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Work Specialization: It also termed as the division of labour, analysed from the sub sequential divided tasks in the organization for jobs. It is like rather than an entire job being done by one individual, it is broken down into a number of steps, with each step being completed by a separate individual. In essence specialize in doing part of an activity rather than the entire activity.
Departmentalization: The term departmentalization is defined as joint venture of jobs together once after the process work specialization is done. By grouping like this we can easily coordinate the tasks. There are many ways in departmentalization like functions, product, geography, process and customer oriented.
The function oriented departmentalization in a hospital might have departments devoted to research, patient care, accounting, and so forth. The product oriented departmentalization in an Automatic Data Processing has departments for each of its employment, tax, and the like. Another ways of departmentalization by geography oriented is like dividing the sales function into northern, southern, and eastern regions. Customers from different geographic locations scattered and meet their basic needs upon location, forms departmentalization valuable. The final thing is the customer oriented departmentalization like some organizations do split up customer markets into consumers, large corporations, software developers, and small businesses.
Chain of command: Respective roles and responsibilities of organization members are defined by senior authorities. There are two main complementary concepts: authority and unity of command. Authority refers to the rights inherent in a managerial position is give orders and expect the orders to be obeyed. The unity-of-command defines that an employee should follow one superior to respond.
Span of Control: It is defined as effective management of manager to make the subordinates to work.If the span is wider or larger than the organization will be more efficient. The trend in recent years has been toward wider spans of control. Managers recognize that they can handle a wider span when employees know their jobs inside and out or can turn to their co-workers when they have questions.
Centralization and Decentralization: Concentration of decision making statements at perspective situations in the organization is termed as Centralization.When the lower-level personnel are allowed to provide more input or actually given the discretion to make decisions then it is termed as Decentralization.
Formalization: Range in which the organization jobs are standardized. Some employees implied to make uniform way of output for its similar way of input types, are formalization employees.
Advantages and disadvantages:
Work specialization, departmentalization and chain of command are more advantage for an organization to perform well. Disadvantages like higher span of control, also like centralisation depend on the organization.
Organisation that differs from other with shared system in which the members are. It is also explained as the system of shared meaning is, similar characters in the organization values when examined in closer. In deep we can explain the organization culture with the seven primary characteristics like
Risk and Innovation: The level in which employees involved to be innovation and take risks.
Attention to detail: The expectation of employees to perform correct attention, right analysis and their precision.
Outcome orientation: Management interest on results and outcomes apart from techniques, processed applicable.
People orientation: Analysis of management into the effective organization for successive output by peoples.
Team orientation: The degree to which work activities are organised around teams rather than individuals.
Aggressiveness: Critical way of approaching aggressive and competitive instead of easy processing.
Stability: Effort in which organizational activities follows the quo status, in growth.
Types of Organizational culture:
Dominant culture:Defines the core values of members in organization, known as dominant culture in an organization.
Subcultures:Department designations and separation in geography defines subculture in an organization.
Strong culture: Widely organization's values are shared. The stronger culture is defined as the greater member accepts these core values and commitments.
Advantages and disadvantages:
The strong culture is more advantage for an organization because the values are shared widely. But the dominant culture doesn't allow all the employees in the organization to follow and it's a disadvantage. The Minicultures are acceptable and it purely depends on the organization type and the geographical location.
b) Relationship between organization's structure and culture:
The relationship is measured by four dimensions from organization structure like specialization, standardization, formalization, and centralization and the organization culture by four dimensions like Individual/collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, and masculinity/femininity. From this model it explains 4x4 relationships between the organization structures and organization culture.
High individualism is positively related to independence and power seeking. Individualism would influence standardization the same way as it influences specialization. Formalization is the rules, procedures, instructions, and communications. Individualism means strong independence and individual responsibility.
The recommended organization structure for the new company is departmentalization, wider span of control, decentralized with the organizational culture with uncertainty avoidance, Individualism-collectivism.
c) Factors that influence individual behaviour at work:
The work specialization may sometime make the worker more boredom in their job. The highest the span of control will make the employee uncomfortable in his/her work. Wider span of control draws more focus on the workers by management. The centralization will make the workers not to fulfil their job.
Task 2 - L02
In an organization number of critical functions involved. Initially contains roles defined boundary which is, makes unique distinctions among organizations. Then culture makes members identity. Next individuals self interest and commitments were facilitated, and also social facts are stabled. Fourth, it enhances the stability of the social system. Finally culture makes sense-making and controls employee's attitudes, and behaviours.
Cultures as a Liability:
Functions specified are important for both organization and employee. It supports commitments in organization and makes consistency in employee behaviour, makes beneficiary to organization.
Barrier to change:
Organization's effectiveness is liability of culture provided the agreement doesn't makes shared values. Occurs when organization environment is not stable. Its critical culture does not suits when environment changes. These organizations have strong cultures that worked well for them in the past. When the culture is no longer insisted, such cultures will be change barriers of business.
Barrier to Diversity:
New employees must adopt to core and cross cultural values. Else such employees made to fit. Meanwhile frankly management acknowledges and demonstrates differences that these employees bring to the workplace. Similarly an organization implies hiring diversified individuals behalf of the alternative strengths these people bring to the environment. Since such strengths and behaviours insisting peoples strong cultures. It can be liabilities when covers peoples at different backgrounds with rational strength.
Barrier to Acquisitions and Merger:
Cultural adoptability plays vital role in recent years. Since acquisition candidate in different organization's culture works seems to have more with financial statements, makes first attraction.
Recruiting and selection process in organization is not a matter which is suited for changes in culture. They are new with cultural changes, do not follow their beliefs. Such organization must provide such cross cultural issues, known as socialization.
This is the pre-level stage in socialization process when a new employee enters into organization. Likewise for some professional works, selected members have undergone the respective degree with the professions. Provided individual ability is performed by the right performance in selection process evaluates the matching skill set to enter into the organisation.
Defines for new employee about organisation and its reality expectations, is a process of socialization. The encounter stage processes the collected perceptions for the expectations which are more or less accurate. Such as this is rare case for a new member becomes mismatch with the realities in organization, can be solved by right selection occurrences.
The stage in which fresher's adopts to right job and working culture within an organization is called as Metamorphosis stage, by successive selection process by management who are responsible for traditions and customs creates such individuals.
Comparison of management approaches in two different companies:
Organization members are the most perception of cultures, defined explicitly for cross cultural components of an organization.
The company A is a manufacturing firm. Managers are expected to fully document all decisions; and ''good managers'' are those who can provide detailed data to support their recommendations. Creative decisions that incur significant change or risk are not encouraged. Because managers of failed projects are openly criticized and penalized, managers try not to implement ideas that deviate much from the status quo. One lower-level manager quoted an often used phrase in the company: ''If it ain't broke, don't fix it.'' There are extensive rules and regulations in this firm that employees are required to follow. Managers supervise employees closely to ensure there are no deviations. Management is covered with high productivity, regardless of the impact on employee morale or turnover.
Work activities are designed around individuals. There are distinct departments and lines of authority, and employees are expected to minimize formal contract with other employees outside their functional area or line of command. Performance evaluations and rewards emphasize individual effort, although seniority tends to be the primary factor in the determination of pay raises and promotions.
This company is also a manufacturing firm. Here, however, management encourages and rewards risk taking and change. Decisions based on intuition are valued as much as those that are well rationalized. Management prides itself on its history of experimenting with new technologies and its success in regularly introduction innovative products. Managers or employees who have a good idea are encouraged to ''run with it.'' And failures are treated as ''learning experiences.'' The company prides itself on being market-driven and rapidly responsive to the changing needs of its customers.
There are few rules and regulations for employees to follow, and supervision is loose because management believes that its employees are hardworking and trustworthy. Management is concerned with high productivity, but believes that this comes through treating its people right. The company is proud of its reputation as being a good place to work. Job activities are designed around work teams and team members are encouraged to interact with people across functions and authority levels. Employees talk positively about the competition between teams. Individuals and teams have goals, and bonuses are based on achievement of theses outcomes. Employees are given considerable autonomy in choosing the means by which the goals are attained.
Task 3 - L03
The steps involved to achieve the goal by influencing the group is called Leadership. The source of this influence may be formal, such as that provided by the possession of managerial rank in an organization. The non-sanctioned leadership-that is, the ability to influence that arises outside the formal structure of the organization-is often as important as or more important than formal influence. In other words, leaders can emerge from within a group as well as by formal appointment to lead a group.
There are two types of leadership as Transactional leadership and Transformational leadership.
These kinds of leaders guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements. There is also another type of leader who inspires followers to transcend their own self-interests for the good of the organization, and who is capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on his or her followers.
The transactional leadership can be explained clearly with following characteristics:
Reward by Contingent: Process of exchanging effort rewards, and its better performance, for its good accomplishments.
Active Management with Exception: Acting for correct standards and its rules being watched.
Passive Management with Exception: Standards not met in Intervenes not met.
Faire [Laissez]: Decision making is avoided for its respective responsibilities.
Leaders in Transformation:
They pay attention to the concerns and developmental needs of individual followers; they change follower's awareness of issues by helping them to look at old problems in new ways; and they are able to excite, arouse, and inspire followers to put extra effort to achieve group goals.
The characteristics of Transformational leadership are explained as follows
Charm: Makes vision and mission statements for effective management.
By Inspiration: Simple ways are expressed by focusing on efforts by symbols towards better expectations.
Stimulation by Intellectual: Problem solving by rational and promoting intelligence, and rationality.
Consideration on Individuals: Following each individual employees for their attention and promoting by coaching and advising.
Individuals' strengths with elements such as intensity [level of personal effort] and the effort on successive of attaining goal are known as Motivation. However, high intensity is unlikely to lead to favourable job-performance outcomes unless the effort is channelled towards organization benefit. Hence, we have to consider intensity and efforts. Then its tuned towards the successive organisation goal, which is expected. Finally, motivation has a persistence dimension. Every single persons effort is measured in attaining the goal with tasks.
The different types of motivational theories are as follows.
Equity theory and
The above mentioned motivation theories differ in their predictive strength. Some theories about well established motivation which relies relevance explain about dependant variable, and relies respective power of predicts.
There are four theories that focused on needs. Some theories are McClelland's, ERG, two-factor and Maslow's hierarchy. Facts such as productivity and achievement regard strongest issues in relationship making. Rest three provides predicting and explanation about job satisfaction.
Maslow's hierarchy theory:
There is a hierarchy of five facts - such as common, self esteem, self conservative and actualization; meeting individual requirements; dominants will be followed. Self-actualization is analysing personal fulfilment and potential towards growth.
Self-actualization is defined as individual's capability which induces growth in potential achievement and self perspective. The lower-order needs are the needs that are satisfied externally; physiological and safety needs. The higher-order needs are the needs that are satisfied internally; social, esteem, and self-actualization needs.
Theory X and Theory Y:
Each employees who dislikes work, lazy ware the assumptions, and must be coerced to perform is known to be Theory X of motivation. The assumption that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility, and can exercise self-direction is known to be Theory Y of motivation theory.
Intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction; while extrinsic factors are associated with dissatisfaction is known as Two-Factor motivation theory.
Relatedness, growth and core existence are the main core requirements. The existence group is concerned with providing our basic material existence requirements. Main desire in interpersonal relationships is relatedness with organization. Growth needs are an intrinsic desire for personal development.
Achievement, power, and affiliation are three important needs that help explain motivation. Following correct standards, which succeeds is the suitable achievement fact. Behaviours with other makes right need for power and affiliation makes friendly desire and close interpersonal relationships.
The theory that specific and difficult goals, with feedback, lead to higher performance is explained and known as the Goal-setting theory of motivation. The capability of task performance is termed as self-efficiency. To succeed in a task that have higher self-efficiency with more confidence.So, in critical situations, people who are low efficient are more likely to lessen their effort or give up altogether, when efficient persons tries to face the challenges. Additionally persons who are efficient responds to feedback of negative, with comparable motivation while those low in self-efficiency are likely to lessen their effort that individuals when given negative feedback.
A counterpoint to goal-setting theory is known as Reinforcement theory. The former is a cognitive approach, who individuals directed in their action. In reinforcement theory, we have a behaviouristic approach, which argues that reinforcement conditions behaviour. Flow experience is the key element in its motivation theory for its goals are unrelated. The activity people are pursuing when they achieve the timelessness feeling of flow comes from the process of the activity itself rather than trying to reach a goal.
Each personals analysis their job efficiency with others and responds to their inequities is known as Equity theory. For a situation outside the organization, experiences faced by employees are termed as self-outside. Other personals or other groups in the organization is other-inside. But outside organization is other individual groups of organization.
Acting tendency can be measured from the range of an acts expectation followed in a final outcome and attractiveness of an individual is called as Expectancy theory. The theory focuses on three relationships as followed.
The effort in which individual involves while perceiving probability is known as Effort-performance.
Desiring level of an individual towards attainment of final outcome is referred as performance-reward.
Level of organization which satisfies personal goals and needs of personals and rewards their potentials known as rewards-personal goals.
Task 04 - L04
Two or more individuals, who are self constructive, interdependent works towards perspective objective is a successive group, classifies into two as Formal groups and Informal groups.
Formal groups: Those defined by organization's structure, with designated work assignments establishing tasks. In formal groups, one get stipulated with their behaviours for organizational successive goals. Formal group example is an airline assembling with members of six.
Informal group: Alliances those are neither formally structured nor organizationally analysed. In the working environment such groups forms natural way that appears for global contacts.Three employees from different departments who regularly eat lunch together are an example of an informal group.
Further groups can be subclassifying as command, task, and interest or friendship groups.
Command groups: It is composed of the individuals reported to manager. In case primary school principal and command group 18 members responsible for inspection and inspection of five members.
Task groups: For completion of task, represents working in group. Boundaries in tasks are not restricted from its superiors, can make relationships.
Interest groups: Optionally peoples can imply for command common groups responsible to reach the goal with their concerns, are interest groups.
Efforts from individuals in a group, performing which is comparatively higher than individual efforts is known as team work. Organization management seeks right resource to make its performance better.
Types of teams:
Problem-solving teams: Team size between 5 to 12 from similar department discusses ways of increasing efficiency, better quality, and the working environment for few hours per day.
Self-managed work teams: Groups of 10 to 15 people who are responsible for their supervisors.
Cross-functional teams: Team employees from different cultures, regions about perspective strengths towards successive growth.
Virtual teams: Apart from individual members, innovative technology is supported jointly with the team.