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The literature review will examine the research on student academic performance which focusing on social networking sites usage among student in Kolej Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Selangor (KUIS). The concept of student academic performance is central to this study in relation to a social networking sites usage. The variable that be tested in this study include social interaction, time spend and information network based on User and Gratification Theories from Severin & Taknard (2007) and Foregger (2008) previous researcher. An overview of similar theories will be presented. These include Tinto (1993) Theory of Student Departure and Ajzen (1991)Theory of Planned Behavior model as they relate to the variable that be used in the study.
Social Networking Sites provided an application that allows users to create profile, sharing the information and knowledge as well as interacting each other. Social network seems attract a lot of attention among researcher. Several studies examine the user sharing content in terms of their profile, photo, videos and information (Young et al., 2009; Vasalou et al., 2010). Other exploratory studies show that social networking sites as a platforms to support the social capital and social interaction (Burke at al., 2010; Ellison et al., 2007, 2011; Ginger, 2007; Yoder and Stutsman, 2011). Some studies examine the time spend among internet user on social network (Canales at al., 2009; Karpinski and Duberstein, 2009; Schulten, 2009).
Boyd & Ellison (2007) defined Social Networking Sites as:
"Web-based services that allow individuals to (1) construct a public or semi public profile within a bounded system, (2) articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection and (3) view and traverse their list of connections and those made by others within the system" (p.211).
They also state that there are a lot of social networking sites nowadays after 1997, which it is first year introduced. College students are the most active generation that relying on social networking sites to build and maintain the interaction, playing games, updating status and blog, downloading music and video, searching the new information and make it as a part of their regular daily lives (Fox & Madden, 2009; Horrigan & Rainie, 2005; Jones & Fox, 2009, Junco & Cotton, 2011). Other studies shows that over 97% of college student owned a computer, 94% owned a cell phone and almost 90% had high speed internet access in their home, which support the previous studies, but it gives a negative impact to their behavior (Junco and Cole-Avent, 2008). Thus, these support that adolescents are the largest group that using social networking sites (Greenfield, 2004).
Most of the researchers agree that the uses and gratification theory are useful for internet research especially in determining the usage and communication behaviors of internet users (Ruggiero, 2000; Chung & Kim, 2008; Ebersole, 2000; Ko, 2000; LaRose & Eastin, 2004). The common interest to determine the internet usage include time spend, information network, entertainment, social interaction and others (Charney & Greenberg, 2002; Papacharisi & Rubin, 2000). To identify the relationship between social networking sites usage and student academic performance, the researcher adapted the model from Severin and Taknard (2007) and Foregger (2008). There are twelve (12) elements in the model that include:
Utilities and upkeep
Maintain and establish old ties
Figure 2.1 Model of Social Networking Sites (SNS) usage by Severin and Taknard (2007) and Foregger (2008).
From twelve factors, the researcher had decided to choose only three factors that have the highest mean value from the previous studies that influence the relationship between social networking sites usage and student academic performance which are social interaction, information network and time spend. From these three factors, the researcher would like to identify and discover the factors that have a high significant influencing the relationship between social networking sites usage and student academic performance in Kolej Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Selangor (KUIS).
2.1 ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE
There are a lot of researches about social networking sites in academic settings (Hewitt & Forte, 2006), but it still particularly slight when compared to studies of privacy, safety and psychology well being. The effect between social networking sites usage and academic performance have been discussed in the several research that focusing in personality traits (Furnham et al., 2003; Hardie and Tee, 2007; Poropat, 2009).
The negative impact of social networking sites towards student academic performance makes most of the school take initiatives with blocking access to Social Networking Sites in computer at classroom and this show that the main reason of this trend centers on fears about student safety (Lemke, Coughlin, Garcia, Reifsneider & Baas, 2009). Bernard et al (2004) state that social network will give either benefit or negative impact of learning when compared to the learning style in the classroom.
Study show that there is a significant relationship between social networking sites usage in terms of gender. The result show that females are 1.6 times more tend to use social networking sites than males (Hargittai, 2007). Besides, there are several studies that support social networking sites usages are different in terms of gender. The different user especially youth generation using social networking sites in different ways (Lenhart, Madden, Macgill & Smith, 2007).
There have an argument between Karpinski (2009) and Pasek et al., (2009) studies in relationship between the student attitude in social networking sites and their academic performance. Karpinski (2009) find that students who have social networking profile have lower level of Collegiate Grade Point Average (CGPAs) which scored in the range of 3.0 - 3.5 than students who are doesn't have social networking profile which gained CGPAs of 3.5 - 4.0. Karpinski estimate the student time spend on social networking and studying, but these finding did not specified examine the hypotheses. Pasek et al., (2009) found several limitation of Karpinski study, which including a limitation of sample of students, usage of few control variables in the analysis and liberal conclusion. Based on these issues, Pasek et al. suggest additional analysis that uses a larger sample of student's participation, using more control variables and longitudinal dataset. The result show that there has no significant relationship between social networking sites usage and student academic performance in terms of CGPA in their database.
But, there are several researches that study the social context of learning in academic settings and found it have a significant relationship with high quality relationship and student academic performance (Feldman & Matjasko, 2005; Martin & Dowson, 2009). A lot of studies have been conducted to highlight the impact of social networking sites toward user. Results showed that the impact of social networking sites toward user has negative impact especially in terms of psychological problems (Suhail & Bargees, 2006).
Kolek and Saunders (2008) proposed that there are no relationship between CGPAs and social networking user. This study also supported by Pasek et al. (2006) that proposed social networking usage is not related with low CGPAs of students. But, it is different founder by the other researcher. Linda et al. (2006) studies show a positive correlation between social networking sites usage and student academic performance. Ellison et al. (2007) agree that social networking usage have capability to minimize the psychological problem among user.
Several studies have been done regarding social networking sites usage and students academic performance. The measurement of social networking usage and student academic performance is certainly open to many arguments. In majority of studies, there are shows that social networking sites have negative significant relationship toward student academic performance (Karpinski, 2009; Wilson, 2009; Khan, 2009; Grabmeier, 2009; Banquil and Burce, 2009; Mattingly et al., 2010; Sengupta and Chaudhuri, 2010). Other arguments in social networking sites usage toward student academic achievement state that social networking usage gives a positive impact to academic performance of students (Shah et al., 2001; Linda et al., 2006; Pasek et al., 2006; Ellison et al., 2007; Roblyer et al., 2010). Therefore, it is interesting to study the relationship between social networking sites usage and student academic performance in the KUIS.
2.2 SOCIAL INTERACTION
Previous studies show that college student tend to use social networking sites to builds a positive relationship between their friends in campus (Ellison, Steinfield & Lampe, 2007). Similarly, there is a construction between direct communication and online interaction, which the users using social networking sites for social interaction with people from their daily lives (Bryant et al., 2006).
There have a high correlation between social networking use and social interaction in a sample of the college student that also measures the self esteem and life satisfaction. Students who were low in self esteem, but frequently used social network, had higher level of social interaction than their peers who were already high in self esteem. Result suggest that college student who have a low self esteem or life satisfaction, might benefit more from social networking use. (Ellison, Steinfield and Lampe, 2007)
Other exploratory studies (Steinfield, Ellison & Lampe, 2008; Valenzuela, Park & Kee, 2009) also show the positive relationship between social networking use and social interaction, and have considered college age users. There have an argument between Harman et al., (2005) and Valkenburg et al., (2006) studies in relationship between the level of self esteem and social interaction among student. Harman et al., found that students who have lower level of self esteem more tend to use social networking sites for social interaction more than those with higher self esteem. This is because it encourages them with predominantly positive socializing interaction rather than face to face communication that they use daily. Based on these findings, Valkenburg et al., studies has been argued that the student who have high self esteem receive the most positive feedback from other online user which is almost 78%, rather than those who have lower self esteem. It could be argued, therefore that student behaviors have possibilities in influencing their social interaction on social networking sites.
Other studies are focusing on social interaction among student and the impact of this behavior. Roblyer et al (2010) stated that social networking sites provide the features of online communication among student and teacher, and they believe it will give a positive impact to these parties especially in terms of academic setting. Based on the previous studies, the purpose of present research is to find out the relationship between social networking sites (SNS) usage and student academic performance in KUIS by exploring the link between social networking sites usage (social interaction, time spend and information network) and student academic performance.
2.3 INFORMATION NETWORK
Some users found that they become more organized since they create the profile on social networking sites, generally with regard to communication and sharing information network (Schulten, 2009). A previous study examine the relationship between social networking usage and academic achievement and found that this variable have a moderated significant by student interest and capabilities in the university (Rouis, 2012). Information network can be known as a part of social network function based on the features of the social networking sites, the user population in the online communities and the attitudes toward social network itself (Kling, 2007).
Studies show that students disclose personal information on their profile and more actively to use privacy features to limit their profile view. Additionally, report show that nearest 66% of teenager are using privacy features to manage who can view their profile in social network (Livingstone, 2008; Hiduja & Patchin, 2008; Lenhart & Madden, 2007). But, Tufecki (2008) prove that there are no significant relationship between the privacy concern and self regulation toward sharing information in social networking sites. Research show that even though student have privacy concern and self regulation, it still cannot hinder their desire to share information in their profile view on social networking sites.
Information network has increase the efficiency of students and teachers in academic setting (Oskousei, 2010). Besides User and Gratification Theory, there are several theory that study social interaction and information network, such as Tinto (1993) Theory of Student Departure. There are two studies that examine the impact of social interaction (Douglas Olson, 2011) and information network (Melinda et al., 2008) toward student usage of online social networking by using this theory. Doughas Olson (2011) studies the relationship between community college student engagement and student usage of online social networking. Doughas state that Tinto's theory has defined the relationship between online social networking and student interaction with their friends and faculty in college. Result show that the theory has significant relationship with student engagement and online social networking usage. Melinda et al. proposed that information network is the main key of student integration. Result state that student using social networking sites to sharing the information network between peers and faculty, and also helped student as a media tool for their successful degree completion. Almost 84% of students who are using information network were found as integrated into the college.
The Tinto's (1993) Theory of Student Departure model is depicted in Figure 2.2, as below:
Research has shown that female's students are more likely to share information and knowledge about their daily lives rather than males (Merten & Williams, 2009). In a recent study, it was shown that almost 55% of females shared their personal information in the social networking sites and only 15% of males shared their personal information in their profiles (Merten & Williams, 2009). On the other side of the issue, the both group are commonly use social networking sites as a platform to updating their current academic information, such as assignment work and presentation (Alexander & Salas, 2008). Therefore, it is interesting to study the relationship between information networks on social networking use toward student performance in KUIS.
2.4 TIME SPEND
While there have been state advantages associated with social network use, there are also some concern about its particularly frequent use (Lenhart & Madden, 2007; Livingstone, 2008). Internet user spends more time in social networking sites rather than blogs and email (Nielsen Online, 2009). Schulten (2009) study the relationship between times spend and academic performance among student. The result shows that the long times spent on social networking sites will decrease the level of student's academic performance and their grades. Student noted that they spend an average of 30 - 35 minutes per day on social networking sites. Some of student note that they cannot quit from visiting the social network even thought there have a limitation of surfing such as time consuming and web distraction (Facebook, 2011 and Adan, 2011).
Students, who more tend to spend time on the social networking sites, should be distracted in related assignment work during the long hours spent on social network. They like to share the information and knowledge, participate in forum, discussions and chatting, uploading the videos and photo and more tend to spend long hours in chatting with their friend and checking their profiles and updates from computer and cell phones even while preparing their assignment work, which will interferes their progress of work. But, some of studies show that the user's participation and behavior in social networking sites are depending on their personalities and cultural background. Researcher found that there has a different result in user attitude and participation toward social networking sites based on their age, gender, and personality traits. (Hofstede, 2005 and Nazir et al., 2009)
Besides User and Gratification Theory, there are several theory that study this variable (time spend), such as Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Baker, Rosland K. and White, Katherine M. (2010) found that Theory Planned Behavior model (TPB) have high significant of validity in testing the student engagement and time spend of social networking sites. The total participants are 160 students that have completed measures assessing the model. Results are collected after one week, and shows there have positive relationship between student engagement and times spend of social networking. Researcher found that student who have high favorable attitude toward engagement more tend to use social networking sites, and more confident in term of usage and maintain the social interaction among peers. Theory of Planned Behavior is the well known model that be widely used by the researcher to identify the important predictors of individual's behavior (Ajzen, 1991).
The Theory of Planned Behavior model is depicted in Figure 2.3, as below:
Extraversion, neurotic and agreeable student are more likely to spend time in managing the forum, discussion and group, helping their friends and guiding them in assignment work on social networking sites. There are several studies that examine the user attitude in social networking sites towards this type of students. They found that those extraversion students are the most actively and spending more time in social network. Their attitude can be defined as sociability, adventurous, dominant and ambitious toward social network. Neurotic student more tend to use the social networking sites according to their emotion. Their attitude is more sensitive, which makes them less imposed to study especially when they are not satisfied. Neurotic student more tend to build and maintain their network relationship as the key of their satisfaction. They more likely specified their network content and looking for a new contact if have a chance. Neurotic student have a high capability to spend more time in social networking sites when they are stress and unsatisfied. Finally, the agreeable student is courtesy, which is they will not decline the invitation to become a friends or join a group and forum. Their attitudes are kind, honest and open minded. Agreeable student usually will lead and manage the discussion in group between their friend and other users and will spend time to helping their friends (Kamdar and Van Dyne, 2007; Tabak et al., 2009; Clark and Schroth, 2010; Roccas et al., 2008; Propat, 2009).
Janco and Mastrodicasa (2007) believes that the most challenge that faced by academic advisor are interacting with students through social networking sites in which they spend so much time. They believe older generation cannot predict as fast as youth in technology advancement. Besides, chat rooms seem have a potential to give a bad influence in term of behavior because it usually public and unmonitored space which make people can talk synchronously. Studies show that student spend more time in chatting with new friend and other stranger. These give a high potential of unwanted interaction in social networking sites (Peter, Valkenburg, and Schouten, 2006). Martin (2009) found that there is no correlation between times spends of social networking sites toward student academic performance make this variable more favorable to be tested in this study.
Students reported have deducting time from their other daily activities, such as assignment work and face to face communication to spend more time on social networking sites (Livingstone; Rapid Press Release, 2008; Sharif & Sargent, 2006; Vandewater, Shim & Caplovitz, 2004). Microsoft Digital Advertising Solutions (2007) state that the average of users visit to social networking sites are 2.4 per user per usage day, and this support that the frequently usage of social network a day reflects the study's of target behavior of social networking use within the college student user.
There is significant relationship between social networking usage and broadening of the user using these sites (Nielsen Company, 2009). But, there have a different result regarding the social networking participation on student academic performance across gender lines as to which group spend more time on these sites (Lin & Subrahmanyam, 2007). Results are mixed across gender lines whether females more consistently used social networking sites rather than males (Hargittai & Hsieh, 2010; Mix, 2010) or males have been more online than females (Lin & Subrahmanyam, 2007). Besides, there are also an equally divided of the time spend between females and males (Bonds-Raacke & Raacke, 2008). Further, it was expected that gender would significantly add to efficacy in the frequent social networking sites use. Thus, the current study sought to explore the relationship between times spend on social networking use toward student performance in KUIS.
This literature review is elaborated about the factors that influencing the social networking sites (SNS) usage towards student academic performance. The introduction is explained about the social networking sites (SNS) in academic setting. After that, it is continued with the elaboration of dependent variable which is student academic performance. There are three independent variables that contributed together for this study, which include social interaction, information network and time spend. All of these variables are elaborated specifically on the social networking sites (SNS) usage among college student. The supportive theory is well defined and the demographic factors which are gender and CGPAs are being explained in each of the variable. Based on the discussion in this chapter, the main variables are listed below:
Demographic factors such as gender and CGPAs.
These identified main variables that can influence the social networking sites (SNS) usage towards student academic performance will be used in the next Chapter 3 to develop a theoretical framework of this research. It will become the basis of this study to understand the factors that influence the social networking sites (SNS) usage toward student academic performance in Kolej Universiti Islam Anatarabangsa Selangor (KUIS).