During the 21st century, we have seen and witnessed the huge and significant changes in the words economy and the key that has led to such achievement is entrepreneur. They are also normal people like us but the different point is that they prefer to take more risks to gain higher achievable result, getting more competitive advantage, having a real capability to lead others and manage the whole corporation.. But one question has emerged: Entrepreneur is born or made?. Even though there are many arguments surrounding this concern, I personally believe it is a combination of both. Can they be more successful with training? Absolutely! But can someone without the Gifts, Mindset, DNA or Passion be successful with the same training? Nope. What I think determines success in entrepreneurs is whether someone has a burning passion in their belly to make something of their lives regardless of genetics, education or training. There are examples all over the world of both types who come from great business genetics but who don't do anything grand in business, and then there are those who come up the ranks of poverty to create masterpieces. Therefore, my opinion is that for those who only reach their entrepreneurship level when they are expected to possesses those important factors which may come from inside or outside the environment.
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II. Body Structure:
A. Entrepreneur is born or made:
1. Entrepreneur is born:
Entrepreneur has been playing a very important part to our growing economy in the 21st century. Over the past 10 to 15 years, Entrepreneurship training programs have been established with an effort to formulate the idea of teaching enthusiastic and desired people how to start their own business dream and identify their entrepreneurial potential. While certain competences such as creating and developing a business plan, marketing strategies or finding financial sources of funding can be set up, the fundamental background of entrepreneur is deeply imbedded in the personality characteristics of individual or in other words, entrepreneur may come from inside the person.
An entrepreneur is not necessary to be born, but it certainly helps one to become more successful. According to (Tara,L.,2007), with inherent tendencies, more people likely to take risks, more being able to catch chances of success, increasing their wealth and open-minded. Individuals who do not possess these traits also can learn and improve themselves day by day; it will take them more efforts to achieve the entrepreneurship level. In academic articles and his book, "Born Entrepreneurs, Born Leaders (Oxford University Press, 2010), Shane mentioned that 48 percent of those who tend to be an entrepreneur is "heritable," meaning that it is influenced by genetic factors. Other three professors of entrepreneurial studies at Case Western including Scott A. Shane, Tim and Lynn Cherkas have found the same result when they conducted behavioral genetics (twin) and molecular genetics (association) studies of entrepreneurship (Karen,E.,2010) From that, the trend to be an entrepreneur and personality traits such as extraversion, openness to experience, driven achievement, trying to seek business opportunities has a common genetic component.
For those who agree with statement that entrepreneur is born, according to them, the mind or thinking as a real entrepreneur is among the most need personal trait, and that one cannot be learned or trained from outside . The way of thinking as an entrepreneur affects a lot in the early success of their setting a business. In a larger extent, the same attitude of believing in the success and direction of one company will result in a great impact to the firm's employees (Scott A.,2009) .Thus, it is both the challenges and opportunities for creating a competitive advantage for the organization.
If attitude is the one that is inherent in a person and cannot be taught or trained, so does the desire to be an entrepreneur. (Leslie,T.,2006) has showed that many of people have start to establish their own operation since they were very young, they also claim that it's all about their inside ambition, they are encouraged to do that and they believe they can be success if they dare to take risk and change the old system. Thus, there is more than one evidence to prove that the enterprising spirit is within the individual; it is realized and created inside the person as well.
2. Entrepreneur is made:
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
In a contrast idea, Entrepreneurs are made and it is the outcome of working hard, competing excellently with rivals and gaining so much precious market knowledge. Some believe that there is no existence of so-called an entrepreneur by birth; they are created and developed when they grow up. If someone is born to become an entrepreneur then why they should wait for 16 to 25 years to become a business men and why they have to take their education. So a person can get the qualities of an entrepreneur by birth but not enough to be an entrepreneur.
Does this mean that people born and growing up without a family history toward entrepreneurship should give up their dreams and stay a normal and simple life as others? Absolutely not. Anyone in anywhere has the opportunity to build up their own business if they have patience to continuously learn from others, from outside and improve themselves every day, observe everything carefully before coming any important and determinate decision; they have to think they are acting as an entrepreneur and they have responsibility for it. Moreover, agreeing with statement that Entrepreneur is born can have negative sides. If they believe so much on it, they may make a mistake, especially when they rely too heavily on their subjective mindset and miss many other needed skills (Aminal, K., 2012).
Other factors may be just as important as entrepreneurial traits, a survey from a business training program in at the University of Southern California presented that nearly 87 percent of successful entrepreneurs start companies in the industry where they already have business experience (Emerald, 2011). People who get fundamental training are much more likely to succeed than those who only depend on their inheritable entrepreneur genes. There exist many examples of students who still study very well even if they don't have the bright personality that we expect from entrepreneurs. For example, they can learn how to make a speech even if they are not ready, not comfortable with it or have cultural barriers.
In addition, longtime entrepreneurial consultant John J. Rooney agrees with the point that it is possible when many of entrepreneurship traits can be successfully got from training. It is also possible that people who are optimistic, focused, committed, have potential to learn these entrepreneur traits (Erin,2000).
Furthermore, knowledge about financial and marketing is much more important in today's world in order to be able to adapt and catch up with the speed of world's changes. A person can have good attitude, innovations and the drive to start their own business from an idea, but do they have the full knowledge to move on and make it grow more? Anyone can start a business, but it need to take a professional person to lead the company, giving the right direction and achieve the expected goal.
B. Theory application:
1. A general definition of entrepreneurship:
"Entrepreneurship is the process of creating value by bringing together a unique combination of resources to exploit an opportunity" (Morris,M et al.2007). In other words, it involves the process from identifying of business opportunities, putting resources together in the most effect way to ensuring for creating value and making profit from those opportunities.
2. Strategic integration of entrepreneurship throughout the organization:
Entrepreneurship can occur in even start-up ventures, small firms, mid-sized companies, non-profit organizations and public sector agencies (Morris,M et al.2007). Whether entrepreneurs are made or born, they have to face with a lot of challenges, difficulties and unforeseeable outcomes. That's the reason why one can say that entrepreneur mind comes from inside the person, but it will become useless if he or she does not know how to apply the knowledge of economic, society, management, finance, marketing to run a business effectively. Moreover, an effective entrepreneur is those who need to develop creative strategies for leveraging resources, planning for risk management strategies and formulating innovative solutions. It's all coming from the entrepreneurial intensity whereby an entrepreneur has a clear vision, they know what the goal is, how to achieve the goal together with the incorporation of many different organization's department so that it all leads to the best organizational performance.
3. The creative individual:
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Possessing creative individual in any organization is the strength and opportunity if the person is put in the right place, sufficient support of teamwork, colleagues as well as the external economic factors. Creativity is the first signal of approving the statement entrepreneur is born. They may investors of new products, services or processes. They can turn ideas or prototypes into profitable realities, team builders but it's more important that undergoing many of work training and getting experience from the real life, real competitive market, they will become a driver behind the implementation of innovative ideas. In other words, an entrepreneur must be capable of strong vision and deep action to make it come true and bring many of benefits to the company.
4. Entrepreneurial motivation:
a) Economic factor:
Economic incentives are the major source of motivation for entrepreneur's operation activities. It means that entrepreneur will do well and bringing to the economic growth rate when the economic conditions are advantageous. Economic incentives may include taxation policy, industrial policy, plentiful sources of financial and raw material, investment and marketing opportunities, high foreign investment rate â€¦.
b) Sociological factor:
Entrepreneurship is likely to get a raise in a particular social culture. Especially when the entrepreneur is a key of economic growing according to the expectations of the society; society's values, religious beliefs, customs will have a great impact to the behavior of individuals in a society.
c) Psychological factor:
Entrepreneurship is encouraged to grow when society can support and help them satisfy some of internally generated needs. Psychological characteristics may come from the hierarchy of human being's need such as need for high achievement, recognition, ability to face obstacles, being more successfulâ€¦
d) Innovation factor:
Entrepreneur is usually innovative, creative and has a foresight. Thus, innovation occur when the entrepreneur
- Introduces a new product.
- Introduce a new production method.
- Expansion or target to the new market
- Find out a new source of raw material supply.
- Introduces new organizations in any industry.
Overall, many arguments either for supporting "Entrepreneur is born" or "Entrepreneur is made" have occurred and we still could not find the appropriate answer. However, it may not be a big deal when one can combine natural and physical perspectives; anyone who has a great passion, dreams of success and make something different will have a chance to be entrepreneur if they are patient to learn from outside, learn from others, gaining experience, supplementing updated information and improve themselves day by day. Success actually depends on many different key factors; it may come from genetic tendency, intelligence, luck, knowledge, experiences and so on. Therefore, it's always good when one can identify, understand and know how to make internal and external traits more useful and more growing.
1. Pike & Helen (2005), ' Entrepreneur are made, not born', Business and Economics, vol.14, page 14, Proquest Central.
2. Aminal, K ( 2012), ' Entrepreneur:born or made', Daily Times, accessed 26/5/2012, available: < http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2012%5C05%5C26%5Cstory_26-5-2012_pg5_16>.
3. Leslie,T (2006), 'Are entrepreneur born or made', accessed 24/10/2006, available: http://www.inc.com/news/articles/200610/born.html.
4. Karen,E (2010), 'Are entrepreneurs born or made', accessed 23/7/2010, available: http://www.businessweek.com/smallbiz/content/jul2010/sb20100723_154719.htm.
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7. Emerald (2011), 'What is an entrepreneur?: Understanding who they are and how they can benefit', Strategic Direction, vol.27, issue No.6, pp.22-25.
8. Erin (2000), 'Emerging Entrepreneur', Engineering, vol.32, issue No.6, pp. 20-21.
9. Morris, M.,Kuratko,D & Covin J.2007, Corporate Entrepreneurship & Innovation, pg.6