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Recruitment of personnel for the civil service is one of the crucial tasks of modern government and lies in the heart of the problem of personnel administration. The state and federal civil service commissions serve as employment agents for the civil services in Nigeria and they do the recruitment without a fee specifically, the authority for recruitment into the Nigerian federal civil service is the Federal Civil Service Commission (FCSC). However, the commission delegate's powers to federal ministries and extra-ministerial departments to recruit junior staff to posts graded GL 01-06. The Nigerian federal civil service system emphasizes uniformity, standardization, and transparency in recruiting competent applicants. Despite these emphases, it is perceived that the recruitment process lacks equity and transparency, making it difficult if not impossible to recruit the best qualified applicants for available jobs in the service. The perceived problems of recruitment Nigerian federal civil service could be attributed to factors such as inadequate and invalid standards for evaluating job candidates (as a result of absence of job analysis), sources of locating the potential applicants, transparency and independence of the recruiting authority, and the administrative machinery for determination of qualifications. Environmental influences such as technological, social, political and economic demands also cause problems that affect recruitment into the federal civil service. The recruitment process requires monitoring these problems and its impact on the recruitment exercise in order to attract broad range of potential applicants, and screen out unsuitable applicants.
This study, therefore, aims to identify the prevalent problems affecting recruitment in Nigerian federal civil service and to determine the extent of the application of job description and job specification in the recruitment process. To investigate the problems of recruitment in Nigerian federal civil service, the following questions serve as a guide to the survey in the quest for answers to the problems being investigated.
1. What are the problems affecting recruitment in Nigerian federal civil service?
2. What are the causes of these problems?
3. What are the sources (internal and external) of recruitment used by Nigerian federal civil servants?
4. Does Nigerian federal civil Service employs job description to complement the recruitment process?
5. Does Nigerian federal civil service utilize job specification in the recruitment process?
The rationale behind this study is to create a solid basis for Nigerian federal civil service to make standard and objective recruitment decisions by appointing the right applicants into the service and accurately matching them with position classification. A good recruitment exercise enhances productivity. It also reduces cost as it reduces labor turnover rate and employee dissatisfaction
There are a number of resources that contribute towards the success of any organization, such as manpower, money, machine, material, information, idea, and other inputs. While these resources are important, the human factor is the most significant one because it is the people who have to coordinate and use all other resources. Recruitment is integral part of human resource, and involves the process of identifying and attracting or encouraging potential applicants with needed skills to fill vacant positions in an organization and matching them with specific and suitable jobs, and assigning them to these jobs.
Job analysis: which is the study of what is to be done, where, how, why, and by whom in current and predicted job, begins the recruitment process. This analysis involves compiling a detailed description of tasks, determining the relationship of the job to technology and to other jobs and examining the knowledge, qualifications or employment standards and requirements. A Job analysis does two things
First, it tells the recruiter about the job itself by specifying the essential tasks, duties, and responsibilities involved in performing the job. This is called job description.
Second, it describes the skills, knowledge, abilities and other personal characteristics needed to perform the job. This is called job specification.
Job analysis provides essential information for recruitment, and a thorough job analysis helps in the placement decision of an organization by specifying the requirements of a job and the abilities of the person to meet these requirements so that specific jobs are signed to those people who will be most productive. After the job analysis process, the recruiter sources Potential applicants by creating awareness for the existence of vacancies in order to attract the right kind of people to be recruited from the right places and time.
There are basically two sources of recruitment where applicants can be drawn in any organization. These sources are classified as either internal or external. To what extent these sources will be used depends upon the specific environment of organization as well as its philosophy of operations.
When using internal sources of recruitmentment, the organization turns to existing employees to fill open positions. The employees recruited internally are either seeking lateral moves (job changes that entail no major changes in responsibility or authority levels like transfers), or promotions. Internal sources of recruitment are not expensive and are less time consuming, compared to external sources. Another merit of internal sourcing is that the employees are already familiar with the system, and the organization also has information about their skills, abilities and actual behavior on the job. Internal sourcing boosts morale and Motivation of employees. Despite the internal sources of recruitment, many organizations still rely on external sources. Reasons may be that there is limited pool of candidates internally and the system may not have suitable internal candidates. When recruitment is conducted externally, the organization looks outside for potential applicants.
External recruitment is likely to be used especially for lower entry jobs in periods of expansion, and for positions whose specific requirements cannot be met by present employees within the organization. There are multiple means through which an organization can recruit externally, such as advertisements in electronic (including internet) and print media, private and public employment agencies ,work-ins by job hunters, employee Referrals, academic institutions ), professional associations, unions and informal networks. External sourcing has both advantages and disadvantages. Advantages include having access to a potentially large applicant pool, being able to attract people to an organization who have the skills, knowledge, and abilities the organization needs to achieve its goals, and, being able to bring in newcomers who may contribute fresh ideas to solving problems and who may be up-to-date on the latest technology.
The disadvantages include high costs of recruitment and training, lack of knowledge about the inner workings of the organization, and uncertainty about the performance of the potential employees. Recruiting qualified and competent workers may be very difficult for some organizations because of some environmental constraints. Some organizations have unattractive workplaces, have policies that demand promotions from within, operate under union regulations,
However, the degree of complexity of recruitment is minimized by formulation of sound human resource policies after careful analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the environment.
Civil service recruitment is the process through which suitable candidates are induced to compete for appointments into the civil service. The civil service is a professional body of officials, permanent, paid and skilled. It is a system that offers equal opportunities to all citizens to enter the government service, equal pay to all employees doing work requiring the same degree of intelligence and capacity, equal opportunities for van cement, equal favorable conditions and equal participation in retirement allowances and makes equal demands upon the employees. The major requirements of the civil service are that it should be impartially selected, administratively competent, politically neutral and imbued with the spirit of service to the community.
The civil service is indispensable to the functioning of the modern state that is why the condition of a society is largely determined by the performance of the public service. The civil service is the major facilitators for implementation of the will of the state as expressed through public policy. The civil servant is a person who is employed into the civil service. He should not be a political or judicial office holder and his remuneration should be solely paid out of government funds. Due to the increasing significance and importance of the civil service in modern society and the assumption of responsibility by the government for the performance of various social and economic functions, it has become necessary to recruit competent applicants into the service. The recruitment process should attract the best available talents to the civil service.
The key to most recruitment process in the civil service is the idea of position classification, which is arrangement of jobs on the basis of duties and responsibilities and the skills required to perform them. These classifications derived from a thorough job analysis. The use of position classification system is important in the civil service recruitment process because it maintains an objective inventory that connects positions to the tasks and skills required to fill them. Once it has objective statements about positions, a civil service is able to source potential applicants by creating awareness of the existence of vacancies. The recruitment process into the civil service involves number of problems because of diversification of the civil service functions and the growth of democratic and equalitarian principles. Some of these arise from the location of the recruiting authority, methods or sources of recruitment, qualifications of the employees and methods of determining qualifications. Other problems include unavailability of skills needed, emphasis on corporate culture, and unattractive work places. These and other problems arising from the environment are monitored and appropriate corrective measures taken in order to ensure the ability to recruit the right type of persons for the right jobs based on the principles of merit and equal opportunity for all.