The evolution of the Apple computer

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In the world today, the electronic and computer industry is regarded as one of the most profitable and cost effective industry of todays generation and in the future. Apple Computer Company has operated in electronic and computer business for more than 30 years, where it has gained reputation of being an excellent manufacturer of computers and other electronic goods such iphones and ipads, and mobile phones. The organization was established by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, and Ronald Wayne in the year 1976.At the moment, the organization position range among the biggest technological organizations in the world, and tends to employ more 52,000 employees worldwide (Wall street Journal ,2011). The institution is credited to have an upward evolution / progress, which has seen the company grow from a small computer company to a world class electronics consumer goods manufacturer. Therefore, this paper gives an annotated bibliography of ten articles that outlines the evolution of the Apple Computer company.

Annotated bibliography - The evolution of the Apple computer

Dougherty, M. (2010).The History of Apple, Inc. Retrieved from

According to the article, "The history of Apple, Inc", Dougherty explores Apple Inc as an American company that was established by three technology moguls, with aim of providing personal computers to American homes. The company is well recognized with its Macintosh brand, which also include the famous iTunes media application, and the music player, ipod.

The author ascertains the company's performance in the consumer electronics field, where it boosts of loyal consumers, though critics regard their products as being overpriced.

In its history, the most important public relation made by the company relate to advert they made in 1984, that depicted the concepts of the famous George Orwell novel, where big companies like IBM where regarded as big brother, while emerging companies like apple represented the female heroine. With the release of its famous ipad in 1998, the company was able to dispel some of its previous mistakes which included the creation of a bulky and awkward looking PDA in previous years. Three years later the company developed an operating system named Mac OS X, which had capability of harnessing the power of UNIX, while at the same time offering modernized consumer experience using simplified and easy to use Graphical User Interface. According to Dougherty (2010), in the same year the company developed iPod which established a stage for future dynamic products such as the famous apple iphone, MacBook portable computers, and Apple ipad launched in January 2010.

The source is of high quality since gives analysis of the company history in regard to its products and social responsibility.

Wall street Journal (2011).The Apple Evolution. Retrieved from

According to the article, "The Apple Evolution," over 30 years the company has launched many hyped models which have made great impacts, with one or two disappointments.Apple company began its first mass production of computers in the year 1977, where it produced a model named Apple 11, with 4 kb of RAM, a Floppy Disk Drive, and an attached monitor which displayed objects in green. In 1987 the company produced a model named Macintosh 11 which provided a firm standpoint for development of Newton MessagePad in 1993; an electronic organizer which had capacity to recognize specific hadwriting.Despite its advantages, the product was very bulky and expensive and was later discontinued. Few years later, the company developed Power Macintosh 6500. Later launched iMac was launched followed by; G4 Cube was sold without an accompanying monitor.

Despite its innovative size and design, the product was very expensive and required huge amount of power to operate (Wall street Journal, 2011). These issues together with consumer claims that its case cracked forced the company to discontinue it development later in the year the same year the company developed iPod, which had capacity to download more than a thousand songs with quality similar to that of compact disks (cds) into a 5 GB Hard disk. At this time, the product had no iTune application and it operated under Macintosh Operating system. Under the guidance of Steve, the Company in 2001 launched another improved version of iMac which had an arm like structure that that allowed the screen to be rotated .The model had also an incorporated drive which allowed burning of data into DVDs and CDs.Other apple products up to year 2010 include ,the iTune store in 2003,iPod mini in 2004,iPhone in 2007 ,MacBook Air in 2008 ,iPad in 2009,iPhone 4 For Verizon in 2011 ,and finally iPad 2 in 2011.

This article gives analysis of all products released by apple all the way since it inception to 2011.

Edible Apple.(2009).The Evolution and History of the Apple Logo. Retrieved from


This article describes all the logos used by Apple company inc., since its commencement in 1976. According to the article,"The Evolution and History of the Apple logo," the first apple logo was structured by Ronald Wayne, and it shows the picture of Isaac Newton under a tree. The logo never lasted for long, and it was replaced with a Rainbow Logo, which depicted an apple fruit with rainbow stripes across its surface. The logo was initiated by Steve Jobs in late 1976, but it was designed by Rob Janoff.The main intention of this logo was chiefly to "bring life or humanize" the company, and it later came to become the most familiar and iconic logo in electronics industry (Edible Apple, 2009). In 1998, the logo was then replaced with the Monochrome Logo, which is in operation up to date. In regard to the article, it's evident that it describes and give exact timeframe when each logo was introduced thus giving credible materials.

Funding Universe (2008). Apple Computer, Inc. Retrieved from

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According to the article "Apple Computer Inc", Funding universe attribute Apple Computer Inc, to have enormously changed the face of personal computer manufacturing in the world. Its first line of production under Macintosh label in 1984 placed the company as the trendsetter in industrial and personal design. The company ascended through 1980s with production of expensive computers where despite its price, accounted for about 11 % of computers sold in America. The most imperative issue of the 1990s was not much related to technological advancement, but on human resource and management, especially on the top management. This dented the company reputation, and on one occasion it made the company's stock to plunge with more than 20%.With high turnover at the helm of the company, Jobs assumed his responsibilities as the chief executive in 1998, a position he holds up to date. With his restorative skills, Apple was able to achieve its former glory and consistent growth (Funding Universe, 2008).

This source is of high quality, in that it provides credible information in relation to management of the company, and gives details of performance of the top company's management.

Administrator. (2008). Apple Inc. Evolution. Retrieved from

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According to the article "Apple Inc, Evolution", Apple Inc, formely Apple computer Inc, is an American company specializing in computer hardware, software, media players and computer accessories. The most successful product in the company history was Apple 11, in 1977, which was followed by Lisa in 1983, a PC with GUI and mouse. Later in 1984, the company released Macintosh which later came to become a major influence in advancement of GUI. In the year 1991, Apple Inc established portable computers called PowerBooks line .This year also saw the company share price fall due to stiff competition from IBM computers and Microsoft Windows. In the year 2000s, Apple Inc increased its focus to include software development, music, video, and photo processing equipments, with aim of becoming a "digital hub".

At the moment the company is involved in production of Intel based Mac computers, which was initiated in 2006.In 2000s, the company stock has also increased by tenfold, from about 7$ to 81$.Despite increase in computer demand, the company still remains behind some of its major competitors such as Dell and Microsoft Windows, and it only account about 8% of the US market share.This source gives an outline of major episodes occurring in the company history, thus providing high quality material that is reliable for both research and referencing (Administrator ,2008) This type of practice rationale is most suitable as a realization tool contrary to an assessment tool that needs a dissimilar kind of substantiation as well as different resulting measures. The concepts of this article must then be viewed in the framework of the guidelines advantages.

Singh, A. (2004). Apple operating system (OS) History. Retrieved from


In respect to, "Apple operating system" by Singh. A (2004) ,Of all operating systems produced by Apple, Mac OS X is the most inimitable one and it tend to represent a paradigm change of technology, ideologies and concepts, which have made it survive competition from its rivals. According to Singh, A (2004), the first Bytes into an Apple consisted of Apple I, which had an 8 byte microprocessor and a MOS 6502.The computer had no case, and consisted of 8 kb RAM and a keyboard interface. Just like Apple I, Apple 11 consisted of 6502 microprocessor, which had a number of operating systems such as Apple Dos, Apple Pascal, Apple CP/M, Apple SOS, Apple ProDOS. After the release Apple II in mid 1977, it was discovered that having a disk drive for that model was imperative, and this made Wozniak design a floppy disk drive that required (DOS) disk operating system. The first model or version of DOS was Apple DOS 3.1 which remained in use for quiet sometime, with only minor upgrades taking place. After using Dos system for about 8 years, apple introduced Mac Os 8 in 1997, which established a platform that led to acquisition of NeXT Software Inc. And Steve Jobs, the company founder, as consultant. Under the helm of Steve, the company was able to introduce various advancement/ versions of the Mac Os systems, with the most sophisticated one being released in 2008 under the name, Mac OS X 10.6, nicknamed Snow Leopard.

This source is very credible in that it gives analysis and history of operating systems .The article is also of high quality for the reason that its peer reviewed.

Moeen, H. (Aug 31, 2009) .Apple: The Evolution. Retrieved from


According to Moeen article, "Apple: the Evolution," Wozniak and Steve Jobs started working for HP and Atari respectively, after completing high schooling early years Wozniak was nicknamed 'Apple Genius'. After a short spell, Wozniak was involved in an accident; from there he decided to further his education at the University of Berkeley, where he returned back to the company with more skills initiating creation of Apple III.The model had many issues and led to creation of a new advanced Apple III's, which came with low prices, improved sockets and a hard disk of 5MB.Failures from Apple 111 forced the Apple Inc to develop Macintosh model in 1984, which was received well by an excited and would-be customers. The model was cheap and light .Various versions of Mac followed targeting different clientele, leading to establishment of Mac plus in the year 1986, Mac II in the year 1987. According to this article, before the end of the 20th century Apple Inc has been able to meet requirements of environment safety standards, requiring it to stop making their products with CFC's (Moeen, 2009)

Credibility of this source is based on the fact that it gives details of its founder, though it does not elaborate on their specific contributions.

Web Designer Depot (2008).The Evolution of Apple Design Between 1977-2008.Retrieved from

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According to Web Designer Depot (2008), the evolution of Apple Inc had famous flops and leaps.1977 saw the establishment of the famous company logo and Apple 11, which differentiated the company from its competitors in the market. What followed was the launch of Apple 111 1980, which was manufactured primarily to compete with Microsoft and IBM. In 1984 Lisa/Macintosh XL model was introduced, followed by Apple IIGS and Macintosh Plus - in 1986. In 1987 a new model with an internal hard disk called Macintosh SE was introduced, followed by Macintosh SE/30 in the year 1989, which had a RAM capable of expansion and a 1.44 MB floppy drive. Other Macintosh models of the 1990s include Macintosh Classic in 1990 , Macintosh Classic II in 1991 , Macintosh Color Classic in the year 1993 , Apple Macintosh LC 500 in late 1993 , Macintosh Performa 5200 in the year 1995 , Twentieth Anniversary Macintosh (TAM) in the year 1997 , PowerMac G3 All-In-One in the year 1998 , iMac G3 Tray-Loading, Bondi Blue still in the year 1998 ,and finally iMac G3 Slot-Loading Indigo in 1999 .Versions of the 2000s include eMac in 2001 , iMac G4 in the year 2002 , iMac G5 in the year 2005 ,and finally iMac (Intel Based) - Aluminum in the year 2007 (Web Designer Depot , 2008).

This source is of high quality and very credible in that it spells out All-In-One Computers of Apple Inc.

Wilson, M. (2007) .30 Years of Apple Evolution. Retrieved from


According to Wilson (2007), article "30 Years of Apple Evolution", most of the early Apple products were designed by Edwin Tofslie.The article identifies Apple Inc to be competing in the technology sector, which contented by large number of competitors trying to replicate each others success. Since the company inception, the top rivals of the company included Amiga and Atari ST, IBM and, Compaq. In 1970s, Atari and Amiga were the company's strongest rivals, while Microsoft became its strongest rivals in early 1990s (Wilson, 2007).

The source is of high quality, but it's not credible enough because it does not give details of all the company's competitors.

Apple Inc. (2008).History of Apple Inc. /Progress in the 1990s. Retrieved from


According to this article, in the company history mid 1990s was the period of continuous incompetence, while late 1990s was the period of rebuilding. In early 1990s, Apple Inc was performing very badly with most of their products uninspired, overpriced, and lacking invention. The company suffered from massive competition from Microsoft and IBM, since most of its Macintosh models had relatively inconsequential improvements. Brands beating Apple had standard styles and their prices where significantly lower (Apple Inc, 2008).With view to rebuild and collect previous mistakes, in the year 1998 the company launched the iMac platform which consisted of SCSI designs, and ADB ports. Later the iMac Portable model was initiated, followed by advanced G3, G4, G5, and eMac models.

In the year 2001, the company with aim of achieving greatness invented the iPod music player, which was followed by more advanced models like iPod nano, photo, video, and mini. In 2006 the company changed its processor to that of Intel's, which had a Core Duo processor.

Credibility of this source is based on its capacity to give events that occurred in the 1990s, a phase viewed as very important in the company history and development.