The Expectancy Theory Of Motivation Business Essay

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If an organizations employees seem less-than-eager while on the job, you may have an issue with employee low engagement. Mc Donald is one of the typical organizations that apply employee engagement strategy in its organizational management. According to a survey conducted by Akron's Centre for Organizational Research, low engaged employees tend to characterize the following element.

Dissatisfaction, which means that low engagement employee, tends to be highly dissatisfaction with their job. With low employee engagement, employee's ability to handle or tolerate economic uncertainty is minimal. Inconsistency is one of the elements of low employee engagement, showing that the employees are unable to bring a high level of loyalty, creativeness and energy to their jobs. For example, Mc Donald employee would not be able to generate any new idea or bring up their best performance for their work if they are low engaged. Other than that, Employee goodwill is low both at the work and when they are away from work. In turn, it disallows employees to promote goodwill within and towards the organization.

Employee drives and needs can also be defined as employee motivation. In order to motivate employee, organization need to understand some key factors that motivate people. Organization may fail to apply this theory as the drives and the need of individual are different, organization may not be able to understand all of the drives and need of an individual. For example, the reason for employee A to join a tour company is to enjoy the trip to other country or places; however, the reason for employee B to join the company is just to earn more money. Therefore, company would not be able to standardize the motivation system or reward as the drive of each individual employee is different.

To motivate employee is not an easy thing, as organization may encounter the problem of employee are bore and not interested in their work. Employee's personal needs may be different in different situation, it is quite hard to fulfilled employee needs in all time and for all of the employee at the same time. In conclusion, organization have to study very well of the consumer's drive and need in order to motivate them

Maslow's needs hierarchy theory

Maslow's needs hierarchy theory is proposed as the theory and idea of satisfying the human's need in physical and psychological term. Many of the organization apply this theory in their organization as a way to help them to generate motivation of consumer by satisfying their need, so as Mc Donald. However, there are several drawbacks of the theory that may becomes the problem that encountered by the company when applying this OB principle. By applying Maslow's Theory, organization may think that they can motivate the employee by providing them adequate physical or psychological needs like money, bonus or promotion, self actualization; they miss out the point that not all employees are governed by same set of needs. Every individual has their own thought and own need, one's need might not be applicable to another. For example, if a company setting a policy that an employee will get a bonus if they increase their own sales over 30%, many of the employee will try to be more diligent and work harder to achieve the target, however, some of the employee are satisfy with their paid at the moment and not willing to work harder for the company as they think that their physical needs already been fulfilled, so they won't work harder for the organization.

Different individuals may be driven by different needs at the same point of time. For instance, as an artist, even the basic needs are not satisfied, he will strive for recognition and achievement rather than keep bothering his physical needs. As an organization, it is hard to detect each employee's individual needs, either physical or psychological. Further than that, individual behaviour seems to respond to several needs, not just one and there is a problem in deciding when a level has been actually 'satisfied'. In conclusion, Maslow's theory is not suitable to be widely used in the organization nowadays.

Expectancy theory of motivation

The Expectancy theory states that employee's motivation is an outcome of how much an individual wants a reward, the assessment that the likelihood that the effort will lead to expected performance and the belief that the performance will lead to reward. This theory is use in some organization, and few limitations are met when applying this theory. The expectancy theory seems to be idealistic because quite a few individuals perceive high degree correlation between performance and rewards. All of the employee have different thought and different attitude towards their, some of them may want to get a higher level in work, put in their effort for it; the other may not take their work seriously and do not care about the organization interest. Furthermore, the application of this theory is limited as reward is not directly correlated with performance in many organizations, rewards may not necessarily be directly connected to effort and performance: in some companies rewards such as raises might be built into a contract or depend upon factors like education or specific job skills. Therefore, it is a tough job to motivate employee as the reward system are not suitable for every employee in the company. Therefore, this theory is more applicable to be applied to a smaller firm or company, which the level of the employee would not greatly differ with each other.

Goal setting and feedback

Goal setting and feedback method are widely used in the organization nowadays. However, there are several problems that an organization may be encountered during the implication of the theory. Goals that are not challenging but instead time consuming do not lend well to goal setting theory because workers will have a hard time being motivated to do a good job on seemingly insignificant tasks. Also, goal setting theory relies on rewards in order to keep workers motivated, which might not always be available to dispense. For example, when an organization is facing financial crisis, more employee's effort is definitely needed to assist the organization to go through the tough time, however, if goal setting theory has been apply in the organization, employee would not be motivated if there is no goal for rewards since the company already run out of money for giving extra reward to the employee.

A company owner or manager needs feedback from a number of key parties. It is important to get feedback from customers, business contacts and also individual employees. However there are also some disadvantages for the employee's feedback. One downside of an employee feedback survey is that the employer might not get accurate or completely truthful answers meaning that the answer is lack of truthfulness. Even if the employer promises anonymity, some workers may play it safe and avoid giving frank opinions about the work environment to avoid being penalized. As a result, giving a survey could turn out to be a useless endeavour if it doesn't help identify actual job-related issues that managers must correct. Another potential disadvantage of giving employee feedback surveys is that the owner or manager might not like the responses he gets. Getting candid feedback from workers about management or the overall atmosphere of the company could even cause some managers to mistrust workers. If managers take the information too personally instead of taking the feedback as an opportunity for improvement, it could create a potentially hostile work environment.

Normally, organization will set a goal for itself and also for employees. Employee may have to help achieve the organization goal as well as individual goal that set for them. Feedback is a kind of way that gets the thought and opinion from the employee, listen to their comment and needs, and change the current situation to make the motivation of employees better. The shortcoming of this method is that we cannot confirm the feedback of the employee, since that part of them cannot understand the feedback questionnaire well, may be able to have misunderstanding and give a poor feedback or over complimented feedback. Some of the employee may be also afraid of the organization, therefore return it with all good comment and not telling the truth. Organization will not be able to generate a good motivation method if the collected data are not match the true thought of the employee.

Goals that are not challenging but instead time consuming do not lend well to goal setting theory because workers will have a hard time being motivated to do a good job on seemingly insignificant tasks. Also, goal setting theory relies on rewards in order to keep workers motivated, which might not always be available to dispense.