The decision making processes within a business

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In this assessment we are going to see about decision making process, personal strengths and weakness, how the conflicts can occur on the work place and how we can understand to take action against that. Decision making is the process of determining and selecting the alternatives based on preferences of the decision maker. Decision making process implies that select best alternative choice, and just identifying the alternative choice is not enough but also to choose the best one from that alternative choices. In decision making process this definition will stress the information gathering. The uncertainty should be reduce rather than eliminated.

Kinds of Decisions:

There are three basic kinds of decisions.

Decisions whether

Decisions which

Contingent decision

Decisions whether:

This is the yes or no decision. Before proceed with the selection it must be made for an alternative.

Decisions which:

It is used to select the best alternative from the two or more set of possibilities.

Contingent decisions:

These decisions have been made early but it is maintain hold until some condition is met.

1. The Components of Decision Making:

a) The Decision Environment

Decision is made within a decision environment, which is defined as the collection of information and alternatives available at the time of the decision. In certain time the decision must be made, simply known as time constraint. It reflects the limits of money and manpower. The decision is must be made within constrained environment. The uncertainty is a major challenge of decision making.

b) Risks involved in Delaying a decision:

1. Continues grow of the decision environment is achieved by getting too much information and ideas from the different environment.

2. During the delay some alternatives may become unavailable.

3. A faster rival may make the decision in a competitive environment.

Decisions have the following consequences.

c) Important Concept and Definition:

1. Information

2. Alternatives

3. Criteria

4. Goals

5. Value

6. Decision Quality

7. Acceptance

2. A difficult decision typically involves the following issues:

Interpersonal issues

Uncertainty

High-risk consequences

Complexity

Alternatives

A) Systematic Approach to Decision Making:

To address the critical elements of good decision a logical decision making process is used.

To make an effective decision making the following steps are used.

Create a constructive environment to an organization.

Create good alternatives.

Then explore these alternatives.

Choose the best alternative from the set of alternatives.

Check the decision.

Communicate decision taken with others, and take action.

Above stated steps are detailed below.

1. Create a constructive environment:

To create a constructive environment the following things should make sure in decision making process.

Establish the objective: It defines what have to achieve.

Agree on the process: It helps to know how the decision has made during the decision making process and know whether the decisions are made by the team or individual.

Use creativity tools from the start: Thinking of different perspective is the basic creativity.

2. Generate good alternatives:

Generating good alternative is very difficult to make an effective decision. When generate good alternatives look at the problem from different angles.

The followings are the some key tools to develop good alternatives.

a) Generating ideas:

The most popular method of generating idea is brainstorming.

For gathering and developing the ideas from many stakeholders, the charette procedure is used.

To generate the ideas from large no. of people, the Crawford Slip Writing Technique

is used.

b) Considering different perspectives:

For gathering different perspectives the Reframing Matrix uses the 4Ps. The 4Ps are Planning, Product, People and Potential. Concept fan is used to take the steps back from the problem, if an unsatisfactory alternative, and approach it from a wider perspective.

To find the right and wrong thing which is going based on problem, the Appreciative Inquiry method is used.

c) Organizing ideas:

To combine the number of ideas into a comprehensive alternative, the organizing ideas have been used. The Affinity Diagrams are used to organize the whole ideas into a common group.

3. Explore the Alternatives:

After the selection of realistic alternatives, then evaluate the risk and implication of each choice into the correct action. The followings are the most popular tools.

Risk:

Usually there is some degree of uncertainty in decision making, which inevitably leads to risk. By using the Risk Analysis we can evaluate the risk involved with various options, and can determine whether the risk is manageable or not.

Validation:

To determine the solution matches to our objectives, if the resources are adequate and if the decision will likely to work in the long term.

4. Choose the best alternative:

After evaluated the alternatives, choose the best alternative between them. The choice will may be obvious. If isn't like that, these tools will help: Grid Analysis, Paired Comparison analysis and Decision trees are used to bring the project to success.

Check the decision:

To evaluate the alternatives and deciding the best ways to forward the all the hard works takes place. It is easy to 'sense check' the decisions taken. To make sure that the common errors and that the process are haven't crept into the decision making process. This will enable the decision which is taken is best.

The first part of this check decision is an intuitive step, which is methodically testing the decisions we have made against our own previous experience.

A second part of this check decision involves using a technique like Blindspot analysis to know the common decision making problem.

The last part of this check decision includes using some important techniques namely like the Ladder of inference to invest the decision's logical structure which is the final decision in the decision making process.

The given figure shows that the process of decision making;

The followings are the main decision making process.

Identifying the problem

Identifying alternatives

Evaluating alternatives

Making decision

Implement the decision

In every organization often the conflict situation may occur. During resolving the conflicts from the organization the decision making process will be very useful in order of identifying, selecting best alternative solutions, making decision against the conflict and resolving.

Factors affecting the decision making:

During the decision making process there are many factors such as time pressure, external context, expertise and age.

Time pressure:

There are many changes will occur when time pressure is increase. Such challenges are comparison of selecting alternatives, efficient information making and response for threshold.

Top down and external context:

The interaction with other people will make the top down problem. It is plays a major role in perceiving the information and process the information in the decision making process.

Expertise:

The expectation of decision making process is maintain the overall performance of organization as well. The decision makers should very expert on taking decision against the problems.

Age:

The term age refers the time taken to complete the task. Generally it is related to the time pressure. The cognitive resources will deceases with the aging factor. The wisdom and experience will increase even though the cognitive resources decrease.

3. Personal strengths and weakness:

By using SWOT analysis we can examine our current situation like, our strengths and weaknesses for our career planning. And it helps to capitalize on our strengths and overcome our weaknesses. And also by using this analysis technique we can identify the opportunities and the threats in our chosen career field.  

Recognise strengths:

The following internal positive aspects are used to recognise our strengths and capitalize in planning

1. Our work experience related to the field

2. Our education history, including some value-added features

3. Technical skills within our field like hardware and software.

4. Skills on communication, teamwork, leadership

5. Our own characteristics like self discipline and creativity.

6. Our good contacts with successful networking

Recognise weakness:

The followings are the internal negative aspects that are under our control. And these are all should improve.

1. Lack of work experience on related field.

2. Lack of self-knowledge, lack of goals and lack of specific job knowledge

3. Lack of technical skills or knowledge

4. Lack of interpersonal skills like communication, leadership, teamwork.

5. Negative personal characteristics like lack of discipline and too emotional.

After explored our own self-perception of our strengths, put ourselves inside a prospective employer's head as we consider our strong points. One of our greatest strengths can love the work we do. Learning to "follow our bliss" should be a critical component. In assessing our weakness, the employers prospective could be considering at the areas where the improvement is needed. The weakness is the area of development required. Facing our frailties now can give us a big beginning of career planning.

Generally the identifying the areas which are weak is being difficult. This assessment is helps to identify the areas where we weak and where we may need to improve. If we identify a skill that we know is in our chosen field, but we are weak in that skill area, we should improve the skill which are weak. Past performance appraisal can give the positive negative ideas and comments from others provide valuable feedback to us.

After we have analyzed our strengths and weaknesses we can use that information to make a market by ourselves and use that to a planning process of marketing in an organization. 

There are three steps entails in the marketing planning process:

1. Determine objectives of an organization.

2. Develop the marketing strategies and

3. Strategize an action program of an organization. 

Let's we take the IT (Information Technology) department as example for this case. In IT field creating new ideas and implementation is the main process. During the planning we should consider the past performance of our company to that particular product and technologies used.

My strengths in IT field:

I have much enough experience in this field.

I have good communication skill for market the product

I have good technical skill on this field.

My weakness in IT field:

I often get emotion

Lack of team leaders to the project

Lack of new technologies in hand

Lack of knowledge to handle the new technologies

Now i have know my all weakness on this field so i must move these weakness in a positive direction, then only i can achieve the goal which already set. Now day's the IT field is topmost economical development of every ones. We should develop this in a appropriate manner.

Value of perception in decision making:

Value management is the process of motivating the staffs, developing the skills related to the field and promoting synergies in order to improve the organization.

1. Competitive Environment:

The organization value is fully depends on the sales and profit. The perception is a physiological word to describe the human behaviour on marketing field. Now day's every company has competition against their product and development. So the organization should plan the development ideas in order to get success.

2. Value Perception:

The perception is the effect of perceiving the product. It is used to determine the base prices of the product. The value perception often called as brand in some categories. The brand is the image of organization's product. It is a physiological aspect of expectation.

3. Transaction:

The transaction involves the pricing issues on the product. The pricing issues are discount, rebates and allowances of the product.

4. Organization:

The organization's profit is depends on the sales of the product. To get maximum profit introduce many offers to buy the product. Managing prices is the main part of the organization's sales department.

4. Human behaviour in conflict or negotiation situation:

The term conflict refers to friction or opposition resulting from perceived differences or incompatibilities. Conflict may have positive as well as negative positive characteristics. The conflict management is the strategies to correct these perceived differences or incompatibilities in a positive manner. Sources of conflict:

The followings are the some of organizational conflict, according to both Daft and Terry.

1. Scarcity of Resources: Supplies, money , information and people are considered to be resources.

2. Jurisdictional Ambiguities: Unclear task responsibilities and job boundaries can surface to conflict. There may be disagreement from individual side that who has responsibility for resources and task.

3. Personality Clashes: This conflict occur when two or more people simply do not view things similarly.

4. Status and Power differences: when one individual has questionable influence over another person this conflict occurs.

5. Goal differences: Because the people are pursuing different goals the conflict may occur.

6. Communication breakdown: Differences in speaking styles and writing styles may derive communication based barriers.

5. Methods:

For organizational conflict handling the management theorists have suggests some theories. Thomas Kilmann conflict mode theory is one of the methods of organizational conflict management.

A) Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode theory:

Based on two dimensions he developed five conflict management styles conflict management styles. The two dimensions are assertiveness and cooperativeness.

1. Avoiding:

This style is used in both assertiveness and cooperativeness dimensions as low power avoidance. The original conflict or situation is never directly resolved. It is a non confrontational approach to conflicts or the problems already occurred. This could be involved the process of withdrawing of contention to avoid the conflicts.

2. Competing conflict resolution style:

It is also called as win lose approach to the conflict. It is used in both dimensions. But characterized low in cooperativeness and high in assertiveness. The competitive conflict style is an authoritarian approach to the conflict situation. And also it is a goal oriented technique. At the expense of other individual its seeks to reach its own preferred outcomes.

The competitive leaders are implemented this style and they can provide clear expectations by using this technique. It is an effective style in conflict situation.

3. Accommodating Conflict Resolution:

It reflects high degree of cooperativeness compare with another type of dimension. It is normally used by the managers and allows other individual to achieve their desired goals.

4. Compromising:

The compromising style is used by both the level of dimensions as moderate level. In other words it is also known as middle ground approach to the conflict. It is used to compromise the two parties equally.

5. Collaborating conflict resolution style:

Creatively work towards achieving the desired goals of all parties involved. In complex situation and when creative ideas are required the collaboration style is used.

B) The Five A's Technique:

Borisoff and Victor, introduced five steps in the conflict management process, so that the five steps are called as "five A's" of conflict management. The five A's are

1. Assessment.

2. Acknowledgement

3. Attitude

4. Action and

5. Analysis.

a) Assessment technique:

The collection of appropriate information regards the problem to the parties are involved in assessment technique. And also it involves that select the best one of the conflict-handling modes is best for the conflict situation.

b) Acknowledgement:

Both parties can build the empathy to the motivation of a synergistic solution by using the exact acknowledgement received from the right people related to the organization. It demonstrates the one party's position to the others, by giving the feedback to that party. Acknowledgement also involves actively encouraging the other party to communicate its concerns.

c) Attitude:

To remove the foundation for pseudo-conflict, the attitude step is used.

d) Action:

To implement the chosen conflict-handling mode the action step is used.

e) Analysis:

The participants decide on what they do, and then summarize what they have agreed upon. It is to ascertain whether every participant's requirements have been addressed or not.

Real case example of conflict situation and actions against that situation:

Introduction:

Imagine this: it appears have an easy day ahead of our workplace. Our schedule is not overbooked and the thing seems to be running as planned. When arrival at work place, however, we discover that the department's budget has reduced. And new objectives which we find questionable have been identified. To make the matter worse, within the three hours that is need but it doesn't available until the last minute. Let see how we should handle this situation. Understanding the conflict is important for effective communication at the workplace. And how the conflict can be used for effective resolution at workplace is important.

Impact of Conflict at workplace:

Webster's Dictionary (1983) defines that opposition of ideas or interests. The following things will be create when conflict occurs in the workplace,

1. Reducing morale

2. Work productivity will low

3. Increasing absenteeism and

4. It will lead to make serious and violent crimes.

Conflict is a challenge facing for all employers. This paper will explore the type of conflict and associates are likely suffered on a day-to-day basis.

Causes of conflict:

Identifying the problems occurred in the management is the first step in resolving conflict and also identify what was made it. Art Bell (2002), he suggests the six reasons for conflict occurrence in the workplace: they are listed below:

1. Conflicting needs

2. Conflicting styles

3. Conflicting perceptions

4. Conflicting goals

5. Conflicting pressures and

6. Conflicting roles.

By analyzing the above reasons of conflicts we can take the actions against it.

Conclusion of case example:

The following questions will give the right solution to the above stated example. And these questions would ask by ourselves.

What may be the cause of conflict occurred?

Is it because by us or not?

Is others style is different from our own?

How do others perceive this situation?

Is the goal in correct or not?

Is there any conflicting pressure?

Is there a clear company policy about this situation?

After cause is established, then choosing the best way from this is ease to resolve the conflict from the strategy.

6. Conclusion:

This assessment shown the knowledge about the decision making and how the conflict is occur on the organization workplace and how it could analyzed. And also this essay gave the details about personal strengths weakness of workers and what are the steps should do, if the conflicts occurred.

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