The dependancy factors for business success

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The success of organizations depends on its workers. It is very important to have qualified employees with excellent skills. So, the organization is responsible to provide good working environment for employees to be more productive. Therefore, business managers should understand and determine the factors that motivates there staff. Motivations have a great impact on the outcomes of the organization and encourage employees to work hard. If there is a lack on the way to motivate employees then there will be disastrous consequences for the organization. There are different reasons that lead the staff to be demotivated.

There are a lot of theories for motivation. Each theory was developed by different authors and It discuses motivation in different ways. Each theory is considered as progress of the previous theories. There are Frederick Winslow Taylor theory which emphasis that workers are motivated only by money. Another one is for Elton Mayo who believed that workers are motivated by meeting there social needs. Theory of Abraham Maslow discuses that the organization should fulfilled five levels of human needs to keep them motivated. Frederick Herzberg who have discuses the theory of motivation close to that which discuss by Maslow. He believed that there are two factors of motivation theory. He analyzing that there were factors that motivate employees and keep them work hard (motivator) and there is factors that lead them to be de-motivated (Hygiene factors). Also, there is expectancy theory which illustrates the relation between value and outcomes. (Greenberg and Baron, 1999)

This report analysis the factors lead staff to be de-motivated in the workplace in account department. The report structure is as follow:

Part 1 describe briefly the motivation theory which is Herzberg and Expectancy theory.

Part 2 provide a profile of account department in MOE.

Part 3 review the literature on employee absenteeism which affect the performance and productivity.

Part 4 summarize the findings.

Part 5 End the report with conclusion followed by recommendations.

Motivation Theory:

There are different theories of motivation and each theory was develops by different authors. Most of the theories identify that employees are motivated by different factors. The aim of motivation theories is to keep workers motivated for long time and to enhance the performance of business environments.

Herzberg Theory:

Frederick Herzberg developed a motivation theory by assuming that there are two factors that effect people's attitude and behavior at work." The things that make people satisfied and motivated on the job are different in kind from the things that make them dissatisfied." (Herzberg, 2003)

Hygiene factors: If these factors met, then it wills avoid job dissatisfaction.

Working Condition: It is very interesting to have an office which is well prepared with important facilities such as computer and printer. A good working environment creates will performance.

The kind of Supervision: An effective leader is self-motivator. Supervision or a leader can share with employees the vision of organization and treat them fairly to increase performance.

Pay: Any incentives pay such as salary, bonus, health insurance creates great impacts on employees to perform well and to reduce dissatisfactions.

Work policies: To achieve success and increase performance, the organization should have a good policies and rules. The employees should be aware of all these duties.

Interpersonal Relations: There should be a good relationship between employees and management. This relation will encourage creating team works. Also, it will increase the performance.

Motivators Factors: " aspects of work which lead to high levels of satisfactions, motivation and performance, including achievement ,recognition, responsibilities, advancements, growth and the work itself" (David A. Buchanan and Andrzej A.Huczynski, 2007)

These factors lead to job satisfactions as describing below:

Achievement: Employees should be a ware of the functions of their jobs which is discussed by their director. They need to develop and improve their organization to accomplish its objectives and goals.

Recognition: To enhance self esteem, employees need to recognize when they have done something worthwhile. There are different kind of recognition such as salary, promotion and Acknowledgement of achievement by manger.

Advancement: Providing promotion and increase salary will give employees great chance to advance and improving their skills to fulfill organization goals.

Responsibility: When employees have an opportunity to make decisions, these will encourage them to enhance the goals and improve decisions making in organizations.

Work Itself: It's very important for employees to believed that their job are secured. They are supposed to be an ambitious that the job they are doing is good and important.

According to the theory, the absence of hygiene factors can create job dissatisfaction, but their presence does not motivate or create satisfaction. The hygiene factors as Herzberg mention that it's important to avoid dissatisfactions but at the same time not providing satisfactions and motivate employees.

Expectancy Theory:

This theory was developed be a psychologist Edward C. Tolman. He argued that "behavior is directed by the expectations that we have about our behavior leading to the achievement of desired outcomes." (David A. Buchanan and Andrzej A.Huczynski, 2007)

This theory illustrated that people are motivated only if they have expectations. It expects that people are going to work very hard to accomplish the value to get rewarded. The behavior of people is resulted from the expectations of different alternatives. Expectancy Theory, which states that "… behavior results from conscious choices among alternatives whose purpose it is to maximize pleasure and minimize pain." (Haberman, 2009)

Based on that people have different goals and different behavior and this theory outlined that there is a relationship between the attitudes of people and the rewards they hope to gain.

Expectancy theory indicates that to motivate people they supposed to recognize some believes as illustrated below:

There is a positive correlation between efforts and performance,

Favourable performance will result in a desirable reward,

The reward will satisfy an important need,

The desire to satisfy the need is strong enough to make the effort worthwhile.

Similarly, vector Vroom (1964) developed this theory by introducing three concepts of motivation:

Valence: Any organization supposes to understand the emotional orientation of employees to attain the rewards. There needs arranged from extrinsic such as bonus and promotion or intrinsic that is satisfactions.

Expectancy: People have different skills, qualifications and capability of doing tasks. The organization is required to discover these abilities by providing training and related courses.

Instrumentality: The originations should fulfill their promises, to seek employee's expectations. In brief, these concepts are a good way to influence employee's behavior to perform well and maximize performance. These theory leads to a motivation force:

Motivation force= Valence* Expectancy*Instrumentality

Account Department in MOE Profile:

The Directorate General of financial Affairs has three departments and each one is followed by the other. It has Account department, Budget department and Purchase department The Account department has three sections and each one has different work from other. It has Recurrent Expenditure sections, Salary sections and Development Expenditure sections. But these departments have one criterion which is similar to each other. All of the departments make and adjust vouchers for different transactions in different ways. According to an interview has done with an accountant in account section by the Researcher, it shows that there are a lot of differences between past and present situation. An interview has done with Ms/ Aisha Ismail Al Bulishi who employed in 16/7/1979 in Account section. She worked first at Recurrent Expenditure department then she moves in 1986 in Salary section and she still working on it. She said "Everything change and become easier". She finished her secondary school from Bahrain Kingdom and then she works as accountant in MOE in Oman without complete her high degree. She explain that, there were only a little people who finished their secondary school and most workers finished there primary school only. Most of the staff was expatriate. There were 11 Omani female accountants and 5 Omani male. There are around 6 Female Expatriate and 10 male Expatriate. Most of there work was only manual and they didn't use computer program until 1987. She said, " using computerizing system is very useful and in short term you can finish a lot". Today, all the accounts departments have Omani staff and only one is expatiate.

Motivation Problem in Accounts department:

Absenteeism

Absenteeism "is the practise or habit of being an absent and an absentee is one who habitually stays away from work" (Sinba, 2008)

Absenteeism is the most common problem in account department. It occurs when employees doesn't come work on time because of sick leave or any other reasons. On the other hand, employees come work on time but they disappear for a couple of hours during working hours. Sometimes, employees decided that they will not attend the office and they don't inform their management or supervision.

The civil Services Act which is implemented to all ministries demonstrates that there are authorized leaves for all workers. Absenteeism is divided in to short period for emergency leave (10 days during the year), and long period (annual leave depend on employee's level) so it can be permanent, temporary and extended. Also, there is another kinds of leave which is authorized Patient Escorting Leave, Annual leave, Compassionate leave, Leave without pay and Pilgrimage leave.

Absenteeism is classified in two types:

Innocent Absenteeism: This kind of absent are out of employees control and it is authorized such as sick leaves, Maternity leave and emergency leave and assessment person leave. This kind of absent cant is treated by disciplinary measures.

Culpable Absenteeism: This absent is unauthorized and it's under employees control. As An illustration, the staff who isn't sick and he is in sick leave. Although management can prove this and using its disciplinary measures and he isn't certified by medical officer.

Accounting department has around 41 staff who is working in different sections. During one week, there are absent of around 10 employees and just one or two staff informed management in advance. So that affects work performance and effect colleagues who are required to take up things which isn't finished. Also, these lead to influence staff morale because who are not attended still have same benefits with others.

Most employees are not satisfied in the Ministry and that cause absenteeism. They just ignore work and late other partner to complete it. They need to be motivated to perform and work effectively.

There are a lot of reasons that leads workers to be demotivated and these factors keep them to ignore work and be absent most of the time.

Finding and analysis:

MOE and Herzberg theory:

As the above theory discussed the way to motivate employees, a questioner sample has been taken upon 30 employees out of 40 employees working in account department. Therefore, each factor of the theory has been analyzed separately to judge the outcomes of the study.

The working conditions:

According to the first question if the working condition is suitable and safe, the chart below shows the answer. The data shows that 50% of the employees are not comfortable with their working environment. That comes because of different reasons and that is related to the second question. As the second figure shows around 33% of the employees are not having a well prepared office. Ministry of education has very old building. It was very difficult for the new staff to find an office with all needed stationery and computers. Some staff set without an office for around a year until the ministry decided to make portions.

On the other hand, 33% of the employees that there job description is not fit with their qualification and experience. Most of the staff has different qualification some on accounting, information systems, marketing and educational degree (teachers). Others are having only high secondary school certification. The third figure shows that.

All in all, Ministry supposed to finish its new building to provide its employees with comfortable working environment. Also, employees who don't have a previous knowledge about accounting, the management should provide them some accounting courses to increase performance.

Kind of supervision:

It could be claimed that, around 50% of employees are not satisfied with their organization management. They claimed that, they have management override. The management have the control of everything. They got the courses, bonus and rewards and the decisions under their control.

At the same time, 50% of employees claimed that their superior dose not treat them fairly. Most of the time, the manager is biased towards certain staff in the department. Also, he give that staff more responsibilities and opportunities so that keep others feel disappointed.

Moreover, 33% of staff are not agree about getting both positive and negative feedback. Getting negative feedback doesn't motivate employees but it leads them to be de-motived. When the hard working staff are absent or late from work time for any reasons, they get punishment and negative feedback only.

Payment:

It could be said that, 60% are not agree about the value of money they got. Most staff are not satisfied with payment according their needs. And 50% of employees showed that there salary is less competitive to other friends in other organizations as shown in chart 3.1 below. Based on the research, 67% doesn't get any rewards regarding there hardworking as shown in Chart 3.2 below. They don't get any kind of incentives and that lead them to be demotivated and low performance. This problem needs to solve or employee's turnover will increase.

Work Policies:

According to the question that the organization have clear policies and rules, 33% are strongly disagree and 20% are neither agree nor disagree as shown in chart 4.1 below.

Also, 40% of employees are strongly disagreeing that they are not satisfied with organization policies as chart 4.2 illustrated that.

The rules and policies in MOE are applied from Ministry Of Civil Services. Based on that, the rules changed between times without informing employees. The rules which have sufficient impact on employee's success change according to the desire of organization.

Interpersonal relations:

The relations between employees are very important for organization performance and productivity. The researcher found around 40% has a good relationship with colleagues and 27% are neither agree nor disagree. In brief, it's easy to build a teamwork process and achieve motivation in account department. The staff whose don't have a good relations may come from feeling jealous from others for any reasons. (Chart 5.1)

Similarly, 47% are neither agree nor disagree regarding their communication with the superior and 20% are not agreed. That could be happened because the manager doesn't trust the work that workers do. (Chart 5.2)

Furthermore, 33% of employees are agreed that the superior treat those as a person comparing with 30% who are not agree. That is a good way to encourage staff to maximize their performance and reduce bad effects about manager. (Chart 5.3)

Achievement:

This issue analysis shows in (chart 6.1) whether the organization encourage achievement by reducing failure, 33% of employees are not agree comparing with 30% who are agree.

On the other hand, 50% of employee's doesn't get opportunities to draw up there organization goals as shown in (chart 6.2).

It is very important to give employees a chance to achieve their goals and outcomes. Each staff is responsible for his own work and supposes to find solutions for any problems. Even if the staffs are asked to plan some goals, they just ignore it.

Recognition:

Regarding the question if the staff got both negative and positive feedback, this analysis shows that 33% are not agree that there organization recognize them as a good staff. It seems not clear for staff even a hard workers if they are good or not. By doing a small mistakes or once failure, they just get punishment and negative feedback. This analysis shows in (chart 7.1).

There are around 43% who are not agree that they don't get any appreciated certificate regarding any good work done. This is something unusual to get certificate. (Chart 7.2). Also, employees doesn't get any kind of bonus without agree from the Minister. So, all kind of employees whether god or bad got bonus equally. This mean, the bonus is not regarding their performance.

Advancement:

To motivate employees to be more productive, they need to get more professional training and related courses. Approximately 40% of employees are strongly disagree that the ministry doesn't provide them with courses. From the researcher point of views, the staffs in MOE gets around one or two courses during the lifetime of employees work and these courses are not professional. (Chart 8 illustrated staff opinion)

Responsibilities:

According to the questions that the employees get delegated by manger, the analysis shows in (Chart 9.1) that around 53% are strongly disagree. Most of work decisions are done by manager's decisions and no one is delegated. The other 30% who are agree that they are delegated because they are biased by the manger for different reasons.

In the same way, are 60% are strongly disagreeing that there manager support their ideas and views as (chart 9.2) indicate. The plans as mentioned before only written on paper but not supported.

Work itself:

It is smoothing great for employees to feel that the job they do is important and secure. From the research analysis there are 47% of employees who are ambitions and see their job as secure. Working in MOE is interesting and keep employees in touch with educational improvement in the country. So, this is a good way to improve motivation between employees. This is shown in chart 10 below:

To conclude, the staffs in MOE are working for their social needs only. The researcher found from the analysis of questioner and Herzberg theory that employees are motivated only by hygiene factors. If these factors are met then other motivators factor can be satisfied. From the problems discussed, employees are absent because ministry don't concentrate to provide hygiene factors to motivate them. Also, management have the controls of everything and managers are biased toward specific staff. Motivation is not provide employees to stay in the ministry.

MOE and Expectancy theory:

As described before, there is a relationship between people behaviour and outcomes. Workers wish to accomplish what they expect so that will affect their value towards performance.

According to the questioner, 50% of employees are not agreeing that they have a long term future in the organization. They think that the ministry is required to accomplish different changes to be success. From the researcher knowledge, most staff expects to leave their work if they have a chance. (Chart 11.1)

Equally important, 20% of employees still think they have the abilities and skills to improve the Ministry comparing with 23% who are not having the abilities. They think that they lose their abilities because they are ignoring. (Chart 11.2)

Also, the staffs whose have different qualification rather that accountant still have the abilities to produce more.

33% of employees understand that they cannot get promotion regarding hard working comparing with 27% who are agree about that. The regulations of Civil Services are to provide promotions for employees every five years even if those employees are hard working or not, they are equal. Some staff believe that if they work hard so the supervisor will give them the chance to be as a head office and that the 27% as shown in the (Chart 11.3)

Additionally, a self confidence has an impact on performance. According to the questioner around 47% of employees believe that they are not the best. Self confidence is out of workers control. The workers are affected by different situations and work loads increase low confidence. If this feeling increase then will lead to de-motivation. Low confidence effect the relation between staff and make a bad impression then lead to be a jealous from competitors. (Chart 11.4)

To summarize, regarding the questioner results above, employees are not expected to have a long future in MOE. Employees are expected to get rewards at the end of each financial year but they are not getting anything. On the other hand, the promotions are demonstrated by other rules so there is no procedure to change that. At the end, employees are working in accordance of success without expected to have something.

Conclusion:

The success of any organization depends on its employees. Any organization is required to provide its employees with all needs to keep them satisfied. Motivation has a very important effect on the output of any organization.

In account department at MOE, the staff are absent because of many reasons. The analysis of employee's behaviour by distributing questionnaire among them leads to different results. According to Herzberg theory and Expectancy theory discussed before the behaviour of absentiseem can be managed by ministry.

According to Herzberg theory, the staffs are not providing a good and clean working environment. The ministry start to build a new building but still some problems to finish that. Some staffs don't have background about accounting and there qualifications are not fit with job description. Also, the supervisions and work policies is poor. Most of the time, the management is over ride and it's biased towards some staff. The management needs to achieve goals by staff. So the leaders are required to support the views and opinions of staff. In addition, the payment system is low and there is no kind of incentives.

On the other hand, there are no professional courses for accountant and no training options. The employees are not get delegated and there goals and opinions are not achieving. Employees are receiving only negative feedback regarding their performance and there is no appreciated certificate.

Additionally, it is important that employees still feeling that there job is secure. And most employees have strong relations with other colleagues. This is a good factor to motivate employees and enhance performance.

According to Expectancy theory, the employees have no expectations that the ministry recognize advancement. They don't expect that they have a long future in ministry. Also, they expect that there abilities and skills start to be less than before because they don't get support. These things keep them to be de motivated and ministry doesn't give employees the chance to grow in their jobs.

Finally, absentiseem is an issue that facing account department because of the reasons illustrated above. According to the analysis of both theory the changes is required. There are many problems stands behind motivating employees in the department. There suppose to be relations between management and staff. The employees needs to treat fairly and motivated more to work hard. The expectations of employees should be recognized to accomplish the objectives.

Recommendations:

Organizations are required to understand the things that keep staff motivated. Employees in account department need to be motivated to increase performance and maximize productivity. The researcher provides some recommendations to keep employees satisfactions and to avoid de motivation.

Issues

Recommendations

Working Conditions

To overcome the problems facing the establishment of the new building of the Ministry to provide a safe work environment.

Choose the new staffs that are their qualifications related to job description.

Work policies and supervisions

Management should give the employees the chance to develop goals and objectives.

The leader required to treat all employees fairly without bias on some staff.

Management required developing procedure to control absentsieem.

Payments

Providing employees with financial and non financial incentives such as, health insurance and rewards regarding good performance.

Advancement, recognition, achievement and work itself

Providing professional training and courses for employees to improve there skills.

The leader required to recognize both negative and positive feedback.

Expectancy theory

Give rewards for staff regarding effort and performance.

References:

1. David A. Buchanan and Andrzej A.Huczynski (2007) Organizational Behaviour, 6th edition, London: Prentice Hall.

2. Haberman, M. (2009) 'Vroom Expectancy Theory: Should I Chuck My Career', 29 June, Available: http://omegahrsolutions.com/2009/06/vroom-expectancy-theory-should-i-chuck-my-career.html ) [5 Mar 2011].

3. Herzberg, F. (2003) 'One More Time: How Do You Motivate Employees?', Harverd business review, January.

4. http://tutor2u.net/business/gcse/people_motivation_theories.htm (2011), [Online], Available: HYPERLINK "http://tutor2u.net/business/gcse/people_motivation_theories.htm" http://tutor2u.net/business/gcse/people_motivation_theories.htm [26 Feb 2011].

5. http://www.benefits.org/interface/cost/absent2.htm, [Online], Available: HYPERLINK " http://www.benefits.org/interface/cost/absent2.htm" http://www.benefits.org/interface/cost/absent2.htm [5 Mar 2011].

6. http://www.ifm.eng.cam.ac.uk/dstools/paradigm/vroom.html, [Online], Available: HYPERLINK "http://www.ifm.eng.cam.ac.uk/dstools/paradigm/vroom.html" http://www.ifm.eng.cam.ac.uk/dstools/paradigm/vroom.html [5 Mar 2011].

7. Jami, J.H.&. (2009) 'Employees Habitual Absence from Work? How do Employers Deal with It ? ', 9 Apr.

8. Sinba, R. (2008) http://www.scribd.com/doc/19638339/Project-Absenteeism-of-Employees, [Online], Available: HYPERLINK "http://www.scribd.com/doc/19638339/Project-Absenteeism-of-Employees" http://www.scribd.com/doc/19638339/Project-Absenteeism-of-Employees [19 Feb 2011].

9. Snyderman, F.H.&.B.M.B.B. (1959) The Motivation to work, New York, Wiley: John wiley and Sons Inc.

10. Vroom, V. (1964) Work and Motivation, New York: McGraw Hill.

Appendix 1:

Interview:-

1: Talk about yourself and about your experience?

My name is Aisha Ismail Al Bulishi. I finished my secondary school from Bahrain Kingdom. I came to Sultanate of Oman in 1977. I worked in Ministry of Education on 16/7/1979 in account section as accountant.

2: How many years you did work in your previous job?

Now, I have experience of around 31 years.

3: What things you gained from your job?

I gained many things. I meet many people and I learned to be self dependent. I understand a lot of things regarding accounting without studying it.

5: What is the different between the past and present in your job?

In the past, staff are recruited without high degree because there are only little people who finished there secondary school. Most staff was expatriate and there were 11 Omani female accountants and 5 Omani male. There are around 6 Female Expatriate and 10 male Expatriate. There was no computer system and everything was manual. Now, using computerizing system is very useful and in short term you can finish a lot.

7: Which one you prefer to do (working individually) or (working as a team)? Why?

I'm working in salary section. The job requirement is to work with team. I like to work with team because we share ideas tighter and learn from each other.

8: What is your opinion about working extra time as work requirement?

My job scheduled is to finish at 2:30 afternoon, but because I have a lot of works to do I worked until 5 clock noon.

9: What do you think about (self evaluation)?

In my section, we always evaluate our self regarding performance. But management don't allow us to make self evaluation most of the time.

Appendix 2:

The aim of this questionnaire is to gather information on the extent of awareness and employee satisfaction in the government sector and the extent of his desire to develop his career.

Kindly mark your answer as agree or disagree by putting (P)in the appropriate box.

Strongly

disagree

Disagree

Neither agree

or disagree

Agree

Strongly

agree

1

The working condition is suitable and safe.

2

My job description fit my experience and qualifications.

3

I have a well prepared office with all needed stationery and computers.

4

My Organization is well managed.

5

My supervision treats all employees fairly.

6

I get positive and negative feedback based on My Performance.

7

My organization provides me a suitable value for money.

8

My salary is competitive with those in other agencies.

9

I get rewards regarding my hardworking.

10

My organization has clear policies and rules.

11

I am satisfied with my organization policy.

12

I have a strong relationship with other colleagues.

13

I communicate effectively with your supervision.

14

My superior seems to treat me as a person.

15

My organization encourage achievement by reducing failure.

16

I get opportunities to draw up my organization goal.

17

My organizations recognize me as a good staff.

18

I get appreciated certificate regarding my achievement.

19

My organization provide me professional development and training courses.

20

Sometimes I get delegated by my manager.

21

My superior supports my ideas and views.

22

I believe that my job is secure.

23

I have a long term future in my organization.

24

I have the skills and abilities to improve my organization.

25

I know if I work hard I will get promotion.

26

I believe that am the best in my organization.

27

I have a clear idea that my future in this organization.

Appendix 3:

The aim of this questionnaire is to gather information on the extent of awareness and employee satisfaction in the government sector and the extent of his desire to develop his career.

Kindly mark your answer as agree or disagree by putting (P)in the appropriate box.

Strongly

disagree

Disagree

Neither agree

or disagree

Agree

Strongly

agree

Working condition:

1

The working condition is suitable and safe.

2

My job description fit my experience and qualifications.

3

I have a well prepared office with all needed stationery and computers.

Kind of supervision :

4

My Organization is well managed.

5

My supervision treats all employees fairly.

6

I get positive and negative feedback based on My Performance.

Pay:

7

My organization provides me a suitable value for money.

8

My salary is competitive with those in other agencies.

9

I get rewards regarding my hardworking.

Work Policies:

10

My organization has clear policies and rules.

11

I am satisfied with my organization policy.

Interpersonal Relations:

12

I have a strong relationship with other colleagues.

13

I communicate effectively with your supervision.

14

My superior seems to treat me as a person.

Achievement:

15

My organization encourage achievement by reducing failure.

16

I get opportunities to draw up my organization goal.

Recognition:

17

My organizations recognize me as a good staff.

18

I get appreciated certificate regarding my achievement.

Advancement:

19

My organization provide me professional development and training courses.

Responsibilities:

20

Sometimes I get delegated by my manager.

21

My superior supports my ideas and views.

Work itself:

22

I believe that my job is secure.

Expectancy theory:

23

I have a long term future in my organization.

24

I have the skills and abilities to improve my organization.

25

I know if I work hard I will get promotion.

26

I believe that am the best in my organization.

27

I have a clear idea that my future in this organization.

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