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As global competition persists and industries become more skill intensive, the demand for talent or knowledge based workers with the capacity to be creative and innovative is escalating. In the light of this fact, it has become essential for the companies to adopt sophisticated recruitment and selection strategies to get the right employee at the right time. The traditional recruitment procedures are not coping up with the industry
requirements especially in selecting the right candidate quicker. Eventually,
e-recruitment emerged as handy and advantageous method over traditional
methods . (David Yoon Kin Tong, 2008)
E-recruiting is one of the most successful e-commerce applications as a method for quickly reaching a large pool of the potential job seekers. The capability of advance e-recruiting tools has enabled recruiters to quickly identify and hire qualified candidates, and to build ongoing relationships with prospective employees. (In Lee, 2005) The traditional method of recruitment has been revolutionized by the emergence of the internet. There is growing evidence that organizations are using web-based recruiting technology as a platform for recruiting and testing candidates. E-recruitment gives employers real costs savings plus increased ease and efficiency in the recruitment process. It also gives candidates an improved experience. (Kerrin M,Kettley P ,2003)
In the past few years, the internet has dramatically changed the face of HR recruitment and the ways organizations think about the the recruiting function. In the coming years, digital recruiting and hiring are expected to continue their explosive growth. Presently, e-recruitment has been adopted in many organizations either from large organizations to small size companies, even in Malaysia. Most organizations are ready using e-recruitment to post jobs and accept resumes on the internet, and correspond with the applicants by e-email. It brings the benefits to the organizations.
( Rosita & Nadianatra ,2007)
The research on organizational recruitment has attempted to masses how the recruitment process influences the applicant job-choice decision process. The measures for this assessment have primarily been post-hire recruitment outcomes as researchers attempt to link recruitment process variables with the applicant's subsequent success on the job .(Breaugh & Starke, 2000) Relevant literatures from USA and UK have several definitions of online recruitment or better known as e-recruitment. Basically, e-recruitment refers to the use of the internet to facilitate the recruitment process by advertising jobs or contact applicant electronically. It can be conducted by using an organization's own Corporate Web Site or a Web-based job site.
E-recruitment refers to "the recruitment process, including placing job advertisements, receiving resumes, and building human resource database with candidates and incumbents". (Schreyer & McCarter , 1998) From the relevant literature, the words e-recruitment, online recruitment, cyber recruiting, or Internet recruiting are synonymous. They imply the formal sourcing of job information online (Ganalaki, 2002). Hoffman (2001) defined e-recruitment as "The utilisation of the Internet for candidate sourcing, selection, communication and management throughout the recruitment process" Similarly to Hogler (1998) and HR Portal (2003), give the idea that employers can electronically advertise jobs, scan and store resumes, conduct test, and contact qualified applicants by using the power of the Internet to match people to jobs. Moreover, Vidot (2000) suggested that e-recruitment is the use of Internet to attract high quality candidates; reiterate their company profile and branding and streamline application and selection processes.
The conventional recruitment methods used by organizations consist of contacting friends or employee referrals, engaging executive search, using newspapers
classified ads, and others. Whenever there are changes in company's policy, technology, location, mergers, acquisitions, de-mergers, and employees' resignation, this process continues to take place periodically to add, maintain, or re-adjust their workforce in accordance to the corporate and human resource planning (Tyson and York, 2000; Cascio, 1998). A Study conducted by Goodwin (1999) revealed that the use of Internet to advertise a job and attract potential candidates has been shown to be less expensive than traditional recruitment techniques. According to Schreyer and McCarter (1998, pp. 14),software for recruiting purposes has become more readily available and cost-effective.'
Major advantages cited for the successful adoption of e-recruiting methods include cost savings, efficiency, and convenience for both recruiters and job seekers ( Tomlinson, 2002 ; Miller ,2001 ; Gale, 2001) According to Gentner Gentner (1984) and Casper (1985),the first references to online recruitment appear inarticles of the mid-1980s while systematic reference to online recruitment in the HR journals . In early-1990s, with the advancement of internet technology, many have witnessed the transformation of the conventional recruitment methods to online recruitment (Joyce, 2002). Some corporate companies even use their web sites to recruit people while others capitalized this change to become e-recruitment service providers (Dixon, 2000).
As global competition persists and industries becoming more skill intensive, the recruitment of talent workers becomes essential (Tong and Sivanand, 2005), and
attracting the right applicants at the right time is getting tougher than ever. The use of
conventional recruitment methods no longer suffices and timely to attract sufficient
pool of qualified applicants. Many organizations have turned to adopting sophisticated
recruitment strategies or combining various recruitment methods to attract them
(Tong and Sivanand, 2005). For example, by combining newspaper ads with executive
search, or employment agencies, and others for recruitment; but this only adds to the
increased of recruitment costs per hire (Pollitt, 2005, 2004).
The primary aim of this research is to assess the effectiveness of the internet as a recruitment source. Whilst the research on source effectiveness has examined a broad range of recruitment sources, to date there has been minimal exploration on the effectiveness of the internet in comparison to its rapid uptake as a recruitment source, to date there has been minimal exploration on the effectiveness of the internet in comparison to its rapid uptake as a recruitment source. Much of the literature on internet recruitment has reported perceived positive and negative impacts for the organization with limited theoretical and empirical research to support such claims.
( Erica R. Marr, 2007)
In recent years, the Internet has made an impact on the human resource field ( Bussler & Davis ,2002) .Organizational recruitment efforts have increasingly relied on computer technology and one area that has evolved is recruiting via the Internet, otherwise known as e-recruitment ( Mottl, 1998). This technology can be used in application tracking , job posting and electronic job application. It can facilitate the human resource function and reduce human resource work.
Issues raised as causing with e-recruitment included the quantity and quality of candidates applying using web-based tools (e.g. organizations being inundated with CVs attached by email, many of whom were not suitable for the post) ,the relevance of short listing criteria ( e.g. the validity and legality of searching by keywords), confidentiality and data protection, and ensuring diversity of applicants. The trends in e-recruitment use suggest a changing landscape whereby in future the candidate is connected to he central system and there is involvement of the line manager in the process. In addition to the reported benefits such as cost efficiencies, the role of Human Resource is viewed as more of a facilitative role, in theory allowing time for recruiters to become involved in the strategic issues within resourcing. (Kerrin M, Kettley P, 2003)
From the relevant literature, there is an argument that e-recruitment is needed to be used in conjunction with other technique. Internet-based recruiting will not replace traditional practices, but a well-implemented e-recruitment strategy can help the recruitment process become more successful ( Borck,2000 ; Caggiano, 1999). Although the employers see the advantages of e-recruitment, they continued to use traditional method such as newspaper advertisements. Personal referrals, and search agencies for most their recruiting (Pearce & Tuten, 2001).
E-recruitment is not treated as a stand-alone human resource tool but is integrated into an overall recruiting and selection strategy that includes, among other things, sophisticated behavioral and skills assessment, interviewing, and additional means of identifying needs and sourcing candidates (Cullen, 2001). Previous studies show that a human resource department will still uses both traditional method and e-recruitment in recruiting process. More than 75% of HR professionals are now using Internet job boards in addition to traditional recruiting method ( HR Portal, 2003).
There has been a steady rise in online recruitment during recent years and there have been a number of research studies that have measured employer take ip and progress. Most Global 500 companies now use some form of online recruitment (Taleo, 2003).In 1999, there were only 60% of companies while in 1998 there were only 29% using their website for online recruiting (McManus & Ferguson, 2003). It appears that there are obvious reasons which seem to support the use of online recruitment system . E-recruitment enhances the effectiveness of the recruitment process. Not only can the costs be lowered and the time of hiring cycle be reduced but the range of aspirants can also be expanded immensely. In addition, there are several more reasons ( Stone ,2005).
Except the positive effects e-recruitment methods can have some negative impacts as well. For example, computerized recruiting tools are less flexible towards the applicants which may cause negative effects ( Stone, 2005). Online recruiting may exclude members of some minority groups which do not have access to the Internet for different reasons as well as people which are not familiar with the medium or which do not want to use itt due to security matters (Hogler, 2001; Harris, 2003 ; Stone, 2005). The underlying problem of this research is to analyzis of the methods of e-recruitment in regard to traditional recruitment methods. The aim is to outline e-recruitment and to elaborate its advantages and disadvantages. Finally, it is to discuss whether e-recruitment will outclass the traditional methods in the long-term or if they will coexist.
The main purposes of this research are to analyze the e-recruiting trends and review the available literature about using e-recruitment as one of the effectiveness recruiting method in workplace. The study also aims to explore the impact of e-recruitment on the immediate outcome of the recruitment process, the generation of applicants. Researchers have acknowledged that many applicant provides the organization with the opportunity to be more selective, and should ultimately result in the identification of the best person for the job,it has been acknowledged within the literature that a negative effect of many applicants are the increased costs in administering the recruitment process, with the possibility that the best applicant can be overlooked (Barber, 1998 ; Carlson, 2002).
The underlying problem of this paper is a analyzis of the methods of e-recruitment in regard to traditional recruitment methods. The aim is to outline e-recruitment and to elaborate its advantages and disadvantages.Apart from this, the e-recruitment study proposes to investigate the overall trends in e-recruitment use and practice and parts of systems are web-enabled and what are the related benefits and challenges. Corporate recruiters tend to be interested in such factors as whether certain recruiting sources are more likely to yield a higher percentage of new hires, the quality of job applicants is higher for certain recruiting sources (Barber, 1998)
The e-recruitment methods that are being used, and what are the real experiences from organizations attempting implementation also will be included in this research. In addition, the evaluation of the job-seekers towards the success of the e-recruitment initiative will be investigated to find out the effectiveness of the online recruitment method. Furthermore, it is to elaborate what kind of companies rather use e-recruitment, as well as, what kind of employees are rather attracted by e-recruitment .
Definition of Key Variables
The Effectiveness of E-Recruitment
1. Fraser (1994, p. 104) defined it thus:
Effectiveness. This is a measure of the match between stated goals and their achievement. It is always possible to achieve 'easy', low-standard goals. In other words, quality in higher education cannot only be a question of achievements 'outputs' but must also involve judgements about the goals (part of 'inputs')
2. Erlendsson (2002) defines effectiveness as:
- the extent to which objectives are met ('doing the right things').
3. West (1999) argues that:
In relation to training, as opposed to education, one way of looking at the issue of effectiveness is in terms of whether there are 'identifiable economic outcomes'. A broader definition still focuses on the extent to which training 'meets its objectives'. Descy and Westphalen (1998) define this more precisely as training that 'meets its objectives as defined by its funding body'. This is a useful definition since it is undoubtedly the funding body that ultimately decides whether or not training will be made available. Whilst this is a useful heuristic, there are two points to bear in mind. First, it is not always the case that the funders' precise objectives are transparent, although their general aims may be. Second, whilst the funders may have objectives, it is only by relating the extent to which these are perceived to have been met - by the various stakeholders (e.g. individuals, enterprises) - that one can really understand the extent to which the training has been effective. There may also be unintended consequences of training that aid an individual's employability - for example, improving 'soft skills' such as an individual's self-esteem, motivation or ability to work in a team.Effectiveness can be analysed at five levels (a) European; (b) national; (c) regional; (d) enterprises; (e) individuals (West,1999)
E-recruitment can be defined as the use of the Internet as a recruitment tool, and more specifically as a recruitment source for human resource practitioners, has occurred within relatively short period of time but has become increasingly popular, primarily due to its reach in formerly untapped markets with minimal cost (Bingham,Ilg & Davidson, 2002; Magrath,2001; Smith, 2004).
Apart from this, it also can known within the literature as online recruitment, Internet recruiting or cybercruiting refers to the practice of advertising job vacancies online and the formal sourcing of information about jobs online (Galanaki, 2002).
E-recruitment is the process of personnel recruitment using electronic resources, in particular the internet. Companies and recruitment agents have moved much of their recruitment process online so as to improve the speed by which job candidates can be matched with live vacancies. Using database technologies, and online job advertising boards and search engines, employers can now fill posts in a fraction of the time previously possible.(Retrieved 6 August 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki).
In today's competitive environment for talents, it is necessary for the company's recruiter to plan and use multiple recruiting channels. Finding the right person to fill the talent needs is crucial to the growth and success of the business. The top challenge that companies face when it comes to employees is "finding the right talent at the right time" (The Aberdeen Report, 2007). As the urgency for business to focus on talent acquisition is growing in intensity, so is the need for companies to re-look at how they recruit.
With such varied sourcing and attractions means, the challenge is to channel all candidates into recruitment site, and from there, into one common talent database. The key message for recruiters is to acknowledge that the adoption of e-recruitment is about more than just technology. It is about the recruitment system being able to attract the right candidate, the selection process being based on sound and credible criteria, and the tracking process being able to integrate with existing systems. Perhaps most significantly, e-recruitment is about cultural and behavioral change, both within HR and at line management level. E-recruitment is suggested to deliver, it is about developing the capability of HR to facilitate the system and to view the staffing process as an end-to-end process, similar to that of a supply-chain (Kerrin M, Kettley P. Report 402, 2003).
Online recruiting build one of the central of a smart staffing strategy for firms in every economic sector. Corporate web sites, Internet classifieds, online job search engines and online versions of local and national newspaper become the main The key limiting factors to e-recruitment most frequently reported were the cultural approach of the organization towards recruitment .Most of the organizations will more prefer to choose traditional recruiting methods such as newspapers, magazines and so on . Apart from this, the lack of knowledge of e-recruitment within the human resource community also one of the factor that limited the e-recruitment's method. Internet usage by target candidates are low and bring effects to the usage of the e-recruitment.
Successful e-recruitment involves the development of a policy on recruitment and retention and the systems that give life to the policy (Schuler, Randall S.: Personnel and Human Resource Management, Third Edition. 1987). The needs assessment to determine the current and future human resource in the recruiting method. If the e-recruitment is to be effective, the human resource requirements for every functional division/unit of the
organization must be assessed and a priority assigned. Identification the potential human resource pool of the outside organization through the e-recruitment. Moreover, determination the effectiveness of e-recruitment of the organization's within a defined period also important as the measure of e-recruitment (Margaret A. Richardson, 2003)
In terms of the general literature on e-recruitment, advantages attributed to this source relate to its perceived cost-effectiveness, speed, geographic reach , and ease of use, whilst common disadvantages
Determinations of the hypotheses for the research are:
Hypothesis 1: The influences of applicants job to pursue the position that apply and the recruitment sources that effect on applicants' perceptions.
Hypothesis one is proposed to analyze the relationship between recruitment source, job-seeker perception to get a job.
Hypothesis 2 : The applications of job increased through the e-recruitment method
Hypothesis two is to investigate the relationship between the number of applications from the organization and recruitment source.
Hypothesis 3: The influences of website design on prospective online job-seekers.
Hypothesis three is to test impressions of the employer mediated the relationship between satisfaction with the website and willingness to pursue employment with the organization.
Hypothesis 4: The influences of applicants' age to pursue the position that apply and the recruitment sources that effect on applicants' perceptions.
Hypothesis four is to test whether the applicants' age related to the recruitment source that they are using or not.
Hypothesis 5: E-recruitment would be perceived as presenting less realistic information to applicants as compared to informal forms of recruitment.
Hypothesis five is to investigate the perception of applicants towards the e-recruitment and the traditional forms of recruitment.
Hypothesis 6: The perception of online job-seekers towards the usefulness in e-recruitment.
Hypothesis six is to determine the relationship between online job-seekers and perceived of usefulness in e-recruitment.
E-recruitment has brought in technological changes to the society. With the easy connection networks, generation nowadays has been using Internet to do their business which includes search for job as well. Online recruitment has become one of the trends that offer job-seekers to search the job through Internet. However, there are differences between traditional recruitment method and e-recruitment which causes certain parties who yet to accept the trend to search job or recruit people through Internet. Therefore, this research has been conducted to identify the profiles of Internet users and job-seekers toward e-recruitment.