 Senior executive
4: Managerial grades:
In managerial grades there are different requirements. It includes five grades which are following
M1 Assistant Manager (master degree or MBA, 2/3 years experience)
M2 Deputy Manager (master degree or MBA 5 yrs experience)
M3 Manager (master degree or MBA 8years experience)
M4 Senior Manager (master degree or MBA 10years experience)
M5 General Manager (master degree or MBA 15years experience)
M Grade leads to the managers. There are 5 categories in M Grade. Designations according to grades are as follows;
E Grade is used for Executives. There are three categories in E Grade. Designations according to grades are as follows;
Supervisors are granted Grade S. There are 4 categories in S Grade. Designations according to grades are as follows;
One of HR officer responsibility is to assist Manager HR for the implementation of Performance Appraisal System (MBO) according to company policy. And to issue Annual Performance Appraisal Forms to concerned In-charges; follow-up and maintenance of appraisal record. After the performance appraisal maintain personal files of all employees. To working with HR officer I learnt how the employees are being appraised and how the record was maintained
An organization needs constantly to take stock of its workforce and to assess its performance in existing jobs for three reasons:
To improve organizational performance via improving the performance of individual contributors
To identify potential, i.e. to recognize existing talent and to use that to fill vacancies higher in the organization or to transfer individuals into jobs where better use can be made of their abilities or developing skills.
To provide an equitable method of linking payment to performance where there are no numerical criteria (often this salary performance review takes place about three months later and is kept quite separate from 1. and 2. but is based on the same assessment).
In metro Hi- Tech appraisal is done on annually basis.
Appraisals category in Metro hi-tech:
There are four categories for appraisals in metro which is following.
Definition of category
% Of total numbers of employees which can be rated in this category
Indicates exceptional performance
Indicate performance that consistently meets the requirements of the position," very good" indicates the individual is on track for advancements
Indicated performance that requires improvement (i.e. meet requirements without initiative or advancement)
Performance to be improved (hardly meets requirements)
Sources of Performance Appraisal:
In Metro the primary sources of performance appraisal are the managers or supervisors. There are used different appraisal forms for supervisors, managers and executives according to their jobs levels and competencies regarding their work.
2.4.2) Compensation and Reward:
As internee I did work with Payroll and IR officer Mr. Mohsin Shahzad. their responsibilities are as following;
To process the provident Fund Loan of workmen.
To prepare daily attendance report.
To prepare salary sheet for both divisions.
To extract desired information from salary sheet for various purposes.
To calculate bonus for both divisions.
To verify attendance of both divisions and prepare late attendance report on daily basis.
To maintain attendance record of all the employees.
To maintain overtime record of all the employees.
To maintain record of leaves of workers and staff.
To maintain record of advances given to employees of both division.
To carry out any other job to meet organizational objectives.
I learnt their reward and compensation process. Different rewards that are given to employees by the company and how the record was maintained how fill the forms about the reward category. And also learnt their compensation process how the employees and workers are being awarded. How maintain relation with employees within the departments and outside the departments.
To retain good staff and to encourage them to give of their best while at work requires attention to the financial and psychological and even physiological rewards offered by the organization as a continuous exercise.
The compensation and reward program is controlled by payroll officer working under head of human resource. Payroll software is used in metro hi-tech to enter and control the pay of employees. They are more concerned about the financial rewards for the motivations of employees but they don't use any non-financial rewards. Financial rewards include bounces, group insurance, car schemes, provident fund scheme, medical policies, and TA/DA policy.
The compensation includes the basic salary of employees. This salary is decided by the job evolution and market surveys. Then it is bargain with the employee at selection time which results in the basic pay for that job. Mode of payments is different for graded and non graded employees. Payments are made to graded employees through banks on monthly bases according to the terms and conditions of contract and to non-graded workers salary is paid through cash.
Allocations of remuneration:
Basic salary 67% of gross salary
House rent 40% of basic salary
Utility allowances 10% of basic salary
Basic salary 62.5% of basic salary
House rent 40% of basic
Utility allowances 10%
Food allowances 10%
Bounces are given on the basis of given salary. Bounces are 67% of the basic salary.
22.214.171.124: Provident fund scheme:
According to this scheme 10% of basic salary of employee is deducted and same amount is added by the employer is put in the saving account of employee. The lump sum amount is provided to employees after his retirement.
126.96.36.199: Group insurance:
It's a state life insurance for the death of employee during its job life. It is usually 2 lac rupees.
188.8.131.52: Car scheme:
Car scheme are offered to only those employees who are working for managerial positions. This scheme for different managerial levels are Mehran to M1 and M2 Cultus /city to M3, XLI GLI to M4. Honda Civic to M5 (40% of book value is paid by employee in 60 installments)
Free fuel or the CNG of the same amount is provided to managers
115kg to M1
145 to M2
175 to M3
225 to M4
250 to M5
184.108.40.206: Medical policy:
Metro provides Medical facilities to employees and their family for OPD and Hospitalization. In
OPD (Out Patient Door) policy allowances for supervisory grade are 12000, for Executive grades are 20,000, and for Managerial grade are 30,000. In case of hospitalization the whole expense of hospitalization is beard by company.
Temporary loans: temporary loans are one month salary in advance.
Permanent loans: it includes loan more than one month salary and have to be returned in six installments.
220.127.116.11: TA/DA policy:
Grades TA DA
M1 5r/km 600/day
M2 6rs/km 800/day
M3 7/km 1000/day
M4 8/km 1200/day
M5 10/km 1500/day
18.104.22.168: Business cards:
All HOD's are eligible for business cards .they may request for 200 cards at any point.
The work of admin officer is to control transport, maintenance, security management requirement and scraps.
2.4.4): Industrial relations:
The responsibilities for IR officer are
To maintain proper record of Employee Old Age Benefit ( Registration, Monthly contribution, Pension claims)
To prepare documentation pertaining to Social Security Institution.
To process worker's applications relating to Marriage Grant and maintain their record.
To handle all cases related to Scholarship of employee's children, maintain record and follow up.
Responsible for keeping liaison with the Government Labor Welfare Department, legal advisor in legal matters and whenever necessary official of the district administration of their public utility departments.
To participate in domestic enquiries, to produce documentary evidence on behalf of company representative.
To arrange Group Insurance of employees and prepare updated list of all employees, to lodge disability and death claim etc.
To prepare updated list of employee's members of Provident Fund Contribution Scheme.
To prepare the list of employees applied for permanent advance & update its record in coordination with payroll Administrator.
To verify attendance of both division.
To assist Pay Roll Officer in salary preparation.
To update record related to statutory requirement.
To arrange EOBI cards of employees within time and to arrange monthly contribution.
To arrange new Social Security Cards and renewal of cards at the earliest opportunity.
To maintain smooth relationship with all workers of the company.
To carry out any other job to meet organizational objectives.
Good industrial relations, while a recognizable and legitimate objective for an organization, are difficult to define since a good system of industrial relations involves complex relationships between:
(a) Workers (and their informal and formal groups, i.e. trade union, organizations and their representatives)
(b) Employers (and their managers and formal organizations like trade and professional associations);
(c) The government and legislation and government agencies l and 'independent' agencies like the Advisory Conciliation and Arbitration Service.
Oversimplified, work is a matter of managers giving instructions and workers following them - but (and even under slavery we recognize that different 'managing' produces very different results) the variety of 'forms' which have evolved to regulate the conduct of parties (i.e. laws, custom and practice, observances, agreements) makes the giving and receipt of instructions far from simple. Two types of 'rule' have evolved:
'Substantive', determining basic pay and conditions of service (what rewards workers should receive);
'Procedural,' determining how workers should be treated and methods and procedures.
I worked for filling the documents relating to the induction. I filled the payroll entries which is the basic documentation. And learnt how to include new inductions in payroll which is done through HR. and also seek how made salary sheets in the end of the month
During work under Mr. Aftab butt he assigned an task to create any job vacancy for metro hi-tech. So I create job vacancy for telephone operator and describe the need of telephone operator which is following.
Metro Hi-Tech "Telephone Operator" in Gujrat
The ingredients of the implementation plan are.
Need/problem at the branch.
Qualities of a telephone operator
Benefits of a telephone operator.
How the need created and companies' staff decision.
Need problem at the branch.
Every organization has some problems. Metro has the problem of telephone operator. It can save the precious time of not only manager but other staff as well. On the other hand company's communication system was not doing well overall. Therefore as an internee I felt that there should be a telephone operator who can easily handle this situation.
Benefits of the telephone operator
It saves precious time of the manager and staff members.
It saves the time of the customers.
Creates good impression on the customer.
Communication within the company.
Communication of company with outside enhances.
How the need was created
The need for telephone operator was created because the staff members would have to leave their work and attend the telephone but sometimes it would be a wrong call, other's call or the calls which they wanted to avoid this would not only waste their time but also affect their performance a great deal. Therefore they think it's useful to have a spare person for this facility.
Metro Hi Tech have all the departments working and also have got sufficient man power available in terms of quantity a part from human resource department. In the whole organization there are quite good enough experienced human resource available, who are motivated fresh and committed again except human resource department.
There is autocracy in organization but still rests of the employees are taken into consideration while making any decisions but partially. CEO of Metro Hi Tech have got strict attitude with employees. He takes an adequate part in daily operations done by management team.
Culture of the organization is very learning. Employees tend to help each other they don't feel fear of inferiority by telling or helping. They have flexible culture regarding timings but still everyone has to complete one's working hours. About other rules and regulations they have strong culture each and every thing is communicated to every employee.
Coordination among departments has been on the better side in the whole period of mine as an internee. But there is overlapping in departments, which is causing some problems. Organization has very good sales and marketing department with experienced and qualified staff that is why their customer service department is very strong and takes care of customer. Rest of all department are also working properly they all have sufficient quantity and quality of employees but there are two departments about which I recognize that there is problem in terms of quality and quantity of employees, those departments are purchase and human resource department.
In purchase department they have sufficient quantity but they have unskilled department because they don't know how to use computer because they have to do a lot of work on computer.
Where as in human resource department they have many problems to face some of them are internally caused and some externally. Internally factors are that there is overlapping in human resource department they have insufficient quantity and quality of staff. There are tow retired employees are working who's performance, motivation and commitment is on the lower side and they are very lazy in their work which is disturbing whole coordination of the department. Secondly there is need of at least one employee in human resource department because they have loads of work to do and often fail to meet the assignments. So there is need of fresh blood. Externally factors are stopping them to perform all the human resource functions e.g. training and development of employees, organization doesn't have strategic focus about training and development of employees although human resource department wants to do but top management doesn't. That is reason they have lost many experienced and qualified employees in the past. Another problem is that all the promotions are done on the basis of references and favoritism although they have very good policy of performance appraisal.
There is another problem which is that they must have to have their HRIS (Human Resource Information System). They are maintaining their record on MS EXCEL but they must have HRIS to maintain skills inventories.
In their workplace area to avoid conflicts between workers they have made a policy which name is supervisory system. They have appointed supervisors to groups who work as moderators.
Following are some recommendations for Metro, which we personally feel can be useful for the organization, its employees and the customers. And which helps the organization to improve its effectiveness and efficiency in highly competitive world.
The Human Resources should take less time in recruitment and selection.
There should be training centers for employees and workers. In training refreshing courses should be adequate and more frequent. Advanced training should b given to employees which enhance their skills. Human Resource Department may advice and train employees for one window operation in order to reduce the time and conserve the resources. Executives and employees should be trained on continuous basis to give them knowledge about the current market trends and new marketing concepts.
The promotional criteria by the Human Resource Department should be defined and be as per rules.
The proper and competitive evaluation of the methods and procedures adopted by other competitors will enhance the performance of Human Resource Department. Metro should use 360 % appraisal and potential appraisal process to evaluate employees.
This is the era of Information Technology. The functions and procedures of the Company should be converted from manual to the automatic. It will enhance the performance of the Human Resource Department and ultimately of the company Human Resource Department should allocate resources for this purpose.
Pay packages may be revised in the light of profit earned by the organization.
Metro has a formal environment which can be changed to more relax and friendly environment.
To establish core competence and to bring competitiveness, metro should implement numerous effective plans to improve the performance of its various departments. Supervisors must manage employee performance well in order for Metro to accomplish its mission and achieve its goals.
There should be effective communication system .Establishing and maintaining effective communications with each Employee not only requires good oral and written communications Skills, but it also includes the ability to establish good working Relationships. To communicate effectively with employees, Supervisors must establish an environment that promotes an open Door atmosphere, the sharing of ideas, and employee involvement in decision making processes.
When HR manager is going to prepare job description must get information about work to employees it is easy for employees to do work effectively.
Employees should be known that what is expected to them and how it will be measured. So KPA's and performance measures should be well communicated to employees.
Credible measures of performance that employees understand and accept are critical for achieving high level performance. Measuring employee accomplishments, using both qualitative and quantitative measures, provides the information that supervisors and employees need in order to monitor performance.
Feedback should inform, enlighten, and suggest improvements to employees regarding their performance. Supervisors should describe specific work related behavior or results they observe as close to the event as possible.
Using their coaching skills, supervisors evaluate and address the developmental needs of their employees and help them select diverse experiences to gain necessary skills. Supervisors and employees create development plans that might include training, new assignment, job enrichment, self study or work details
Competencies should be observable, measurable Patterns of skills, knowledge, abilities, behaviors and other Characteristics that an individual needs to perform work roles or Occupational functions successfully.
Metro must allocate high budget for human resource activities.
For online Resume submission time to time to have excellent application pool not only at the time of Job position
Give detail for every advertisement of job opportunities along with detail about job description and career path, status of advertised job opportunities along with compensation packages to manifest potential candidates because this all not possible through newspaper advertisement and we have competitive edge of offering excellent compensation package to Mgt. Trainees so we should get benefit of this strength.
There should be complete pre-defined program along with orientations modules and contents supposed to be highlighted and discussed by every department.HR department require to develop Orientation program and specific course contents for every department along with department managers, discussed and highlighted during orientation training and upgraded with the passage of time as for as changes takes place. And should be handover to every department and its one copy will remain to HR department orientation program file.
SWOT Analysis of HR Department:
The company has a very well balanced and realistic incentive program. It also focuses on giving additional benefits to its employees apart from the basic remuneration. This results in employees giving their "Heart and Soul" in working for their employer.
The HR practices greatly enhance its image as a company that wants to contribute towards the society in every possible way. As the main focus is on developing better people not just better employees.
Human Resource department lacks staff and it is very difficult for the Human Resource Manager to do the right things for their organization and it takes much time for normal working of the organization.
The Human Resource Department is not up to the mark for the proper appraisal system of the staff. Metro uses old methods of appraisals.
Metro don't properly advertise their jobs. Due to lack of advertisement activities the best candidates couldn't apply for jobs.
Human Resource Department has not functioning employee training program. There are no proper arrangements for the up-to-date trainings of employees, both at managerial and non-managerial level. The employees are working along with their concise and conservative knowledge. There are no refresher courses for their training. Due to this employees feel difficult to set their working environment.
Employees have developed a psychology that promotion criteria & procedures of the Human Resource Department of the company are not justified.
Here is a lack of reward and proper incentives for the manual workers. The employees working more efficiently and effectively are receiving the same rewards as the others. These efficient employees are also not obliged with some appreciation.
Employees are leaving the jobs, so that is why there is a lack of experienced employees in the organization, which leads to a shortfall in production.
The working hours for the labor are not right and accurate. The working hours are so much awkward that the labor force feels so much exertion, after continuously working.
There are frequent conflicts among the laborers which causes stoppage of work and which ultimately lead to shortfall in production.
The authorities assigned to the workers are being misused by them. Perhaps the employees are using the company's resources for their own interest and misusing the authority assigned to them.
There is a lack of co-ordination among employees. Employees are not in well exchanging their ideas, methods of production and their skill among each other so that their ideas are reserved to only a single person and the whole system is not enjoying it.
There is an incorrect assignment of work in the organization. The jobs assigned to the workers do not match with their skills, mental as well as physical capabilities , which ultimately leads to short fall in production.
The employees have adopted the satisfying behavior due to which they are not working as planning, and are just deceiving the management.
Employees don't have proper guidelines about their KPA's and KRA's
There are a number of opportunities that are available in areas of HR for metro during the course of its future activities. These are:
The company can discover great potential through the future graduates as every generation is being taught in more effective manner that leads to better growth. Being a growing company in the employment rankings of Pakistan Metro can recruit the "cream of graduates" every year and utilize their improved knowledge and abilities.
There is an opportunity to create the best image of the company in the mind of customers by adding the value added services.
With the expansion in the company business in Pakistan, the HR department can be expended in order to manage diversity of workforce.
There are also many threats that can b faces to metro HR department. Which are following
Due to entering of new companies in industry the competition has been enhanced. Like other areas HR departments is facing the threat of employees switching from Metro to other companies. The skilled and qualified workers are being attracted by the other companies & multinational companies.
The company is currently acting upon the policy of downsizing which threaten the environment of the bank Employees feel insecurity in doing their jobs and work, hence affecting the overall performance of employees negatively.
The six weeks spent in Metro Hi-tech, Gujrat were, no doubt a source of great learning for me. It's my quite first experience to do work practically in some organization. This practical training program did not only help me acquire loads of knowledge about the predominant functions performed by company, but also imparted a lot of training as regards the set of behavioral traits which distinguish a particular person from the rest of the lot in a professional environment. All from the above discussion I conclude that Metro Company is facing direct competition with Chinese brand assembled by different companies.
No doubt metro is a hi tech company but the working substances are the human being .It goes without saying that Human resources are the most important in the organization and so does the Human Resource Department .It integrate all the activities and functions of the company like job analysis, recruitment, staffing, training, designing compensation package, employees appraisal system. Human Resource Department plays the key role in the hiring, retention, motivation and promotion of the employees actually it assign the specified duties to the specified persons in this age of specialization. Human Resource manager should be well versed and confident in his field. He should be humanize, well natured and have go face reading capabilities .All this ensures his success .He should be of the notion "victory is not everything but the way of fighting is".
All departments are working together and they wants to create a work environment in which employees can improve their minds, continuously learn, gain professional growth and feel inspired by similarly motivated individuals. Metro takes pride in providing the best possible working environment. They take a constant interest in ones progress by conducting evaluations and offering the support and resources one needs.
SWOT Analysis of Company:
SWOT analysis is an acronym that stands for strengths, weakness, opportunities, and threats. SWOT analysis is careful evaluation of an organization's internal strengths and weakness as well as its environment opportunities and threats.
Metro hi-tech has a good reputation and good relationship with many perspective dealers.
The employers at metro are offered reasonable monetary benefit.
Metro provides high quality products to public.
The metro has another competency i.e. it has broad-basses network of branches throughout the country. The customers are provided services at their nearest possible place to confirm customer satisfied.
Attractive cosmetic looks.
Metro has offered comparatively low price as their competitors.
Developed after continuous R & D with latest technology.
2 products in the product line targeting different customer segments.
Strong after sales network of more than 700 service and warranty dealers.
Availability of Auto spares parts.
During my stay in Metro I observed some weaknesses which are
Metro has a Lack of advertisement practices. Due to lack of advertisement public are not properly get awareness about the Metro products
Human are big asset for any organization metro has HRM department but there are Inefficient HR policies for this their turnover rate is High.
Perception of a Chinese brand
The lack of communication between production, marketing and management is the most critical factor.
No Credit sales to retailers
In time unavailability of parts
Market size is growing with respect to market growth that is 7.9 % in Chinese market and 3-4 % in overall market
New brand introduction: metro motorbike company does not take competition only as threat but also as opportunity
Collaboration with foreign brand
Good brand image
Competitors who have waste market share and have brand loyalty and prestige e.g. HONDA
Future prospects of the organization
Influence of Japanese Brand on Government
A slump in the economy, reducing discretionary spending