The four functions used in management


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Management is defined as the process of planning, organizing, leading and controlling the use of resources to accomplish performance goals. In the case study above, Fisher has used the four functions of management in his various activities in Kodak.

The first function of management, which can be seen in Fisher's activities in Kodak, is planning. Planning is defined as the process of setting performance objectives and determining what actions should be taken to accomplish them. Through planning, a manager decides what actions that need to be taken and way to achieve desired results. We can identify planning in Fisher's activities based on the strategy he planned and the vision he had painted for Kodak. Besides that, he also considers expansion in international markets, which can help Kodak do better in fast-growing economies.

In addition, another function of management, which can be seen in Fisher's activities, is organizing. Organizing is a process of arranging task and activities of individuals in groups to implement plans. It is also used to allocate resources efficiently and to carry out various plans of action. Fisher had set up a new digital division composed of various digital resources that had been spread throughout the company. He also organized resources by selling Kodak's health-and home-products divisions and used the funds to pay off a big part of Kodak's debt.

The next function of management, which is seen in Fisher's activities, is leading. Leading is the process of directing efforts towards organizational goals. Fisher has been said to encourage activities that support goals and also influence others to do their best work on the organization's behalf. Fisher has made himself more accessible as a CEO compared to Kodak's past CEO's. He frequently makes visits to the offices of researches to obtain information. In addition, he also invites his employees to send him e-mails and encourages them to give their best effort. He also uses the compensation system to encourage workers to achieve their goals.

The last function of management seen in Fisher's activities is controlling. Controlling is defined as the process of measuring performance, comparing results with objectives, and taking corrective action when needed. In the past, goals would be set, but managers often missed them by a wide margin. Fisher now works with managers to set realistic goals and makes it clear to them that he expects them to track their progress. Fisher has measured their performances in the past and took corrective action to help achieve goals.


The above paragraphs identified and explained Fisher's activities according to the four functions of management, which are planning, organizing, leading and controlling. Fisher is said to have all 4 of these functions of management present in his activities at Kodak.

Question 2

Which of Mintzberg's managerial roles are most significant in Fisher's activities?


Henry Mintzberg offers a set of ten managerial roles, which are a figurehead, leader, liaison, monitor, disseminator, spokesperson, entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator and negotiator. There are three of Mintzberg's managerial roles which are most significant to Fisher's activities.


The first of Mintzberg's managerial roles, which is significant to Fisher's activities, is a leader. A leader is as someone who fosters a proper work atmosphere and motivates and develops subordinates. This can be seen in Fisher's activities when he made himself more easily assessable so that employees can approach him to ask him with questions and he would be ready to respond appropriately. He also introduced the reward system, which helps motivate employees to give their best effort

Furthermore, another one of Mitzberg's managerial roles, which are significant to Fisher's activities, is an entrepreneur. An entrepreneur is someone who spots opportunities and initiates change in the organization. An example of Fisher's activities as an entrepreneur is seen when he spots new opportunities to expand Kodak by expanding into the international markets. Besides that, he also planned a strategy for Kodak and tried to change the dysfunctional culture by setting tough goals and letting his managers decide how best to achieve them.

The last of Mintzberg's managerial roles, which can be seen in Fisher, is a disturbance handler. A disturbance handler is someone who takes corrective action during a crisis and taking charge when the organization hits an iceberg unexpectedly. Types of disturbances may arise from different aspects such as staff, resources or threats. In this case, Fisher has shown his role as a disturbance handler when he took action to sell Kodak's health and home products division and used the funds to pay off a big part of Kodak's debt. Besides that, Fisher also took corrective action by reviewing the goals which manager's did not achieve in the past and work with them to set realistic goals and how best to achieve them.


Based on Mintzberg's managerial roles, the 3 most significant roles, which can be seen in Fisher's activities, are a leader, an entrepreneur and a disturbance handler. However, there are also other significant roles that also do complement Fisher's activities at Kodak.

Question 3

Do you consider Fisher as an effective manager or an effective leader?


Based on the case study above, Fisher has shown both characteristics of an effective manager and an effective leader. The following paragraphs identify and explain characteristics of both an effective manager and a leader. It also states whether Fisher is more of an effective manager or leader.


A manager is someone who works directly with other people who demand on them for critical support and assistance in their own jobs. Managers are responsible to directly support and help activate the work efforts and performance accomplishments of others. One of the characteristics of an effective manager is someone who listens with concern. An effective manager is a good listener and is open to their views and accepts their constructive criticism. Fisher has the characteristic of a good listener because he constantly interacts with the employees at Kodak. He invites them to send him e-mails and also often talks to the employees.

In addition, another characteristic of an effective manager is someone who is dependable. An effective manager is someone who shows up to work on time and is willing to put in extra hours when required. Fisher is said to be someone who is dependable because he has been putting in 18-hour days studying every part of Kodak's business.

Furthermore, an effective manager is someone who accepts the status quo. What this means is, an effective manager accepts things as they are. This can be seen in Fisher because he accepted the current situation of Kodak, which was suffering from dealing earnings, slow growth, heavy debt, and a demoralized workforce. After accepting its current situation, he made plans to help troubled Kodak.

A leader on the other hand, is defined as a person who guides others toward a common goal and creating an environment where team members feel actively involved in the entire process. One of the characteristics of an effective leader is a person who has a drive for improvement. This characteristic can be seen in Fisher's activity where he expects managers to track their progress and meet their goals. He has done this because managers in the past have missed their goals by a wide margin. Fisher is seeking improvement in the managers and helping them achieve their goals.

Besides that, an effective leader is also someone who encourages participative decision-making. In this case, a leader encourages employees to take part in the decision making process. This will not only make employees feel like part of the group but it also increases the amounts of information and knowledge available to solve problems. Fisher has encouraged participative decision making by allowing managers decide how best to achieve their goals.

In addition, an effective leader is also creative. An effective leader is able to think out of the box and come up with effective strategies to help solve problems. Fisher is said to be creative because he used other resources to help clear Kodak's debt. In this case, Fisher came up with the idea to sell Kodak's health and home products divisions and use the funds to pay off Kodak's debt. Besides that, Fisher also used the compensation system to help motivate employees to achieve their goals.


Based on the facts stated above, we can say that Fisher is both and effective leader and an effective manager. However, Fisher has been said to have more qualities of an effective leader based on his contribution and input he has done at Kodak.

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