Every organization must have an organizational structure and culture in order to gain success and effectiveness in business. There are various kinds of organizational structure that organizations follow according to their geographical situation, trade they are in or products and services they offer or hierarchy. In simple words organization refers the actual system of work or arrangements of work within the organization.
There are several various types of organizational structure and an organization can elect one of following organizational structure according to their trade and business
Traditional Structures: - This structure is pertaining to functional distributions and departments. Traditional structures always obey procedures and laws applied by the management of the organization. Traditional structure is defined as having absolute authority in all standards within the organization's management. This structure is even divided into three categories: -
Line Structure: - this structure is best choice for small business as it has very few departments and cause the organization quite de-centralized. The command comes from top authority and goes step by step down to the bottom. This is ideal structure for decision making.
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Line and staff structure: - this is good choice for large organizations as it's more centralized. In this structure the command comes from high authority to the lowest authority similarly with the assistance of employees working in different departments. High authorities of line have full control on people working below them but lower authorities have no hold on above high authorities.
Functional structure: - this structure is based on division of employees according to tasks and functions they perform.
Divisional structure: - This structure refers to the various divisions within the company. The different types it has are as below:
Product structure: - Product structure is a divisions which is based on different products. For example an auto-mobiles company can divide their business according to the products such as SUV division, subcompact cars division and sedan cars divisions.
Market structure: - Every organization usually has more then one market they do their business in. According to market structure the organization place their employees according to specific market.
Geographic structure: - it is based on the division of offices of an organization, at different places and locations.
Matrix Structures: - this is structure of mixture of features of both traditional and product structure. Organization compiles both of them together to achieve the effective and composed organizational structure. Matrix structure is most complicated to arrange and manage.
Organizational Culture :-
"Basically, organizational culture is the personality of the organization. Culture is comprised of the assumptions, values, norms and tangible signs (artifacts) of organization members and their behaviors. Members of an organization soon come to sense the particular culture of an organization. Culture is one of those terms that are difficult to express distinctly, but everyone knows it when they sense it. For example, the culture of a large, for-profit corporation is quite different than that of a hospital which is quite different that that of a university. You can tell the culture of an organization by looking at the arrangement of furniture, what they brag about, what members wear, etc. -- similar to what you can use to get a feeling about someone's personality."
Types of cultures: -
Normative Culture: - this culture maintain high standard of business ethics. The organization emphasize on procedures to be used in right way according to defined principles.
Pragmatic Culture: - this culture main focus satisfying customers and clients expectations and following norms are not necessary.
Academy Culture: - this culture is defined for highly skilled employees and creates an environment for them to improve and utilize their skills.
Baseball Team Culture: - in this culture employees are free agents and on high demand by all companies.
Club Culture: - according to this culture usually employees remain with the organization for long time since they possess the talent required desperately by the organization.
Fortress Culture: - in such culture employees can be sacked off by the organization anytime and organization is always under huge changes.
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
Tough-Guy Culture or Macho Culture: - in such culture the organization is under stress and employees work out the as a team to sort the problem out and receives heavy rewards.
Work Hard/Play Hard: - according to this culture companies has set up large customer care services to maintain a strong client relationship with them with the help of exceptional jargons and important team meetings
Bet Your Company Culture: - in bet you company culture organization consider significant decisions about stakes initiatives. Such cultures are usually suitable for firms designing military weapons.
Process Culture: - in this culture the organization is stick to laws and always follow them
Relationship of organizational structure with organizational culture : -
It's very difficult to separate structure and organizations from one another and at the same time to describe in today's business. Organizational structures grow under organizational culture. The relationship is strong but not easy to explain.
Organizational culture is similar to big bucket of minor topics and subjects within an organization and structure addresses several techniques and practices which help culture to work keenly and effectively within the organization's infrastructure. This reveals organizational structure is an important aspect of an organizational culture but at the same time it narrows down culture's space within the organization. Structure basically confront with issues of culture within an organization, for example how managements works, which particular duties managers have, how a command is travelled from one level to other. In a proper culture it's expected that everything and all the aspects of the business functioning adequately.
Factors influence individual behavior at work: -
Demographic Factors: - this factor is basically about performing better then other employees at work. Except it better-education, better financial conditions, race, age, sex etc are factors stimulate other employees behavior.
Abilities and Skills: the physical stamina or ability to do particular tasks. The manager can play a key role by matching the employee with suitable tasks or performances.
Perception: the references of an employee also affect their behavior. There are many factors that influence the perception of an individual.
Attitude: the attitude of society, culture, family or people working along with an employee also put influence on his/her performance at work.
5. Personality: in a way an employee performs or the performance of other employees is also on of the major factor influence an employee. Therefore we can say personality plays a key role.
Task 2.Examine Different Approaches to management and leadership and theories of organisation.
Organisational theory: - an organisation is a social structured of associated people working together to achieve few desired goals and objectives. Organisational theory is learning of organisation's entire structure to identify the organisation's problems and reach the best possible solutions of those problems. Theory helps the organisation to improve the efficiency and effectiveness in the business. Organisational theory can be classified in three different processes which are: -
All three mentioned above processes work according to some defined principles and practices which are described as below:-
Individual Processes: - under individual processes there are few principles and practices: -
Motivational Theory: - there is always a reason behind our activities or actions if a person do or attempt something and in similar situations usually two persons have two different desires. That is motivation which affects human's who are making efforts to meet desires, behaviour. Motivational practise help an organisation to manage all the employees working within one environment. In this practise an organisation tries to understand the mental status and psychological situation of that person so organisation can identify the expectations of that employee and attempt to satisfy them to motivate the employee and utilize his talent and skills.
Role principles and practice: - Role Principles defines the behaviours we should follow and those behaviours a person shouldn't exhibit. Role principles help an individual in attempting to acquire and maintain new responsibilities or goal.
Personality theory: - There are usually two types of personalities one is slow with the emotional endurance and patience and second is in more hurry, impatient and competitive. The second type of personality is preference in today's business. Organizations can help their staff to improve staff skills to gain success by arranging workshops, seminar etc.
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Group Processes: -
Power influences: - power and influence also plays a significant role on the behavior and attitude within a organization. According to this practice and principle an individual can be forced to concentrate on goals of organization with the help of rules and procedures.
Working in groups: - working in group is principle put great emphasis on associated people culture environment and consequences of a business depends largely on the efficiency of this principle. The key advantage of this working in group practise is that the team just need balance within the team to make business successful then brilliance.
Organisational processes: -
Organisational design: - the practise to understand organisational design helps the Organization to integrate the people, information and technology of an organization.
Organisational structure: - this principle helps an organisation helps the organisation to understand the structure of the organisation and identify how the responsibilities and powers are distributed and controlled and understand how the information flows from the high authority to lower level authorities.
Organisational Culture: - culture of an organisation can be sensed by furniture in the office or uniforms employees wear thus it helps to understand someone's personality. This principle is difficult to explain but can easily sense within an organisation.
Compare different approaches to management and theories of organisation used by two organisations. (Still Due)
Examine the relationship between motivational theories.
There are several types of approaches being used in organizational structure and culture. These styles of leaderships are basically related to theories and ideas. The styles for humans are not only based of assumptions, ethics and priorities but organizational culture and norms. Leadership styles are different approaches to motivate people and direct them to right path, design and apply plans. But these styles and approaches has positive and negatives both types of effects on people in the same environment.
The types of different leading styles and approaches are as below: -
Authoritarian or autocratic
Participative or democratic
Delegative or Free Reign
Authoritarian or autocratic: - according to this style leaders tell the people working under him, what he expects from them to be done and in which way it should be done. The leader doesn't seek for anyone's advice and want everyone to just follow his decisions. It's best in conditions when you have little time left but employees are dedicated to work and have all the knowledge about problem and how to solve it.
This style is not appropriate when you have sufficient time to complete given task and gain more support from employees.
Participative or democratic style: - in this leadership leader seek contribution from one or more employees working under him, in decision making but keep the highest power to decide the final decision.
Delegative leadership style: - in such environment leader includes all the employees in his decision making but leader is still the one accountable for the consequences of that decision. Leader adopts this style when he consider his employees able enough to analyze the situations and when employees what should be done in which manner.
http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadstl.html (no reference)
Motivational Theories: - "the job of a manager in the workplave is to get things done through employees. To do this manager should be able to motivate employees. But that's easier said that done! Motivation practice and theory are difficult subjects, touching on several disciplines.
Human Nature can be very simple yet very complex too. An understanding and appreciation of this is a prerequisite to effective employee motivation in a workplace therefore effective management and leadership.
There is an old saying you can take a horse to the water but you cant force it to drink; it will drink only if it's thirsty- so with the people. They will do what they want to do or otherwise motivated to do."
The main key motivation keys are as below: -
Physiological needs: - it's about basic survival needs for example water, food, education, medicine sleep and domain. As long as this set of needs isn't being provided by the management, no motivation theory can be effective.
Security or Safety needs: -this motivation theory is about assurance of physical safety and protection from emotional harms. It also refers to life without fear of losing job, house, food and private property of an individual
Social needs: - according to this theory organizations and leaders attempts to satisfy the workers social needs such as Love, care and friendship
Esteem needs: people like to have respect and esteem by themselves and by people they are working with or living with. It boosts their self-confidence, self-respect and it also impresses their efficiency to work.
Need for self-actualization: - according to this principle a person get chance to become what he desire to be. A person can grow and achieve according to his potential and approach.
Performance rewards: - rewards and appreciation awards always encourage the employees and motivate to put more in given tasks. It also satisfy the employee internally.
Relationship ship between motivation theory and management: -
To achieve the goals and objectives of the organization is the prime concern of the management and managers. The leader or manager's duty is to organize, motivate and control the people working within the organization. But it can't be possible without satisfying employee's needs and expectations. For the best result and to get the best from the employee leader should identify their needs and meet them. Here motivational theories contribute as a major aspect in order to establish a successful business. This theory helps managers to identify and consider basic needs of the employees. If in an organization these needs mentioned above, aren't met the business can never successful as employees would not put their best in the work as they wont be motivated or feel secure. (Needs to be continued)
Carrying out the organizations goals and maintaining stability is the major role and responsibility of Management. Â A manager should be able to plan, organize, lead and control and the leader must be able to influence employees through motivation, communication, group dynamics and discipline. The function of a manager is to direct the behavior of all employees
Task_4. Demonstrate an understanding of working with others, teamwork, groups and group dynamics.
Nature of the Group (Due)
Behaviour of groups: - The decisions are usually taken by the people working as a part of the group on the behalf of the group.
<http://www.buzzle.com/articles/effective-teamwork.html (no> reference)
Factors lead to effective teamwork: -
Good Leadership: - This is the most important factor with teamwork. To conduct and manage a team successfully, the manager of the team should have abilities to produce positive working conditions for the team-workers. A successful leader or manager of the team doesn't only guide the team or focus himself on goals or objectives but ensures the rest of the team also focus on those objectives. He has to put a great example in front of the team so that they get motivated and inspired from him toward their work. Communication: - Communication refers to interpersonal interaction. The environment should be created to open communication where every person in the team has right to speak out his feelings, contribute in plan and right to share the plans and ideas of the rest of the team and managers.
Defining purposes and Roles: To establish an effective team it's essential to define clearly the purpose of the team and which member has which duty, what they should focus on and what they shouldn't and recognize the options they have to use in order to meet their targets.
Setting a Good Example: The impression of leader also matters a lot to encourage the employees and co-workers within the team. The leader must have commitment; positiveness and dedication toward his/her work so he/she can stand as inspiration for the rest of the team and make sure everyone follows it. He should provide the team support, guidance and advice when required
Problems with teamwork: -
a slow start with poor planning usually team has problems initially while trying to form and develop a team since members don't know each other and their natures.
lack of control of the process : - sometimes team doesn't really recognise their goal or teams are facing lack of focus it cause their efforts to slow down and the entire process
not enough information or ideas are discussed :- if the team doesn't have sufficient knowledge about the process or given tasks, it also makes team struggle.
Tasks not being completed on time: - one of the problem is tasks are not completed on given time. It also causes the morale to sleep down.
lack of participation by all members ('passenger' syndrome) another problem is when all the member don't contribute same efforts that also cause other member to stop making best efforts as well.
Sometimes when there disagreement between team members occure that also leads to member's frustration as their ideas or opinion are declined or being ignored.
Monopoly of one or two members on all the team is also a problem to develop an effective team
Waste talk and just gossips can also be a problem to establish an effective team
Communication between members of the team or between leader and the team is not good quality which cause problems in a team