The Essential Nature Of Training For Productivity Business Essay


Training is essential for organizational productivity. Though it is a type of education, training is job oriented. It is still learning. Education is wider in scope and general in purpose whereas training is organization specific and practice based.

Core competencies and expertise give the organizations an edge over their competitors and training plays a vital role in developing and strengthening these competencies. Change of technology demands that employees update their knowledge, skills, abilities and technical expertise. Jobs are becoming more interdependent demanding high interpersonal and problem solving skills, which can be acquired only through training.

Training is a continuous and perennial activity. Human evolution itself is a part of history of training. The Stone-age people got themselves trained to fulfill their basic needs. The metal age people learnt the art of use of metals and cooking. Thus every page and stage of human civilization will contain training in the backdrop. Even in the monarchical era, the kings used to send their wards to gurukul, which is nothing but a form of residential training. Even today, in the area of skill training we can see apprenticeship as a form of training.

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As Alvin Tofler puts it 'only change is permanent'. In our century the great issue facing not only the developed nations but also the developing nations is the problem of change and adapting to change is the main concern of present day. Change that is induced through science and technology development demands rapid individual and social adjustment. The above two challenges are met mainly by manpower training and development programmes.

The quest for knowledge for enlightenment is universal. So change is fundamental for the progress of a dynamic society. Every change is a challenge to be met and knowledge provides the strength to convert these challenges into opportunities. But to do so, knowledge needs to be transformed into skills and this is a function of training. Training is an investment in 'knowledge capital'. This capital resource is subjected to obsolescence. It needs to be continuously updated an expanded. Training is a continuous process and has become an important function in the development and management of human resources.

Dale S. Beach defines training as the organizational procedure by which people learn knowledge and / or skill for a definite purpose.

Edwin B. Flippo defines training as the act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a particular job.

Randall S. Schuler defines training and development as "any attempt to improve current or future employee performance by increasing an employee's ability to perform through learning, usually changing the employees attitude or increasing his or her skill and knowledge." The need for training and development is determined by the employee's performance deficiency and is computed as:

Training & Development need = standard performance - actual performance

Hesseling defines training as "a sequence of experiences or opportunities designed to modify behavior in order to attain a stated objective".

Hamblin defines training as 'any activity which deliberately attempts to improve a person's skill on a job' as opposed to education which is mainly concerned with personal development and not related directly to the job.

The word 'training' consists of eight letters, to each of which could be attributed significant meanings in the following manner:

T - Talent and Tenacity (strong determination)

R - Reinforcement (something positive to be reinforced into memory and system again and again, until it becomes a spontaneous affair)

A - Awareness (with which one can easily take long strides of progress)

I - Interest (which is invariably accompanied by excitement and enthusiasm)

N - Novelties (the new things the like of which would sustain our interest)

I - Intensity (the training instilled into the trainee's mind must acquire experience oriented intensity)

N - Nurturing (it does refer to continuous nurturing of talent, which otherwise would remain dormant)

G - Grip (a fine grip over the situation solves multiple problems and enables one to acquire a practical and programmatic approach)

Training and Development:-

Lawrence S. Kleiman defines training and development as planned learning experiences designed to provide workers with the competencies needed to perform their current or futurejobs.

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Training is referred to as teaching specific job related skills and behavior. Whereas development is more general than training and it is oriented towards individual development besides fulfilling organizational needs. The development provides knowledge and understanding to individuals so as to enable them function more effectively in organizations through problem solving, inter personal relations and decision making.



Training focuses on technical, mechanical oriented operations.

Development focuses on theoretical skill and conceptual ideas

Training is concerned with specific job skills and behavior.

Development is concerned with related enhancement of general knowledge and understanding of non-technical organization functions.

Training is mostly for non-managers.

The development is for managers and executives.

Training focuses on current jobs.

Development prepares for future jobs.

The training is job oriented process and is

vocational in nature

The development is general in nature and strives to inculcate initiative, enterprise, creativity, dedication and loyalty amongst executives.

Training is one shot deal.

Development is a continuous ongoing process.

Training may result in enhancement of a particular job skill

Development may result in personal growth and development of overall personality.

Training is the result of organizational initiative and hence motivation is extrinsic.

In development motivation is intrinsic

Training can be classified into 2 major types a) on the job training b) off the job training.

No such classification is possible.

Training process:-

Training can be viewed as a set of integrated processes in which organizations and employee's needs are analyzed and responded to in a logical rational and strategic manner leading to organization's improvement, which will result in further investing in training.

The goal of training is to contribute to organization goals. Managers should keep watchful eyes on the organizational goals and strategies and orient training accordingly.

Unfortunately, many organizations never make the correction between their strategic objective and their training programme. Instead, fashion or what the competitor is doing can sometimes be the main drivers of an organization's training agenda. As a result, much of the organization's investments can be wasted, which will affect the organization's overall performance.

To make sure that investment in training and development has maximum impact on individual and organizational performance, the following process could be followed:

Organization performance deficiency (OPD) occurs when the actual organization performance (AOP) is less than the expected organizational performance (EOP). In such cases, organization believes that training may be a solution to overcome this deficiency and the training process is initiated. So the training process starts with some type of triggering event.

The training process consists of five main phases namely analysis phase, design phase, development phase, implementation phase and evaluation phases.

Analysis phase:

Organizations that are able to meet the changing needs of the customers and the markets are the ones that are effective. Similarly, an effective training process is one which begins with the determination of customers needs in the Need Analysis phase. Here the customers are the organization and the employees.

Needs may be identified in the form of performance deficiency. It would be indicated by lesser profitability, lowering of customer satisfaction, more wastage or more idle time of machine or employees etc. this deficiency may be the current state of the organization.

Next at the employee level if he is not able to perform as per the expectations then also deficiency exists. Also, anticipated performance deficiencies may be identified for future handling of the employees.

Design Phase:

Organizational and operational analysis are carried out to get additional inputs on aspects like:

1. Constraints placed on training and areas of expected support like organizational plan, resources and business cycle etc.

2. Input from the theories of learning which will help in designing the training programme for effective training and proper transfer of learning.

Training objectives are formulated as part of the design phase by examining the training needs in relation to the identified organizational constraints and support. The training objective specifies the employee and organizational objective that should be achieved as a result of training.

Development Phase:

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Instructional strategy like order timing and combination of elements used for training programme are carried out to meet the training objective. The output of the development phase forms the input for the implementation phase.

Implementation Phase:

A pilot training group consisting of small number of trainee's representative of the large population can be tried so that many opportunities may be available to influence the effectiveness of the training programme.

1. Trainee reaction to training

2. How much they learn

3. Process evaluation data

All these allow trainees to identify areas of self-improvement. Also, pilot group evaluation input will also be helpful. Once these refinements are made, the training is ready for full implementation. The output of the implementation phase is the actual training that is conduced, the trainee's responses, their learning, their behavior and the effect on key organizational outcomes. They form the input for the evaluation phase.

Evaluation Phase:

Evaluation objectives that are the output of the design phase organizational constraints, time, money and staff all are input for training evaluation. Two types of evaluation are carried out namely process evaluation and outcome evaluation.

Process Evaluation:

Each phase of the training process model constitutes a process with input and output. Evaluation of the process is concerned with the determination of how well a particular process has achieved the objectives; for this collecting and analyzing process data can provide warning of potential problems in the training programme.

Outcome evaluation is conducted at the end of training to determine the effect of training on the trainees, like job and the organization using the training objectives as the standard. This can be used to improve the training process. Outcome evaluation when combined with process evaluation data will serve as a powerful tool in improving programmes.

Purpose and Significance of Research Paper:

Importance of Training and Development for Organisations:

Training and Development is the framework for helping employees to develop their personal and organizational skills, knowledge, and abilities. The focus of all aspects of Human Resource Development is on developing the most superior workforce so that the organization and individual employees can accomplish their work goals in service to customers.

All employees want to be valuable and remain competitive in the labor market at all times. This can only be achieved through employee training and development. Employees will always want to develop career-enhancing skills, which will always lead to employee motivation and retention. There is no doubt that a well trained and developed staff will be a valuable asset to the company and thereby increasing the chances of his efficiency in discharging his or her duties.

Trainings in an organization can be mainly of two types; Internal and External training sessions. Internal training involves when training is organized in-house by the Human resources department or training department using either a senior staff or any talented staff in the particular department as a resource person.

On the other hand External training is normally arranged outside the firm and is mostly organized by training institutes or consultants. Whichever training, it is very essential for all staff and helps in building career positioning and preparing staff for greater challenges.

Employers of labour should enable employees to pursue training and development in a direction that they choose and are interested in, not just in company-assigned directions. Companies should support learning, in general, and not just in support of knowledge needed for the employee's current or next anticipated job. It should be noted that the key factor is keeping the employee interested, attending, engaged, motivated and retained.

Knowledge transfer in the fields of Organizational development and organizational learning is the practical problem of getting a packet of knowledge from one part of the organization to another (or all other) parts of the organization. It is considered to be more than just a communications problem. If it were merely that, then a memorandum, an e-mail or a meeting would accomplish the knowledge transfer. Knowledge transfer is more complex because

1. Knowledge resides in organizational members, tools, tasks, and their sub networks and

2. Much knowledge in organizations is tacit or hard to articulate.

When a business loses employees, it loses skills, experience and "corporate memory". The magnitude and nature of these losses is a critical management issue, affecting productivity, profitability, and product and service quality. For employers, high turnover can negatively affect employment relationships, morale and workplace safety. The cost of replacing workers can be high, the problems associated with finding and training new employees can be considerable, and the specific workplace-acquired skills and knowledge people walk away which can take years to replace.


The reasons behind employee training and development cannot be overemphasized. From our discussions so far, one can easily deduce some reasons behind firms engaging in training and developing their staff. We will summarize some of the reasons thus;

When needs arise as a result of findings from the outcome of performance appraisal.

As part of professional development plan.

As part of succession planning to help an employee be eligible for a planned change in role in the organization.

To imbibe and inculcate a new technology in the system.



The increasing diversity of today's workforce brings a wide variety of languages and customs, thus staff should be able to be very good in both written and verbal communication.

Computer skills:

Computer skills are becoming a necessity for conducting administrative and office tasks. In this era of technological advancement, computer skills are very necessary for almost of departments in an organization.

Customer service:

Increased competition in today's global marketplace makes it critical that employees understand and meet the needs of customers. The firm that stands out from the crowd is that firm that puts its customers first before every other goal. Then the need to always train staff on customer service.


This includes explanation about people and their different perspectives and views, and how this can be handled.


There are divergent ethics in different firms. Some firms attach more importance to certain issues like moral, work period, latness etc than other issues. Today's society has increasing expectations about corporate social responsibility. Also, today's diverse workforce brings a wide variety of values and morals to the workplace. This calls for the need for staff to be reminded of these always through training and development.

Human relations:

The increased stresses of today's workplace can include misunderstandings and conflict. Training can help people to get along in the workplace with good understanding of each other and the office inter personal relationship to reduce official conflict.


Increased job satisfaction and morale among employees.

Better inter personal relationship and customer satisfaction.

Increased employee motivation.

Increased efficiencies in processes, resulting in improved financial gain.

Increased capacity to adopt new technologies and methods.

Increased innovation in strategies and products.

Reduced employee turnover.

Enhanced company image.

Better Risk management and staff safety consciousness.

Increase in productivity.

Innovation as a Competitive Advantage for Organisations

Knowledge is viewed as the key input for the development of a competitive advantage for organizations where employees' knowledge and skills are critical factors. Without this there is no organizational success. It follows then that managerial methods, policy and styles should be constantly revamped and in tune with current development. Employees' education and training on the other hand require due consideration to improve library and information services. In the local context, training programmes and career-building for employees seem to be very low on the agenda of top management.  Without employee training and a proper staff development plan, appropriate conditions for constant knowledge improvement, innovation and creativity in work, organizations will not survive in a more and more competitive and turbulent environment. It is only through knowledge, knowledge-sharing and mutual experience exchange that will lead learning organizations to attain a competitive advantage.

Besides, lifelong learning of employees in the library field will contribute to the establishment of a permanently learning organization. A learning organization is formed when it actively promotes learning of all its members and transforms it permanently. Today successful organizations are not those that have a well-educated workforce but most often those that have coherently and systematically implemented a continuous (life-long) learning programme. The only way for the library community to survive as a learning organization is to innovate or accept to perish. Obtaining knowledge, learning, education, all have a real effect on the quality of service when they are harmonised with the needs and objectives of a particular library. In addition, employee training and development does not imply only obtaining new knowledge, abilities and skills, but also the possibility to introduce employees to changes, encourage the change of their attitude and involve them actively in the process of decision making.

The learning organization is also the organization that learns and encourages people to learn in the organization. It motivates information exchange between employees and creates staff with different knowledge. The initial concept of knowledge management indicates that power does not come from knowledge, but from the exchange and use of that knowledge. More qualitative knowledge is obtained by exchanging knowledge; and obtaining and sharing knowledge becomes the core of a learning organization.

Technology & Creativity:

Types of Innovation Based Training:

From the literature reveiw, it is clear that training on innovation and creatvity will instill the minds of the people to generate new different ideas. This section will be exploring on how trainers used to boost the thinking of people through techniques. This paper will address three techniques which are


Tools Used


Thinking outside the box

Mind Mapping


Lateral thinking



Parallel thinking

Six thinking Hats

1. Thinking outside the box:


The term "thinking outside the box" means that it is capacity of an individual to look at things differently. In other words, it is the ability of the individual to view situations or problems or scenario at a very different perspective than usual and also to act on those new ideas and perspectives effectively.

In todays dynamic Business world, thinking outside the box has become a necessity rather than luxury. Everyone either in businesses view or personal view needs to expand their thinking capacity and challenge the old concepts by applying Thinking outside the box principles for effectiveness of the business and also personal.


Effects of Thinking outside the box:

This thinking outside the box helps Businesses to acheive optimal effectiveness in problem solving, strategic planning, new product development, personal development, decision making and also conflict resolution. For example, day to day recurring problems can be permenantly eliminated if employees have the capacity to solve differently. Thereforth improving the organization performance and thus profit of the organization.

The Thinking-Outside-the-Box Workshop will help:

Become a better team member/leader/manager

To focus your energy on the significant issues

Transform your work environment form drudgery to fun

Minimize your team's day-to-day stress levels

Understand and master creative thinking skills

Gain recognition, promotions, and salary increases.

The Thinking-Outside-the-Box Workshop will help company:

Optimize bottom line business success

Increase speed, improve quality, and customer satisfaction

Eliminate the high cost of day-to-day problems

Put and end to costly end-of-the-month scrambling

Gain control of business processes

Increase team contribution to company's "bottom line."

Thinking outside the box training will defitnitely ensure the improve the creativity and innovative skills of the employees as

It is easy to follow : It provides a pleasing and very user-friendly presentation, with colorful visuals, 

It is focused: it encapsulates our 2 day physical workshop into focused content. (This is because there are a number of practical exercises and group sessions that are typically done in a physical workshop. In the e-workshop you can decide yourself how much time you want to spent on exercising sessions.)

It is proven: It encapsulates time-tested principles that produce powerful results.

It is effective: It can be done at your own convenient time and you do not need to take time off from work.

It is affordable: It is a very cost effective and affordable way to improve your Thinking-Outside-the-Box skills.

It is accessible: It can be used whenever required at the "touch of a button" as a learning aid or refresher.

It is practical: It provides a Thinking-Outside-the-Box toolbox, which provides you with techniques and guidelines to apply your Thinking-Outside-the-Box skills.

"People are always blaming circumstances for what they are. I don't believe in circumstances. The people who get on in this world are the people who get up and look for the circumstances they want, and if they can't find them, make them"  - George Bernard Shaw.


As like behavioural theories which says that leadership skills can be learned, Thinking outside the box can also be cultivated and improved.

Mind map:

One of the forms of which a person can develop thinking outside the box is by mind mapping. Tony Buzan was the creator of the mind map in the early seventies. The strenght of this mind map is that the ability to view everything on one page which would be more effective to think and percieve things differently.

Standard Definition (according to UK glossary):

Mind maps are brainstorming diagrams based on a central idea or image, typically used to aid in organisation, problem solving and decision making. Mind maps use a non-linear graphical form that allows the user to build an intuitive framework around the central idea.

Research studies say that brain will forget 80% of information that have been learned with 24 hours and 99% within two weeks. (North, 1998). North's study on mind map reveals that mind map enhances creativity, memory, cooperation and makes it easier for people to envision goals, change habits, monitor progress and improve learning. Moreover he ensures that mind map allows for an immediate leap in clarity and quality of thinking.

Below picture shows the approach to innovation through mind map process.

Figure :Mind Map on innovation



Seven principles of Mind map for memory:



Making things outstanding





Here is a simple five-step Mind Mapping process for you to follow to create your own brainstorming Mind Maps and boost innovation in your company.

1. The Quick-Fire Mind Map Burst

Begin your Mind Map by setting your central idea, theme or topic. Choose a stimulating central image that represents the theme or topic you are addressing.

From your central idea radiate every idea that comes into your mind on that subject, dividing them into key ideas, or main brain branches. From your main ideas/branches add your sub ideas, or child branches. You should let the ideas flow as fast as possible. Having to work at speed unchains your brain from habitual thinking patterns, and encourages new ideas and innovation. Many of these new ideas may at first seem absurd, however they often hold the key to new perspectives and the breaking of old habits. The most innovative solutions come from the germ of an idea, and you want to encourage as many new thoughts and creative ideas as you can at this stage.

2. First Reconstruction and Revision

Have a short break or move onto another task, allowing your brain to rest and begin to integrate the ideas generated so far. Then make a new map in which you identify the core ideas/branches, categorising, building up hierarchies and finding new associations between your preliminary ideas. Similar ideas may be repeated in different areas of your map, on different branches. These peripheral repetitions reflect the significance of the repeated idea as it is influencing multiple aspects of your thinking and should be pursued further as a lead to innovation.

3. Incubation

After completing the above steps, take a break - innovation comes from those light bulb moments and these sudden creative realisations often occur when the brain is relaxed such as daydreaming, sleeping or running. This is because such states of mind allow the radiant thinking process to spread to the farthest reaches of the brain, increasing the probability of mental breakthroughs. The potential of focused daydreaming to help facilitate innovation should not be underestimated. Albert Einstein did it himself to help visualise and arrive at his famous theory.

4. Second Reconstruction and Revision

After incubation your brain will have a fresh perception on your first and second Mind Maps, so it will be useful to do another quick fire Mind Map burst. During this reconstruction stage you will need to consider all the information gathered and integrated in stages 1, 2 and 3 of the process for generating innovation, in order to make a comprehensive final Mind Map.

5. The Final Stage

Using your final Mind Map, you now need to search for the solution, decision, or realisation which was your original creative goal. This often involves doing further work on your Mind Map - making connections between branches and perhaps adding further sub-branches. When using iMindMap you can move branches around your workspace which often stimulates more connections and ideas. The answer may not present itself straight away, so be patient, take another incubation break if you need to. Finding connections and patterns that you had not previously been aware of can lead to major new insights, breakthroughs and genuine innovation.

Benefits of mind map:

Save time

Easy to understand the problem

Increases the ability to remember


Why Mind Maps are tools for Innovation:

The brain works in different ways and different people think differently but while making decision people will follow closely to the way that has been used or seen previously. Mind map allows to seeks solutions at different angles by putting everything on just a single page.

From the various literatures such as (North, 1998) it is ensured that mind map is an effective innovative tool that boost up the critical thinking of people. (Jackson, 2006) also stresses out that mind maps helps to boost the performance of the individual and thus the organizational performance.

Robert Gordon, who is the former CEO of Mindjet Corporation, says that mind mapping fully employs the analytical power of the left brain and the intuitive nature of the right brain tapping into 99% of unused mental potential. (Jackson, 2006). The article reports that the revenue of Mindjet Corporation has been increased by 50% yearly and is estimated to increase more in upcoming years. From this scenario it is justified that mind maps helps employs to think outside the box and thus increasing the performance of the company and henceforth the profit.

According to (Buzan, 2010) mind maps are the best tool for innovation because of the following characteristics:

Mind Mapping by definition acts as a trigger device for your brain, creating an explosion in creativity, innovation and knowledge sharing.

Mind Maps are based on the fundamental principles of creativity and so they are perfectly suited to supporting ideas generation and innovation.

They allow you to view a great many elements all at once, thus increasing the probability of creative association and integration, and consequently, innovation.

Innovation is about originality and the cutting edge. They encourage your brain to track out ideas which normally lie in obscurity on the edge of your thinking.

They increase the probability of you straying far from the norm, exploring unconventional routes and producing a truly innovative idea.

They tap into your rational and grounded skills and your imaginative and free-associative skills, encouraging them to work together to amplify and focus your thinking - creating the perfect space for innovation.

Dramatically accelerate your learning capacity

Instantly see connections and links between different subjects

Develop effective brainstorming techniques

Help your mind become a powerful idea generator

Quickly gain insight into the big picture of any project

Increase your ability to memorize and remember

Boost your creativity

The main concept behind this lateral, parallel or thinking outside the box is that improved thinking is more likely to result from better perception than improved critical thinking.

Lateral Thinking:

Lateral thinking is a process where an individual approach the problem solving in an indirect and creative approach. It is a type of generating ideas which is not obtainable in a traditional way. That is Lateral thinking applies to human problem-solving.

Definition according to Edward De Bono - A way of thinking that seeks a solution to an intractable problem through unorthodox methods or elements that would normally be ignored by logical thinking. In short, the main point of lateral thinking is that many problems require a different perspective to solve successfully.

De Bono argues that normally people have a tendency to follow conventional patterns of thought unless there is a boost to think differently. This lateral thinking is similar of creative thinking and antidote to the vertical thinking.


The following anecdote is provided by DeBono (1967). A merchant who owes money to a money lender agrees to settle the debt based upon the choice of two stones (one black, one white) from a money bag. If his daughter chooses the white stone, the debt is canceled; if she picks the black stone, the moneylender gets the merchant's daughter. However, the moneylender "fixes" the outcome by putting two black stones in the bag. The daughter sees this and when she picks a stone out of the bag, immediately drops it onto the path full of other stones. She then points out that the stone she picked must have been the opposite color of the one remaining in the bag. Unwilling to be unveiled as dishonest, the moneylender must agree and cancel the debt. The daughter has solved an intractable problem through the use of lateral thinking.

De Bono identifies four critical factors associated with lateral thinking:

Recognize dominant ideas that polarize perception of a problem

Searching for different ways of looking at things

Relaxation of rigid control of thinking

Use of chance to encourage other ideas.

This last factor has to do with the fact that lateral thinking involves low-probability ideas which are unlikely to occur in the normal course of events.

Difference between lateral and vertical thinking: (Edward de bono)

Vertical( Normal) Thinking

Lateral Thinking



Rightness Matters here

Richness matters here




Not sequential

One has to be correct at every time

Don't have to be correct all the time

Categories, classifications and labels are fixed

Categories, classifications and labels are not fixed

Follows the most likely paths

Follows the least likely paths

Finite Process

Probabilistic one

Tools to train for to boost lateral thinking:

PMIHYPERLINK "" (Plus, Minus, Interesting):

This tool says that instead of simply rejecting or accepting anything immediatiely, it is important to examine an idea for good, bad or for interesting points.

In other words, tool that permits "pro and con" approach to decision making. Instead of looking things in the same direction at the same time this tool tries to list as many positive points, then as many negative points and then as many interesting points.

CAFHYPERLINK "" (Consider All Factors):

This tool helps to looks at the given situation widely by considering all the factors. It involves listing all the factors, analysing each factor and decision making. It is useful decision-making, planning, judgement and coming to a conclusion.

C HYPERLINK ""&HYPERLINK "" S HYPERLINK ""(Consequence and Sequel)

It is a tool that looks ahead to analyze the short, medium and long-term consequences of an action, plan, decision and rules before implementation.

APCHYPERLINK "" (Alternatives, Possibilities, Choices) :

This tool focusses on to generate new alternatives and choices instrad of sticking onto obvious ones.

OPVHYPERLINK "" (Other People's Views)

This tool concentration on the other peoples perception to better assess the impact of a proposed plan, decision or action. Etc.

AGO (Aims, Goals, Objectives)

This tool emphazies on to have clear understnading of the aims and objectives before any action or decision making.

FIP (First important priorities)

This tool refers to choosing the first important priorities in order for a gvien situation from a diffferent number of alternatives and possibilities.

De Bono, E. (1970). Lateral thinking : creativity step by step. New York: Harper &



Innovation techniques training create a more efficient, effective operation and Quality improvement.

Enhance marketing and increase your business after system implementation as per creativity and innovation techniques requirements

Promote international trade.

Improve innovation, awareness and morale by implementing Innovation techniques methodology and documentation.

Increase customer satisfaction and retention by implementing innovation techniques techniques and presentation slides.

Increases profit margin and increase turnover by implementing innovation techniques.

Reduce cost and increases productivity and Innovation create vibrant work culture.

Parallel thinking:

The concept of parallel thinking is proposed by Edward de bono. Parallel thinking allows individuals to explore more on the subject rather than simply arguing each other on the put forward situations. Thus parallel thinking paves the way for collaborative approach. That is it is described as a constructive alternative to argument as everyone will be looking at the same direction at any moment. It is a specific concept developed from lateral thinking which was explained earlier.

Definition: Parallel thinking is defined as a thinking process where focus is split in specific directions.

One of the technique to implement or train parallel thinking was "Six thinking Hats" as proposed by Edward de bono in 1980s.

Six thinking hats:

Here in this six thinking hats, "Hats" are the directions of thinking. Hats help in directing the group or paving the group to use parallel thinking. Six thinking hats is a powerful tool that change the way the team thinks by boosting the problem solving skills effectively in a creative manner. The six hats represent the six modes of thinking.

According to (De Bono, 1985), the key theoretical reasons to use the Six Thinking Hats are to:

encourage Parallel Thinking

encourage full-spectrum thinking

separate ego from performance

The following is an excerpt from (De Bono, 1985)

De bono distinguishes six hats with six different colors each representing a particular thinking mode.




Looking at facts, figures, and objective information


Emotions and feelings


logical negative thoughts


positive constructive thoughts


creativity and new ideas


control of the other hats and thinking steps

How six thinking hats enable parallel thinking?

For example let's consider scenario on a new product development process which involves a research group. The stages and the descriptions represent how each colored thinking hats leads the group to think parallel that is everyone in the same direction. There forth leading to effective brainstorming and thus effective ideas for the new product development.

Mind map representation of Edward de bono's six thinking hats:


Six thinking hats is a powerful tool that helps the company to perform well than before in this rapidly changing Business environment because,

It enhances the collaborative approach and reduces conflict.

Increases the productivity of the teams and also individual basis.

It helps to generate more, better and creative ideas.

It helps to look at the problems systematically.

It helps to shift the people's thinking from negative to positive approach.

Moreover world's big organizations such as IBM, British airways, PepsiCo, DuPont etc use six thinking hats. (Labelle, 2005)

In short, six thinking hats training will enable the organization members to think more clearly and more creative improve communication between the teams and also individual and thus the decision making which finally results in benefitting the organization.

Duration of training period

This is a three day training program. The optimum duration of each form of training techniques such as "thinking outside the box- Mind mapping ", Lateral thinking and parallel thinking each takes about one day.

Target of Innovation Based Training

Who should attend?

This training program is designed for all members of the organization as the focus of the training is on boosting creativity by using thinking tools. This training programs will be more useful to improve team working, helps to generate more new ideas and problem solving effectively.

It will be especially beneficial to the following groups:

Project teams

Strategy developing teams

Departmental managers and their teams

Managers and executives who require greater levels of innovation and creativity

Creative team members who need analytical skills

Reseach and development teams

Individual contributors

Teams working in highly competitive or changing environments

Innovative Training: The Role of Trainers

Assessing The Effectiveness of Training