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Read the first part of chapter 6 in the text and Readings 4.1 and 4.2. Both Whittaker and Reason emphasise the importance of designing in safety through redundancy and mitigation rather than over relying on probability calculations.
You are a senior government official required to approve the set up of a hazardous chemical plant. A probabilistic hazard analysis indicates that the plant design fulfils the Individual and Societal risk criteria set by the government. Taking account of Readings 4.1 and 4.2, state in a letter to the company of not more than 1,000 words, what extra precautions would you require before approval is granted.]
Safety management system for the prevention of dangerous chemicals plant accident and emergency management system for hazardous chemicals plant accident as the core to build the frame of the overall management of dangerous chemicals factory, research and operability analysis based on the risk of dangerous chemicals plant prevention management tools
The implementation of the laws, regulations and standards through the transportation system safety management of hazardous chemicals plant is complete, the run is smooth the management the command whether Tongda performance out, whether the plant operations department of dangerous chemicals, transport vehicles, employing strict management, its implementation plays an important role in the road transport of dangerous chemicals, the strict implementation of laws and regulations and standards can be a good source of security off.
Dynamic security monitoring level
Security monitoring for road transport of dangerous chemicals major accidents, disasters and emergency rescue operations, mainly including disaster relief, disaster prevention, mitigation and recovery a few steps with the link. Only establish a scientific, effective, well-functioning dangerous chemicals, road transport dynamic security monitoring system, can be organized by links of all kinds of disaster emergency and contingency process to achieve effective control of the situation, to reduce the losses caused by the accident, to ensure that people's lives , property, security and disaster recovery of these three objectives.
Staff operational errors
Personnel operating mistakes with people's cultural quality, and related business ability, professionalism, emotional as well as the person's physiological and psychological shape I wish. Little is known about the risk of employing the shipment of dangerous chemicals, some even a little common sense, once the goods leak or cause a fire accident, they do not know how to deal with, not for the first time to take effective measures to stop events to expand. At the same time, the road environment conditions will also affect the frequency of operational errors, a good work ethic and a healthy state of mind helps to reduce the frequency of operational errors personnel
Plays the most important role in the entire process of the road transport of dangerous chemicals. Employees understand very little knowledge of the laws and regulations related to hazardous chemicals, and some simply do not have this knowledge, illegal transportation, and even illegal transportation; Some drivers, strong sense of responsibility and sense of security of guards and their related provisions of the safe transport of hazardous chemicals is a lack of understanding of driver fatigue, infertility mouth to drive fast, the force will be cars, overtaking, over railroad crossings, bridges, culverts do not slow down, there's drunk driving, these are extremely easy to cause crash, rollover accident. Well as the loading and unloading personnel mishandling rough handling, do not follow the loading and unloading, are likely to cause an accident caused by the disaster.
Emergency rescue capabilities
Chemical transport accidents because the traffic makes a certain degree of randomness, rapid, orderly, and efficient emergency relief operations to reduce accident losses, and an important means to prevent the occurrence of major accidents. Emergency rescue is an important part of the road transport accidents of dangerous chemicals, fast, agile, and improve the efficiency of the emergency rescue system can minimize the losses caused by the accident. Accident rescue work, the fire department is the main force, police, traffic police, traffic control department with force, the establishment of a high-quality emergency rescue team is to improve the emergency rescue capabilities ensure
Packaging and equipment
Accidents caused due to the leakage of dangerous chemicals is increasing in the transport process, the selection of qualified packaging containers for hazardous characteristics of different hazardous chemicals. Reach technical standards such as the quality of the equipment; anti-explosion, anti-fire, anti-lightning, anti-pollution and other facilities are not complete, unreasonable, maintenance and management are not implemented; aging equipment, with trouble-free operation, will increase the risk of chemical products the chance of leakage.
The level of vehicle performance
Vehicles is a key factor to ensure the safety of the road transport of dangerous chemicals, the vehicle situation good or bad, and content security technology factors has a direct relation to transport security, if the situation is bad will seriously affect traffic safety, the cause of the accident occur. Improve the safety performance of the vehicle, is the fundamental way to ensure the safety of the road transport of dangerous chemicals
The level of infrastructure
Road facilities, including traffic safety facilities, transportation facilities, protective facilities, lighting facilities, parking facilities and other related facilities along and greening. Dangerous chemicals, no passing is imperfect, but also lead to road transport of hazardous chemicals is an important factor of the accident as to set up warning signs in accident-prone zone, to design a crash barrier in dangerous sections
Environmental conditions, mainly related to the the roads surrounding environment (residential, commercial, distribution, and other facilities, etc.), white natural geographical conditions, traffic flow and other aspects the road surrounding residents, heavy traffic encountered harsh rain, snow, group fog and other weather, it will definitely increase the probability of an accident and cause serious injury or death consequences.
Complete Exercise 5.2 from the Lecture Reading Material
[Exercise 5.2 Read Chapter 7 of Parkin (1996). We live in a multicultural society. Write a paragraph or two on how different national cultural norms may interact with your organization's norms to influence corporate judgements.
History of equality and diversity
In 1986, the American workforce recorded the workforce includes 45 percent of women; 11 percent of African; 7 of percent Hispanics. However, in 2000, the workforce inÂ particular group of people increase includes: 47 percent women; 12 percent blacks; 10 percent Hispanics. These figures proveÂ the number of people in particular groupÂ increaseÂ in labor force. So organization tried to adapt this phenomenonÂ accordingÂ to people's Â background, and life-style.
In addition, commercial Enterprise cooperation is facing a huge change. Based on different social factor, the changes can be classified as internal and external factor of the turbulent. External factors include conduct with customers and service targets which became diversity. That means the customer's need and demand are more complex and diversity than before. The business mainstream also became more complex. The general factors include the workforce changes of social, economic and demographic trends, those factors are variable. Internal factor which influenced the commercial cooperation is also facing a huge change, according to the general different value systems and background change, the employees has more diversity, not only in the genre of sex, age discrimination, but also discriminate in the area of racial, ethnic, gender, value, language.
In addition, Sullivan (1994) proposes a continuum of five stages: laisse-faire, human rights compliance, equal opportunities compliance, EO leadership and diversity. In the 1980s they were prompted by the Equal Pay Act 1970, the Sex Discrimination Act 1975 and Race Relations Act 1976, because of increase organization declares themselves as equal opportunity employer. They suggest that diversity has become a management tool that has contained the struggle for equality.
The government may be defined as the politically based body which directs and controls the institutions of regulation within an organized society and whose policies and actions are, in the UK and other democracies, legitimized through the electoral process. (Philip L, Adrian T & Mark S. 2003)
In 1980s and 1990s Poole suggest that the government has become the primary force in determining the nature of industrial relations:
Government is, by virtue of its law-making role, the only actor in the situation which can change the rules of the system.
Government strategies and policies exert a major influence in determining the economic and social contexts within which the other parties (management, employees and unions) conduct their relationship.
Government has responsibility for guiding and influencing the activities of a carrying combination of to the institutions within society- such as public services, public enterprises and local government authorities. (Poole, M 1986)
In United Kingdom, government have other forces on trade union at national level, this is represented by the trade union congress (TUC), employers, represented by employer's power such as the Confederation of British Industry (CBI) and the Local Government Association. Before say that, government is the role of law-making, only it can change statutory regulations directly. These legal regulations are also influence by governments' economic and social policies, which constrain the general environment in employee relations operations.
According to Kossek and Label's view, they proposed that diversity is a
Definition of Managing diversity and Equal Opportunity
Kandola and Fullerton (1998) proposed the basic concept of managing diversity; it accepts the workforce consists of a diverse population of people. The diversity consists of visible and non-visible differences which will include factors such as sex, age, background, race, disability, personality, work style. It is founded on the premise that harnessing these differences will create a productive environment in which everybody feels valued, where their talents are being fully utilized and in which organizational goal are met.
Equal Opportunity policy represents the first move towards an equal opportunities culture (for example, Livingston, 1982; Kremer and Marks, 1992). In 1836, the State has a history of freedoms and tolerance. Discrimination first became illegal in the mid 1960's at around the same time as human rights conventions about discrimination were being adopted internationally by the United Nations. South Australia led the nation with its subsequent anti-discrimination laws, enacted sometimes nearly a decade before the rest of Australia. These laws have played a key role in promoting equality of opportunity between the people of this State, preventing discrimination, discouraging prejudice and allowing people to participate in our economic and social life. (www.eoc.sa.gov.au/public/redirect.jsp?id=4027)
The important of the government's influence on employee relations
The important of the government's influence on employee relations is main force on three areas.
First, it is the third actor in the employee relations system (Poole, 1986:99) which by view of its unique role as the lawmaker in society, has the power and authority to change the rules of the system' (crouch,1986:146). Poole stated that legislation provides a society-wide enforceable framework of rights and responsibilities. Legislation reflects the government's subjective value judgments regarding such concepts as fairness and equity, power and authority and individualism and collectivism within the employment relation. (Paul B & Peter T, 2004)
Secondly, governments may control, directly or indirectly, a wide variety of organizations within the public sector: such as health, education, police, fire, prisons, through public utility corporations communications, transport, coal, electricity, gas, water, to owned commercial organizations which compete with private sector organizations (aircraft and car manufacture, steel production, banking). (Hollinshead, G., Nicholls, P. & Tailby, S. 2003)
Thirdly, the government's policies and strategies on economic and social matters are significant influences on the general environment in management, employees and unions have to conduct their relationships.
Political ideology and forms of employee relations
This too basic is very different. Political ideologies is about free market ideology regards free competition for goods, services and labor within the economic system as the prime basis for regulation society. Not only the work relationship but also the acquisition and provision of social services, such as education and health, are seen as primarily contractual economic matters with an emphasis on the individual being responsible for his or her own will-being. The government is minimizing regulation and distortions in the operation of the free market. Second, the corporatist (interventionist) ideology regards economic and social aspects of life as interrelated parts of a whole and a proper matter for political influence and regulation; therefore, the differences in ideology affect the way in which governments interpret their role and objectives in the management of the economy and dealing with consequent social issues. (Hollinshead, G., Nicholls, P. & Tailby, S. 2003)
Government policies have been an important factor in defining social problems and setting the agenda for national debates about employee relations (Winchester. 1983: 105). Marsh proposed that there is no government in a democratic society is omnipotent and omni competent. The direction and scope of government policies may be constrained within the political mechanism by other political parties and pressure groups or in the wider society by the actions of individuals and groups. Government need to create a constant capacity for change in policies and strategies towards employee relations.
In addition, many governments maintain some form of minimum wage below which nobody should be paid to individual employment protection. The employment protection legislation is for social justice in the operation of the labor market.
Complete Exercise 6.2 in the Lecture Reading Material
[Exercise 6.2: Read the second half of Chapter 8 of Parkin (1996) and Reading 6.2 (Beach 1993). Think of a typical, but complex, management decision in your work role. Outline the contents of the 'value image', 'trajectory image' and 'strategic image' likely to be used by you.]
LSI is a tool created by Kolb following many years of teaching experience to potential
ELT is a model of learning theory concerning four learning preferences based on a four-stage learning cycle (illustrated in Fig 1.1) where ELT defines learning as "the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience. Knowledge results from the combination of grasping and transforming experience" (Kolb 1984: 41) [i]
Fig 1.1 Kolb's Experiential Learning Cycle
ELT suggests a learning cycle normally starts from experiencing (1) to (4) however, a learning experience could also start from any stage in the cycle but in any event, all four stages will be involved and that learning always involves re-learning as a result of the learning cycle which could in turn create new experience. ELT also defines four types of learning styles based on two levels of learning preferences in the four-stage namely (1) Diverging (CE/RO), (2) Assimilating (AC/RO), (3) Converging (AC/AE) and (4) Accommodating (CE/AE). The below diagram demonstrates a combination of the experiential learning cycle and learning styles:-
Expanded Kolb's Experiential Learning Cycle
It appears that my learning approach is driven by the intention to change at different stage (the "Environment") as illustrated in Table 1.1 in reaction to my daily experience and personal condition [ii] .
Moreover, the more life experience I have gained and the more senior role I work in an organization, "know-why" learning is more preferred than "know-how" learning (Kim, 1993b) [iii] .
Kim's ideas concerning two levels of individual learning: procedural and conceptual which are related to two parts of mental models: know-how and know-why. In a car production case, where a worker is competent in his part of installation work (follows the procedures and know how to do) doesn't mean he knows why things are designed in that way (why the design of the car, the production line etc). People have "know-how" mental would tend to be involved in more operational duties where "know-why" be in management role.
The models and findings above have also reflected my current learning approach that I have a strong preference for tending to get things done perfect by analyzing data and measuring whether it makes sense to proceed. Plans are normally based on review of past experience (successful / failed) in conjunction with the Company's business priority "â€¦Information jobs, such as planning and research, which require data gathering and analysis, as well as conceptual modeling, require an Assimilating learning style. Technical jobsâ€¦require technical and problem-solving skills, which require a convergent learning orientation." (HayGroup [iv] ). I always need plans be designed carefully as any failure would affect the whole Company and therefore the design process will involve data review and also testing in order to ensure a smooth roll out.
During the process of evaluating my own learning approach to realize myself as an "Assimilator", I at the same time have also confirmed my observation set out above is that my learning approach is driven by the Environment. I was not expected "Assimilator" as my learning style as I would have thought I that I have a holistic view and would be competent to move on. Having understood my thinking approach clearly now, I would be able to set up learning and development plan more efficiently - adopting "Accommodator" learning style could help me in this regard. (Accommodatingâ€¦influencing learning style is the person's current job roleâ€¦.Executive jobs, such as a general management, that require a strong orientation to task accomplishment and decision making in uncertain emergent circumstances require an Accommodating learning style." (LSI Technical Manual, P.7 [v] ). However, in reality, as my role is to make plans according to the strategies the executive team has already made in place and always in a top priority, I do not have the capacity eg. time and resources to explore new learning experience. It would still make me prefer a result within expectation as any failure would affect the whole Group not just the office in Hong Kong. I cannot take the risk and accordingly, the tasks I handle mostly repeat previous model or if for a new strategy, I make limited modification to the model.
Based on the above analyze, I would conclude my assumptions on learning as follows:-
It would seem Kolb's ELT and LSI are effective reference tools for one to understand his/her current learning approach but they are passive. If one does not have a clear learning objective eg. the reason and result for learning, it would make no change to his/her learning experience.
Organization's management ability, style and business strategy could make one's learning approach active or passive.
Changing the Environment by an individual could result in active learning approach.
Changing and learning or vice versa happen at the same time. Either one could happen first or comes after and the learning experience could be good or bad.
Learning only happens when one's fully involved and have a clear objective.
Learning approach in career development is not necessarily to be the same as personal development. Career development would involve different stages of learning ie acquisition to integration where personal development could in some cases always be operational learning eg. driving - you enjoy driving that's why you drive.
We learn from our daily life. Experience differs each day as when you see and deal with different people. Every instance and experience could influence the training approach and career development but every approach is in reaction to world views eg. Economy condition could delay or change your learning needs.
Complete Exercise 7.3 from the Lecture Reading Material
[Exercise 7.3 Read Janis (1971) (Reading 7.3). Briefly describe one situation in your experience that has the symptoms of groupthink.
There is much reflection of core competencies in these years. It is including adding value with people, customers focus, big understanding, people management and leadership, personal drive and effectiveness, communication or interpersonal skills and others.
In the reflection of big understanding competency, in the reflection of groupthink adding value through people competency, basically, I learned that the career success of any business organizations depended on the performance of employees; they created a synergic work environment and were rewarded with superior employee commitment and performance. Actually, various researchers, practitioners and policymakers now acknowledge that motivation can be conceptualized from a functional perspective and that appropriate interventions involve the development of alternative measures to cope up. It was also noted that the establishment of a conducive environment for learning and leadership groupthink training have served effectively in lowering the prevalence of underachievement among individuals.
At present, this philosophical shift has extended to various settings. Managers here have recognized that some of their members do not have the skills and behavioral repertoires necessary to cope with the many work expectations. Hence, these members may have the tendency to remain contented with their mediocre performances as their alternative way of mitigating these expectations.
Moreover, in the reflection of people management and leadership groupthink competency, the lectures and training help me to discover the causes of lack of motivation among individuals. While it might have been able to identify certain causes of lack of motivation, they have yet to determine its precursor. However, it has been shown that the lack of motivation produces consequences that foster inappropriate behavior. Strong evidence suggests that the lack of motivation and problem behavior engage in a reciprocal relationship. It has a short and long term effect on the person's future outcome.
One of the criteria and reflect for identifying an unmotivated individual is whether he or she has an ability to learn that cannot be explained by other factors. A deficit in basic reading, writing, and leadership or interaction skills, as well as skills related to other important aspects of life, significantly impairs an individual's ability to function educationally, socially, and emotionally across a variety of domains. As a consequence, unmotivated people often experience a lifetime of problems in education and employment and are likely to become involved with the criminal justice system even at an early age.
On the other hand, ensuring employee performance requires establishing a level of competence which the employee should be aware of as a target to be achieved. This is the measure to be used by me in determining compliance with the standard and in identifying problems met by the employees in meeting the standard. In developing a training program to enhance the productivity of employees I will look at the competency problems of the employees and fashion the program to enable the employees to reach and even exceed the competency standard established for their work.
This requires a great amount of perceptiveness on the part of the manager in determining what method of training will be most effective in improving employee competence.
Moreover, the need to exercise effective motivation and social skills is primary for all human beings, since they enable individuals to interact and function effectively. The lack of motivation and social skills is a pervasive problem, particularly in the emotionally disturbed setting. The basic definition of social skills and motivation could be described as the interaction of varying factors, including positive relations with others, absence of maladaptive behaviors, peer acceptance, exhibiting specific behaviors that maximize the probability of reinforcement, employing behaviors that focus on peer acceptance, and effective social skills. While there are many ways to categorize motivation and social skills, common difficulties related to motivation and social skills include conflict resolution, sharing, turn-taking, problem avoidance, adaptation to routines, initiation of activities, making choices, interpreting facial expressions and gestures as well as emotional recognition and labeling.
Education and previous work experience alone cannot mold a fully functioning employee. Business organizations which offer similar occupational position do not necessarily require the same employment qualifications. Specific agencies and firms hire prospect employees based on the business firm's particular specifications of the nature of their businesses. With the current modernization that the world experiences these days, efficiency and productivity has always been a major concern in the competitive business environment. Assessing the possible contributions of prospective employees during hiring period gives the employers an idea of how an applicant will perform in the business. Business executives at present place high value on predicting the quality and efficiency of the work force early on as more and more companies continuously practice the administration of examinations during job applications.
Learning groupthink programs inside the business organization significantly supply the needs of the companies when these institutions call for improved working relations among the staff during new business ventures for example so as to ensure higher productivity level. This will only be possible if the management houses quality and competitive supervisors who can reach out to the ordinary employees of the organization. Learning experiences provided by the business company help clarify their expectations of the company. Usually workshop programs within a number of business establishments serve as self-evaluation and company evaluation between the employees and the employers.
In conclusion, I gain many experience in groupthink. I try to hear more feedback from my customers and managers. This development groupthink and learning need day to day practices and pit it in place. I am able to make the successful reflection in my mind and learning groupthink more in the coming years. Thus, my worker and colleagues will work with me more comfortable in the future, and the working environment will be better more before.