The general nature of international management


International Management is generally about culture that human nations originated in different background it is important to understand each other culture for the reason of doing things in one culture may not be good to other culture. At times the events or activities may be the same in two various cultures, but then two different meanings and two different understandings. In these modern years with the growth of globalisation and diversity in the workplace cross cultural management has develop an important element in the organisational life that helps us to understand other cultures and there's several people studied the different cultures of each country in terms on how they communicate and their body language. In view of this essay in the first part it discusses the national culture of the Philippines and what kind management style they have. Also the contrast of the two renowned anthropologies Geert Hofstede and Fons Trompenaars that deliberate their issues of validity and reliability of their models in relate with the Philippines culture. The second part is about the management experience of the researcher on how it relate it to the management models as well as the models of national culture and in what way they overcome the incident in their company.

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Culture mostly, social tradition of a group (organized community or society). It is a pattern of reactions discovered, established, or created throughout the group's history of controlling problems which arise from interactions among its members, and between them and their environment. Culture defines what is acceptable or unacceptable, important or unimportant, right or wrong, workable or unworkable. It contains of, ideas, beliefs, customs, language, rituals, taboos, codes, institutions, tools, works of art, ceremonies, techniques and symbols. It has played a vital role in social development, letting human existences to adjust the situation to their particular purpose on somewhat be contingent merely on natural selection to attain adaptive success (Business Dictionary n.d.). Sinha (2009) highlighted by what means culture is learn thru enculturation which is unintentional practice that contains all of the knowledge obtained as the effect of what is in an environment to be learned then Primary Socialization more intentional learning development that take place in the family and local society, next is Subcultures is established because a group has an traditional background, language, or religion that is different from the common people finally Secondary Socialization occurs after primary socialization and frequently provides people with the knowledge, skills, and behaviour to perform adult roles successfully. In reference to Hofstede (2001) the illustration shown in appendix A indicating those cultural differences cannot be valued without any knowledge about the history. Culture as conceptual programming is also the representation of history in the hearts, minds and hands of the current generation. Changes as shown in the illustration in appendix A are supposed to come generally from the outside, through influences of nature or forces of human beings. This structure shows that it is in homeostatic or self-regulating. History has shown instances of people that throughout systems have sustained their personalities over hundreds and thousands of centuries, even In the face of such widespread of changes as loss of individuality, deportation, and loss of language. Some people with the same situations have disappeared, on the other hand, when their self-regulating cycles were also disturbed by outside influences. Apparently, together the strength of the existing self-regulation and the strength of the outside forn hj;hg# hjijur87ces have contributed some parts in these cases.

National culture is pertaining to a certain nation or a group of people practices the same values, beliefs and also considering the concept of time. In this world there are a lot of cultural differences that exist among one country to another country especially in terms of business operation. Knowing other cultures it certainly helps them to build cultural awareness and based on the business side these influence the managers and the job need to be done however cultural values is also bring to the organisation that in the certain company or even just a team with different type of nationality they need to understand each other cultural differences to be able to work as one.

According to Abada (n.d.) Philippine culture is very colorful that makes the Filipino diverse that includes arts, language, traditions, cultural heritage, and spoken languages which found in the heart of the cities. The Philippines has countless historical and cultural evolution of its country with different churches, museums and galleries are accessible to have left their native land for a better opportunity. They love the Philippines. I know because I know many of them. They try to go home when they can afford to do it. They retire back to the Philippines. They want to be sure their children and grandchildren are raised in the Philippines." That's a typical Filipino is content on and they laugh even in their difficult times at the same time they just smile in spite of everything.

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Philippines are an incredibly unique culture and especially in terms of linguistic affirmation. Kwintessential (n.d.) mentioned the national language of the Filipinos (before Pilipino) is Tagalog but despite of their official language merely 55 percent who can speak in Tagalog for there are listed that there's 171 dialects all over the Philippines however English is commonly used in educational, governmental and commercial. It is said that the Philippines is the third largest group of English speaking in the world next to United States and United Kingdom (Lewis 2009).

Beside on the culture of the Philippines they have also their sub-cultures or ethnicity which having their own culture despite belonging to a certain culture. Based on Camperspoint (n.d.) investigated that there's around 60 ethnic groups in the Philippines that occurs and still in practice with their traditional customs which this ethnic groups is differ from each other especially in terms of their dialects and writings which differ from their usual Filipino use. These groups are friendly and hospitable that they give food as a symbol of close relation with that it's better to accept their offer because it's rude for them if you reject it. Common trait of Filipinos is being hospitable they offer the best of what they have for an exchange of true friendship. This is the way how Filipinos accept and well respect the presence of the visitors.

To understand the comparison of the two anthropologist Geert Hofstede and Fons Trompenaars models

Dr. Geert Hofstede is an anthropology that studies the different culture in different nations (Sinha n.d). According to Hofstede (1997) culture refers to the beliefs, behaviour, values, attitudes and symbols, but is an impartial implication of culture. It also links to other issues such as, uniting as a group or a family, language, and identity. Even for characterising themselves as unique, Hofstede highlighted the similarities and differences throughout fifty countries in order to distinguish the elements of differences between national cultures. Buchanan and Huczynski (1997) cited the Hofstede's four dimensions which are power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism - collectivism and masculinity - femininity as well as long-term orientation (Hofstede n.d.). There's another anthropologist who also studied culture with a resemblance of Hofstede's theories, Dr. Fons Trompenaars which he has its own meaning of culture that it is the shared approach of solving human problems in which converts as dilemmas in 3 structures by what means we relate on human beings with five aspects, time and nature and these called the seven dimension: universalism versus particularism, individualism versus communitarianism, specific vs. diffuse, affectivity vs. neutrality, internally controlled nature versus externally controlled nature, achieved status versus ascribed status, and sequential time versus synchronic time (THT consulting 2009). In these two famous anthropologies who examine questionnaires in different countries with different cultures, afterwards conduct their own conclusion and they each established their own dimensions. On the contrary they have the resemblance between dimensions in both models. According to Gooderham and Nordhaug (2003) Trompenaars' communitarianism versus individualism model kii is almost the same as Hofstede individualism - collectivism is related to Hofstede's individualism - collectivism dimension, they agree on some countries like Japan that they are both weak in terms of individualism, while UK and USA are relatively individualistic but in contrast with Trompenaars several countries seemed to be more individualistic than Hofstede's studied. Furthermore Trompenaars achievement/ ascription value orientation that defines how status is given, it seems to be linked to Hofstede's power distance index, at least if one receives that status is rendered by nature rather than achievement, and that this reflects a greater willingness to accept power distances. It is, however, it is not exactly complete, as Hofstede's power distance index does not only relate to how status is accorded, but also to the acceptable power distance within a society, an area that is not touched upon by Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner (Sinha, 2009).

Filipino management style is more likely an authoritarian style which influences by the Westernized country in terms of management that the managers give command to the subordinate and they give decision without asking others opinion. According to Henderson (1999) to observer the Filipinos is based on their body language and facial expression. For example by raising their eyebrows without smiling

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Management experience in the Philippines to UK (Management Style)

Two critical thinking encounter and how did you approach the issue?

The management experience you had in your country is different in here or the same?


Exhibit 1.1. The Stabilising of Culture Patterns


Forces of nature

Forces of man;



Scientific discovery


Structure and functioning of institutions:

Family patterns

Role differentiation

Social satisfaction

Socialization emphases

Educational systems


Political system


Theory development


Value systems of major groups of population


Ecological factors:










Source: Hofstede, G. (2001), p.12


Definition of Terms







POWER DISTANCE (PD) - it measures the equality and inequality in the company. The concerns the degree to which power is allocated and expected in the organisation or other culture. He describe this as (Hofstede, G. 1993, p. 89) "…the degree of inequality among people which the population of a country considers as normal: from relatively equal (that is, small power distance) to extremely unequal (large power distance)".These categorized in two parts: (Buchanan, D. and Huczynski, A. 1997)

UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE (UA) - WadaTripp2's (2010) interviewed Hofstede regarding his theories to culture that uncertainty avoidance are relaxed in unknown situation and others are comfortable in going to other countries. In which Hofstede find out that other countries are anxious on what might happen in the future.

INDIVIDUALISM-COLLECTIVISM (I) - collectivism culture more in a group that they focus on the "we" identity. Collectivistic cultures tend to reads body language, expression and actions more than individualistic culture to get better understanding. The country such as China, Pakistan and Venezuela are more likely look after the in-group in exchange of loyalty (Buchanan and Huczynski, 1997). The views, needs and goals of the group are more important than the individual views that they don't have responsibility on the larger community (Sunsilvercat, 2007). Individualism culture they look after by themselves and their immediate family's only. Individualism give emphasize on the equality of the people, freedom and their rights. Interfacettraning (2010) supported the best examples of individualism are Australia, United States and United Kingdom.

MASCULINITY - FEMININITY - in these theory stated by Clearlycultural (2009) that the work of one people is based on the task or responsibility, and that refers to male which result for being assertiveness and competitive in the society while femininity is more on caring which related on the female values. Some countries focuses on their traditional way of what man and woman do in the workplace with high gender differentiation (Kriss 2006), but on the other hand several countries they believe on women can do whatever a man can do. They consider themselves as equal (Mindtools n.d.).

LONG-TERM ORIENTATION - it indicates on how they think and how do they cope up in their long-term commitments and having a strong work ethic. However there's a short-term orientation where they are traditional oriented, like change than the long -term orientation and they avoid anything that they might "lose face" which meant they don't like to get humiliated (Clearlycultural 2009).










5 Dimension



United Kingdom

United States

Power Distance





Uncertainty Avoidance















Long-term Oriented





Source: Clearlycultural, 2009

7 Dimension












Achieved-Ascribed Status

Sequential-Sychronic Time


UNIVERSALISM vs. PARTICULARISM - According to Trompenaars video THTconsulting (2009) universalistic culture likes to follow rules that they set as standard and dislike exception while particularistic is an opposite of universalistic they like exception on the rules.

INDIVIDUALISM vs. COLLECTIVISM - THTconsulting (2009) cited that individualism they go on autonomy and creativity. They make their own decision and reach their success on their own (Workman 2008). Collectivism or communitarianism is essentially communitarian culture; people place the community before the individual. Thus, it is the responsibility of the individual to act in ways which serve society. In doing so, individual needs are automatically attended.

TROMPENAARS, F. - HAMPDEN-TURNER, C., Riding the Waves of Culture, Nicholas Brealey Publishing, London, 2006.

HOFSTEDE, G. - HOFSTEDE, G. J., Cultures and Organizations, McGraw-Hill, NY, 2005.

Smothermann R, Kooros S, 2001 Assessing Cultural Differences: Comparing Hofstede's and Trompenaars' Dimensions, Proceedings of the Conference of the Academy of Business Disciplines,.

Hodgetts, R. and Luthans, F. (2000) International Management Culture, Strategy and Behaviour. Fourth edition. S.l. Mcgraw-Hill.

Where Asia Smiles: Ethnography of Philippine Tourism (Sally Ann Ness 2003

McSweeney, Brendan (2002) Hofstede's Model of National Cultural Differences and Their Consequences: A Triumph of Faith - A Failure of Analysis. Human Relations 55(1), 89-118.

"What is cross cultural management?"

Really a good question. Let me answer this correctly. It is about culture. Basically human races came with different background. "Cultural background". The way of doing things in one culture may not be the way in other culture. what is good in one culture, may be bad in other culture. Some time the activities are all the same in two different cultures, but two different meanings, two different interpretations.

When person from one cultural background, meet, interact with, understand and deal with person from other cultural background. That is cross-cultural management.

Some people are in favor of the world is converging, all things are going to be same. They are right. some people are arguing still the world has divergence. They are also right. dont fight over this issue. we are smart people. learn how to manage both the convergence and divergence. That is the key to success.

I will give you examples. In USA, it is performance that counts. based on that you will be give higher assignments and promotions will be given. In Indian companies, performance is not the main criteria. It is "Organizational compatibility" that counts. That is the employee "fit" in to the organization that counts. India is a High context society. The "fit" in to the organization has to be interpreted in Indian way.

The business has different interpretation. IN USA , doing business means creating organizations wealth. In India doing business means "Individual wealth". On recruitment, In USA it is the process of selection, In India it is the process of rejection. And the difference goes on...

Certainly, the difference are innumerable. Increasing an individual's or an organization's cultural intelligence is not an easy task. Please visit our website for more information visit our blog: http:/