The Eastman Kodak

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INTRDUCTION

"Eastman Kodak" a multinational US company, manufacturer of imaging and photographic materials and equipments. Mostly popular for the production of photographic products, Kodak shows intrest in two big markets, that is; digital photography and digital printing.

ORIGINS

http://www.kodak.com/US/images/en/corp/kodakHistory/Brownie.jpgKodak's origin depended on Eastman Dry Plate Company, and the General aristo company, laid by founder George Eastman and businessman Henry A. Strong in Rochester and Jamestoen New York. The General Aristo Company was founded in 1899 in Jamestown New York, George Eastman as invester, and the firm purchased the stock of American Aristotype firm. Finaly, the business from Jamestown was moved to Rochester. The Eastman Dry Plate Company produce the first cameras suitable for nonexpert users. The Kodak company get its name from the first simple roll film cameras made by Eastman Dry Plate Company, known as the "Kodak" in its product line. The cameras proved such a great success that the word Kodak was incorporated into the company name. The founder registered the trademark Kodak on September 4, 1888. The Eastman Kodak Company was truly founded in 1892. The company's true origin was in New Jersey but has its offices in Rochester, New York. George Eastman, founder of kodak, give the slogal, "You pressthe button, we do the rest." In 1901 the Eastman Kodak Company acquired the full stock of General Aristo Company.

Kodak name

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The letter "K" had been a favorite of Eastman family, he is quoted as saying, "it seems a very strong and clear sort of letter". He and his mother choose the name Kodak. they said that there were three principal concepts, they used in creating the name: it should be short, one cannot mispronounce it, and it could not resemble anything or be related with anything but Kodak. It had also been suggested that "Kodak" originated from the suggestion of David Houston, a fellow photographic inventor, who held the patents to several roll film camera concepts that he later sold to Eastman company. Houston, who started receiving patents and other in 1881, was said to choose "Nodak" as a nickname of his home state, North Dakota (NoDak).

Evolution of our brand logo

Early 1900's. Kodak is the first ever company to integrate its name and look into a symbol.

1930's. Focus moved to the Kodak name and the red and yellow "trade dress" color in logo.

1960's. The corner curl was introduced in logo.

1970's. The mark retained the red and yellow colors and the Kodak name, but a box and graphic "K" element were added to it.

1980's. A more advanced type font streamlined the Kodak name within the existing logo.

Today. The box is gone, simplifying the logo. The rounded type font and stylish "a" give the name a more contemporary look.

Milestones-and progress

George Eastman was one of the first company to successfully mass-produce dry plates for photographers and then put the first simple camera into the hands of a world of consumers in 1888. In so doing, he made a complicated process easy to use and accessible to nearly everyperson. Just as Eastman had a goal to make photography "as easy as the pencil," Kodak continues to expand the ways to capture moments of daily lives. The company ranks as a repotated multinational corporation, with a brand recognized near about in every country around the world.

STAGE'S OF GROWTH

1878 - George Eastman was one of the first to demonstrate the great convenience of gelatin dry plates over the difficult and big wet prevalent in those days. Dry plates could be exposed and developed at the photographer's ease; wet plates had to be coated, exposed at once, and developed while still wet.Eastman was one of the first to successfully mass-produce dry plates for photographers.

1879 - Eastman invented an emulsion-coating machine which enabled them to produce a large number of photographic material.

1880 -They start commercial production of dry plates in a rented building in Rochester, New York.

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1884 - The business was converted from a partnership to a $200,000 corporation with 14 shareowners when the Eastman Dry Plate and Film Company was started. EASTMAN Negative Paper was introduced in same year. Eastman and William H. Walker, an associate, invented a roll holder for negative papers,a plastic case in which roll can be mounted.

1885 - EASTMAN American Film was introduced - the first transparent photographic "film" as we know it and use it today. ? The company opened a wholesale office in London, U.K.

1888 - The name "Kodak" was introduced and the KODAK camera was come in the market, with the slogan, "You press the button - we do the rest." This was the birth of photography, as millions of picture-takers know it today.

1889 - The first commercially avilable rollfilm, given by Eastman and his research chemist, was put on the market. The availability of this film made possible the development of Thomas Edison's moving picture camera in 1891. ? A new corporation - The Eastman Company - was originated, taking over the assets of the Eastman Dry Plate and Film Company.

1891 - The company launched its first daylight-loading camera, which mean that the photographer could now reload the camera without using a darkroom. ? The manufacturing of photographic film and paper was transferred to four newly-constructed buildings at Kodak Park, in Rochester. Also, the company's first manufacturing plant outside the U.S. was opened in Harrow, England(U.K).

1898 - Kodak introduced a new folding pocket camera, which has facility of film roll and have standard size of decads.

1901 - In this year the company shifted to New jersy. Where the present head office of company held,but other offices remained their.

1902 - Eastman company launched a new machine which helps to change roll or load it without darkroom.

1903 -A new Film was introduced, which remained the standard for amateur photography for nearly 30 years.

1907 - Kodak's worldwide employment passed the milestone of 5,000.

1908 - Kodak introduced a new eco friendly roll film which is commercially available.

1911 - The company's blair factory of cameras in roaster was their, and a new department also established their.

1912 - Dr. C.E. Kenneth Mees, a British scientist, was took hired by the company to the company,in this year company launched many offers which were beneficial for employees.

1921 - The Kodak Eastman companies loan andsaving plans were introduced,and the employee remains the employee after any accident.

1928 - Motion pictures in color film became a truth for people any one can make a motion picture without any difficulty.

1931 - The Kodak Eastman company start manufacturing of first cellulose acetate yarn in textile field, and introduced KODALITH films and dry plates,which were used in the place of wet plates. Kodak start their new branch in Stuttgrat, Germany.

Tennessee Eastman began marketing cellulose acetate fiber in 1931

1936 - Kodak launched a new handy camera of 16 mm magazine cine-kodak camera, that used special magazine instead of film rolls,a year later,Kodak launched its 1st sound and film projector.

1939 - Kodak introducerd a READY TO USE of 35mm kodaslide projector. The company start a fellowship to trained students of universities throughout the nation.

1947 - The world's 1st production at commercial level of vitamin A begun at Distillation product industry. Company launched television recording camera.

1954 - TRI-X Film, a high-speed black-and-white film, was introduced. ? Texas Eastman constructed a new plant to produce EASTMAN TENITE polyethylene.

1958 - The KODAK tri-x high speed black and white film roll was launched in market.

1960 - KODAK ESTAR Film Base a polyester film was launched to improved dimensional static art.The RECORDAK reliant 500 micron was launched and photographic quality is improved.

KODAK CAROUSEL Projector

1966 - A new KODAK printer 2620 a color printer having some memory also and can produced 2000 to 3000 copies per hour. With the improvement of companies reputation the number of employees reached 100,000 mark.

1969 - Construction began on Kodak Division - a manufacturing unit for films and papers, located in Windso. ? A very special stereo camera made by Kodak accompanied astronauts Aldrin and Armstrong when they put foot on the moon. ? Kodak received an "Emmy" Award for its development of fast color film processing for t.v use.

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1975 - Kodak introduced the KODAK EKTAPRINT 100 Copier-Duplicator, which received immediate industry acclaim for its high-quality copies and the user conveniences made possible by an on-board microcomputer and easy for use and can be operated bt ameture also.

1978 - Eastman Chemicals Division introduced EASTMAN KODAPAK Thermoplastic Polyester for use in manufacturing beverage bottles and other plastic items.

1980 - Kodak celebrated its 100th anniversary. ? The company announced its entry into the clinical diagnostic market with the KODAK EKTACHEM 400 Analyzer, utilizing dry-chemistry blood serum analysis and daignos.

1985 - The company introduced two new image management systems - the KODAK EKTAPRINT Electronic Publishing System and the KODAK Information Management System (KIMS).

KODAK SUPRALIFE Batteries.

1989 - Kodak celebrated the 100th anniversary of motion pictures by introducing EASTMAN EXR Color Negative Filmrolls. ? The KODAK XL 7700 Digital Continuous Tone Printer, which produced large format thermal color prints. ? The one-time-use KODAK STRETCH 35 Camera produced 3 1/2 x 10 - inch prints for panoramic prints. ? The one-time-use KODAK WEEKEND 35 Camera was an all-weather camera capable of taking pictures underwater down to a deep of 8 feet.

1990 - Kay Whitmore was the new chairman and CEO. Kodak improved its still photography quality and proposed to improved its quality of moving pictures.The company announced its 1st product in eco friendly film rolls.

1996 - The Advanced Photo System format was launched. Features included drop-in film cartridge loading, mid-roll change enabling the film to be removed before being completely done, and three different picture formats (Classic, Group, and Panoramic). Kodak unveiled the ADVANTIX name, for its related products. ? In June, the company unveiled the first in a series of pocket-sized digital cameras for the rapidly growing consumer digital market and demand of time. ? The company shipped its 10,000th medical laser printer, the KODAK EKTASCAN 2180 Laser Printer.? Daniel A. Carp was appointed Kodak's President and Chief Operating Officer at the end of year.

The KODAK DC20 Digital Camera, the first in a series of pocket-sized digital cameras, was introduced in 1996.

2000 - Dan Carp became Kodak's CEO. ? Kodak's Health care unit introduced 45 new product, including, KODAK InSight Intraoral Dental Film; a dental radiography film that helped dentists reduce radiation exposure to patients while delivering excellent images; and two new digital radiography systems, the KODAK DirectView DR 9000 and DirectViewDR 5000 which protect teeth.

2004 - KODAK EASYSHARE Digital Cameras ranked highest in customer satisfaction in the $200-$399 and $400-$599 price segments. ? Kodak expanded its graphic communications business, becoming sole owner of former joint venture NexPress.

KODAK i80 Scanner

2008 - Kodak received its ninth Oscar® statuette, this time for developing emulsions for KODAK VISION2 Color Negative Films for the motion picture companies. In the 80 years Academy Awards have been presented, all "Best Picture" Oscars have gone to movies shot on Kodak film cameras. Kodak launched the APEX system, a dry lab solution for retailers. APEX can fulfill standard print orders and be expanded to also produce photo books, cards, and other custom photos. Kodak introduced the world's first 1.4 micron, 5 megapixel sensor - designed for consumer applications like mobile phones. KODAK CCD Image Sensors were used on the space shuttle. Kodak launched more than two dozen new products at drupa, the world's largest printing trade show happen in world.

Corporate Responsibility of Kodak Eastman

  1. KODAK move its business at high ehical levels.
  2. Kodak respect international and legal principles and run their company wih proper laws.
  3. Kodak follow all the local and state laws.
  4. Activities are eco friendly and run under environmental laws.
  5. Kodak maintain he privacy of its customers and employees.
  6. Kodak give employee opportunity to all without any discrimination.
  7. Kodak provide a healthy work environment to their employees
  8. Kodak deal everything according to local laws and rules.
  9. Kodak give equal respect to its employees and customers as well as suppliers.
  10. Kodak respects the economic development priorities of the developing countries
  11. Kodak help and run global programs to achive high standerds.

Product Safety, Recycling & Disposal

Kodak has different department for health,safety and environment. It made a team of professionals to help in improving health,safety ant environment issues.

Kodak have many plants of recycling of chemical products like their cameras, batteries, film rolls, wet papers. Kodak clearly mention everything about the use, handle ant dispose of their product on the package of product.

Reputation of Kodak

According to the Business Ethics magazine Kodak Eastman ranks among top 100 corporate citizens in 2004, from 1000 companies. The analysis was done and ranked on the bases of corporate service to seven stakeholder groups: shareholders, employees, customers, the community, the environment, overseas stakeholders, and women and minorities.

The magazine praised its anti-discrimination policies for gay, bisexual, and transgender employees. The company also scored well for its fair treatment of minorities and women, and employees overall. The magazine covers corporate governance, financial disclosure, decision-making, incentive and corporate responsibility issues. The company had an implied lifetime employment contract, provided high wages and generous benefits. Kodak Eastman has its own R&D department. The has very close relationship with suppliers,this makes the company sound and stable.

PROBLEMS OF KODAK EASTMAN

Since George Eastman first started the company at the turn of the last century,

Eastman Kodak has been one of the most important corporate citizens in the Rochester, New York, community. Over the 1900s, Kodak developed a reputation as one of the leading proponents of welfare capitalism. In fact, the company maintained its reputation for paying high wages and providing lifetime job security into the 1980s. However, during the 1980s, the company embarked on a diversification and acquisition strategy by purchasing Sterling Drug Company and expanding into a wider range of products, such as office copying machinery. Increased competition in its film and camera markets and the subsequent loss of market share led to the replacement of CEO Kay Whitmore with the former CEO of Motorola, George Fisher.

Kodak's case study tells the story of a long-standing company with a reputation for social responsibility earned through its community activities, its implied commitment to lifetime employment, and its high-wage and comprehensive fringe benefit policies. A highly integrated firm, it also performed its own entire R&D, manufacturing, and sales functions. A business press article in 1998 echoed the investment community's criticism of the company for maintaining this integrated model too long:

Many of Kodak's problems stem from the company's remarkable success in the Century following its founding in 1892. Unfortunately, as the world changed Rapidly over the past 20 years, Kodak remained stuck in its illustrious past. Other World-class companies were adapting to the new realities of business by forming Corporate partnerships, joint ventures and close relationships with suppliers. Yet Kodak always took its founder's slogan, 'You press the button and we do the rest' Much too far. The company instead of using or buying others technology,waste millions of dollers on research abd which have no practical application.

Key Events

Several key events serve as milestones in Kodak's attempt to redefine its social contract with employees: still numbers of employees go down and down in the late 1980s and early 1990s; the hireing of a new CEO, who refocused the company on its core product markets; a major restructuring effort to cut costs; and an explicit, new social contract.

Then Kodak start lifetime employement plan.The layoff decisions made in the 1980s have been criticized for their poor execution and lack of overall vision. Layoff decisions were often based on an employee's most recent performance review, meaning recently hired talent was lost. "one-time" buy-out program offered in 1983 was designed to reduce staff by 3,100;5,000 employees accepted the offer. What was expected to be a one-time cut was followed by additional downsizings in 1986 (12,000), 1989 (4,500 announced as the target; 6,000 actually left), 1991 (3,000), and 1993 (10,000). The Kodak experience demonstrates that the vision and values of the CEO matter significantly, but that even a CEO who wants to carry on the tradition of being a socially responsible employer can no longer do so in an old-style, paternalistic fashion or with a full-employment guarantee. As a human resources (HR) executive (from another company) put it: "Nobody is saying that they will provide lifetime jobs any more, and no employees would believe it anymore if it was said." As a "new socially responsible" firm, Kodak is now is defining those responsibilities around three key points:

  1. Cushioning the effects of job loss by using early retirement, severance packages, job search assistance, extended health insurance coverage, and other means of aiding those downsized in transitioning to another job or into retirement.
  2. Redefining the new social contract at work as one in which the firm will provide opportunities for continued learning and education for employees to keep their skills current and marketable in the external labor market, as well as within the firm.
  3. Communicating openly and honestly about the competitive realities of the business and rewarding employees for their contributions to firm performance. The future of employment relations at Kodak, therefore, will depend on how successful the company is in regaining market share and penetrating new markets related to film processing and imaging technologies. While the company believes that, once it completes the large-scale downsizing announced in 1998, it will have the proper level of employment, it will clearly continue to restructure its manufacturing function as productivity is improved and labor-intensive work is outsourced to lower-cost domestic or international firms. How a new social contract-based on the three principles listed above-is received by the workforce will likely be determined by whether the downsizing is completed and the company continues to improve its market share and financial performance.

Eastman Kodak had try to improve its image as an employer. The company offers employment opportunities for blacks. The work force is loyal, and the corporate image is one of service and social responsibility within its Rochester, New York community. Kodak has no unions and workers expect lifetime employment. But Japanese competition, poor overseas sales, the recession, and some marketing mistakes have hurt Kodak. A highly qualified work force, worker participation in management and internal promotion help promote corporate image. But surfacing problems of personnel reductions, reduced employment, and connections with negative local political issues are hurting the company's image.

KODAK PLANS TO CUT 4,500 JOB

Eastman Kodak Co. said on Thursday it is cutting 3,500 to 4,500 jobs, or 14 per cent to 18 per cent of its work force, as it posted a $137 million fourth-quarter loss on plunging sales of both digital and film-based photography products.

The 129-year-old photography pioneer said its loss in the October-December period amounted to 51 cents a share. That compares with a year-ago profit of $215 million, or 75 cents a share.

Sales slumped 24 per cent to $2.43 billion from $3.22 billion a year ago, hit by weakened demand for digital cameras, lower royalties from patents and unfavorable foreign exchange rates. Digital revenue dropped 23 per cent to $1.78 billion and traditional film-based revenue fell 27 percent to $652 million.Its shares sank 17 cents to $6.90 in premarket trading.