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Challenge is to reach the goals of excellence, while it requires a top management commitment to accept the change. Moreover, it also needs to devote efforts to developing the skills and capabilities in line with the updated requirements of this era. Total Quality Management approach focuses on the skills and their uses to produce the desired excellence. Furthermore, it also concerned at the human factor and paying special attention for the relative training. The quality assurance as well as excellence in work is not the single idea by itself. On the other words, it is overlapping as a set of ideas that evolve from different sources over many years, where these ideas were emerged at the outset by two Americans scientists. Their names associated with Japanese industrial renaissance that occurred in the aftermath of World War II: Deming and Juran. Gradually, the evolution of their ideology focuses on quality inspection mechanisms. This is including Statistical Process Control to the deep concept, which is based on accepted general principles of the institutional culture idealism. However, it is later known as the principles of Total Quality Management.
As it obvious to say that no alternative to development as it should be based on scientific approaches. Therefore, there is no excuse from occur the best quality. The quality philosophy of KAIZEN means continuous improvement across the two basic functions is: Maintenance and Improvement. However, it is based on the use of tools derived from the scientific experience. This is besides the accumulation of scientific management theories within the framework of intellectual development management. Moreover, it mixes between the ideas and common values such as: foundations of the quality philosophy, strategies, organizational structures as well as effectiveness.
Since the success of such organization is linked to efficiency of its productivity. Therefore, quality management (TQM) was appeared to achieve higher productivity and sustainability of quality assurance. Total Quality Management has become an integrated strategy for the development of productive enterprises as well as service sectors. Moreover, it is an organization which should focus on the management performance that utilizing a proper way for achievement. and in a manner typical and perfect. Moreover, such performance might avoid wasting the resources or even misusing it. Furthermore, it reduces the raising conflicts among employees. This is besides granting satisfaction to the beneficiaries and supports innovation and regeneration.
Edwards Deming (1900 - 1993) is a statistical consultant, lecturer and founder of U.S. Total Quality Management effort. He helped Japan in order to gain its products the best quality in the world. Deming tried to apply his ideas the back in U.S. companies, but they rejected such approaches. He went to Japan after World War II, helped them to promote efficiently their products. As a result, demand decreased for American products and such demand increased for Japanese. After that success, this forcing companies to apply the new concepts of total quality management into its systems. At then, Deming is considered as a national hero in Japan.
Deming model based on the concept of the overall quality is everyone's responsibility. Therefore Deming found that each individual who has somehow a relation with the production process or services should contribute to achieving the desired results, which is customer satisfaction. Deming referred to that quality is relative, not absolute and that it is closely linked to productivity. Deming Philosophy of total quality consist fourteen aspects, seven positive elements, and the other seven are negative elements, this can be summarized as follows:
Find some kind of stability leads to development through research and innovation.
While adopting a good philosophy for development, it requires modernization the management of such organization.
Continuous improvement of production and services through the management Guidance, the formation of task forces, and the continuity of the development process.
Continue the-job training by qualified instructors for self-development of each individual.
Leadership support and spreading modern practices.
belief that the rehabilitation and training is an investment in human beings
The importance of long-term planning for development
Stop relying on inspection to achieve quality.
Elimination of barriers regulatory between departments.
Disposal of slogans, sermons and criticism of staff.
Remove the obstacles that deprive workers brag about their skill.
The expulsion of fear.
Avoid depending on the buying philosophy for low price.
Disposal of relying on the numerical ratios to determine the goals and the workforce.
Juran was an American scientist said in one of his studies that, beginning from 1975 Japan began through the introduction of total quality systems and other management and marketing systems. This was offering Japan the superiority over Western countries in the global competition. Moreover, this led to the expansion in the size of the competitive gap for Japan favor. However, Japanese companies took only short time period for the transfer of total quality system from the stage of idea or concept into a practical adoption. On the other words, Juran defined quality in very briefly as: "Quality is Fitness for useââ‚¬Â.
Juran Model is based on quality means convenience in use. Therefore, Juran reiterated that the primary task of quality is concentrated in the development of a production or service program meet customer needs. This concept is used widely and includes the following outlines:
Find a conviction need for development.
Develop the objectives of development and the necessary decision-regulation to achieve the goals through (consist a Council for Quality - identify problems - the projects selection - select teams ââ‚¬" choose the facilities).
Implementation of projects to solve problems, besides giving estimations, record the progress and communicating results.
Practicing reforms on a regular basis in the traditional systems and processes in the organization.
However, Juran focused on three elements of quality are:
A - Quality Planning:
The focus has to be on identifying the customers and their needs, in addition to improving the quality of the product and taking the necessary decisions to satisfy customer needs and expectations. However, after that, it should count over the material and human resources that might be needed to produce the desired product or service.
B - Quality control:
It focuses on the measurement units along with frequency of monitoring operations. Therefore, necessary corrective actions have to be taken to satisfy the customersââ‚¬â„¢ requirements. Furthermore, an effective evaluation has to be performed for the production and compare them with standard specifications which the customer might like. However, solving such problem will be the output of the evaluation process.
C - Quality Improvement:
This focuses on putting up the supported mechanisms which is required for the quality continuation through the distribution of resources and to assign individuals to pursue such quality projects. This is besides providing the necessary training to such selective individual who are performing this quality task. Moreover, after all of these procedures, this must be followed by formation of a permanent structure to follow up and sustain the gains which might be achieved out from such quality assignment.
American model of the Baldridge Award for Quality is a contrast to the European model of excellence. American model is very similar with the European model at the common logic, introduction, in addition to the basic elements of the evaluation. American model is widely respected in the United States of America. On the other hand, the president of the United States presents the award annually to the winner organization, after a detailed evaluation process, as per the tough rules which have been stated for gaining the award. The objective of the model is to promote and strengthen the concepts related to the elements and components of performance excellence for the American organizations. This is besides development of such organization competitiveness. Moreover, such practice will certainly help for the transfer of experience and expertise of organizations that succeed in achieving standards of excellence to other organizations seeking to improve performance and access to higher levels in the way of excellence.
On the other hand, the American model is an important tool to benefit organizations in the conduct of Self-assessment based on a set of standards, tools and measurement systems, which consist at the American model itself. Moreover, the same system involves as the assessment of the activity for the said organizations. Furthermore, it is also characterized by three sets of criteria. The first one in the Business environment, however, the second one is addressing the educational organizations. Finally the third one, suit the organizations working in the area of health.
Usually and it is a common sense that Individuals in organizations are working for many reasons which are varied from one to another. These reasons are changed according to the extent, composition and level of competence on short and long term. Awards play a major role to raise the conduct and performance in order to satisfy those needs of these individuals. Thus Awards system is designed to attract human resources quantity and quality that might appropriate for working in such preferable organization. Moreover, such practice should retain qualified workers. On the other hand, such quest is so necessary to make them utilizing their maximum efforts and improve their performance in these suitable jobs and overworked, according to level in excess of the expected level of performance. Furthermore, awards system is working to move the motives suppressed within the personnel activities. However, it seeks to satisfy and to achieve the various desires and needs that affect the performance.
Awards system has great importance in achieving success and survival in the business environment. The following aspects show the importance of the development and adopting an efficient system of Awards:
Awards system achieves the effective in increasing in the revenue accruing to the organization. By raising the productivity of the personnel, the right choice and accurate Awards physical or mental cause may enforce the workers to increase production and improve quality.
Awards systems contribute to increase the capacity of workers and use of their energies to best utilization. This leads to the distribution of the size of the labor force required by the organization among different divisions. Thus, this will guide to reduce the costs borne by the organization. And also go ahead to the possibility of a surplus manpower to other organizations, which may suffer from a lack of workforce.
Improve the physical, social and psychological for individual. Moreover, and the achievement of the linking process for self-interest of the individual with the interests of his own organization.
Reduce the cost of production as a result of adopting the successful awarding systems which enforce individuals to working towards innovation, the development and adoption of modern working methods. Therefore, this would reduce the time and raw materials incurred in production.
Achieve a state of satisfaction with the personnel while obtaining the Awards. This in turn helps to solve many problems faced by the organizations. Such as low production capacity, high costs and high rates of turnover along with labor unions and other tendencies.
There are many circulation and known commonalities in the field of Total Quality Management. Organizations can now develop their own models in the field of adopting the concepts of Total Quality Management. Its content was definitely different from organization to another organization according to its nature as well as its activities. Also, this is according to the environmental variables surrounding the desired organization. That might be applicable whether any organization seeking to continual improvement. It might employ quality assurance approaches as a way to solve all the problems of optimum application. There is a broad prospect seemingly endless as areas of quality assurance.
However, we can conclude whatever came out through this study can determine the features of reality as follows:
To reach the goals of excellence need to be a fundamental commitment of top management of the said organization who has to accept the change and to devote efforts in order to develop the skills and capabilities in line with the requirements of this era.
No longer an option TQM administratively sophisticated it has become a way of life of the institutions and organizations at the moment.
It is clear from the practical reality that organizations can develop their own models in the field of application of Total Quality Management.
Entries focused on the application of total quality management to provide the standard components, whereas organizations can measure the level of performance.
Achieved the goal of improving the quality of performance and thus achieve public satisfaction and the Foundation for its performance, whenever the purpose of quality assurance clear and the fields are clear too.