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Every Organization has a culture. It has its own cultural forms that constitute the expected, supported and accepted way of behaving. These norms are mostly unwritten and tell employees the way things really are. These influence everyone's perception of the business from the chief executive to the lowest rank. Employees from all cadres of any organization contribute to the success or failure of the organization, to the norms by accepting and supporting them. This cultural effectiveness in organizational environment, is not only working for a limited or bound place are bound to be successful for everywhere.
Organizational structure is seen as an important part of the work environment. An agile company aims to manage change and uncertainty through the entrepreneurial approach, combined with a flexible organizational structure and distributed managerial decision-making authority, which allows for rapid reconfiguration of the human and technological resources in a quest for meeting globally changing market requirements an integration of human resources across departments and at different hierarchical levels in developing the strategic vision should be followed by a strategy to realize appropriate changes within a new organizational structure.
The organizational structure of Ortega's is a less formal type of structure wherein there is no structure that divides the organization. The management interacts and commands with the personnel in a direct way. The Ortega's wanted to create divisions and teams for the company but it did not materialize due to the personnel being uncooperative. Organizational culture helps in aligning the values and norms of the employees to the values and norms of the organization. The organizational culture of the personnel differs from the management. The personnel have erratic work habits; they don't want to learn new things and they are not interested with the situation of the company. The personnel don't act professionally instead they engage in childish fights. On the other hand, the management has a very professional culture wherein they try to engage with a good relationship with the personnel. Moreover the management tries to determine means and strategies to keep the company growing and surviving in its field.
Organizational structure addresses the questions of what is the best form of organization and why. Organizational structure and the communication system interact closely with each other to produce employee satisfaction, especially satisfaction with the organization. The four general types of overall organizational structure most commonly found are classical machine bureaucracy, professional bureaucracy, matrix organization, and free-form design. Most large, complex organizations have relatively autonomous units with different structural forms. In general, the larger the organization, the more likely it is to use more than one type of work system structure . The organizational structure and organizational culture works well together.
The Organizational structure also allows the allocation of responsibilities for different functions by individuals in the company, this should organize the company and prevent any clashes between departments over the work at hand but if the culture of the organization is not good the result would be catastrophic. An organization may have organized well the tasks and responsibilities for each personnel but if these personnel have cultures that are hampering the performance of their duties the performance of the company becomes affected as a whole. There should only be one dominant organizational culture for the company, having more than one culture can lead to arguments and fights even if there is already a strong structure. Once the structure and culture of the organization works well together the result would be lesser delays in producing products and a better performance for the firm.
The personnel of this generation are more peculiar on opportunities rather than loyalty. The employees of this generation have undergone significant changes in the way they think. They cannot be taken for granted because they make sure that every aspect of the company works fairly well in their favour. This causes dissension between the company and the employees and it causes the company to deliver products that clients don't want to have. The behaviour of people in the organization they belong to depends on different factors. These factors can be environmental, physical, emotional or psychological. One factor that affects the behaviour of people in the workplace is the environment. When the environment of the personnel is unruly and uncooperative the tendency for employees is to be the same with the environment and this leads to poor performance of the personnel. Another factor that affects the behaviour of personnel is the physical aspect. When people are not fit to do their jobs or they experience some physical pain they tend to focus on the disability rather than doing their job. A factor that affects the behaviour of the personnel is the emotional aspect. When the personnel have emotional issues they tend to work in a less favourable way. Lastly a factor that affects the behaviour of the personnel is the psychological aspect. The combination of emotional and environmental issues leads to psychological issues; this factor is the most dangerous because in this state the employee may do things harmful to the other members of the company. The different factors play a part on improving or worsening people's behaviour but it still depends on the situation a person is in.
Teamwork can be defined as the efficient and effective implementation of the policies and tasks necessary to achieve a specific goal or objective, leading to the satisfaction of the group's members. Teamwork focuses on the careful management of the processes involved in the achievement of the tasks at hand.
For teamwork to happen in a group, each and every member must possess innate characteristics which would contribute towards the achievement of the overall goals. These include:
Mental stability is crucial especially in the pursuit of the correct decision as well as the management and development of the processes accompanying it. It is important for the members of the group to remain updated with the latest developments to be able to stay aware and knowledgeable in all issues
Performance and Credibility:
The production of the best group outputs comes as a result of well-prepared research management and development activities. The strong performance of the group's outputs could also be linked to the effective strategic planning and human resource mobilization within the group. Thus, the group's credibility increases as their performance and teamwork becomes better.
Planning and Strategy Formation Capabilities:
Planning and strategy formation nowadays has created the need for groups to become aggressive especially in the area of exhibiting teamwork. This is because exhibiting teamwork is critical for the success of their plans.
Upon arriving at the correct decision or choice, the group members now gain confidence in their abilities to make critical decisions or choices especially when the integrity of the group is on the line. Thus, the group will now search for even more challenges and opportunities where it could further enhance its decision-making abilities regarding current issues.
When in the active pursuit of knowledge and skills necessary to achieve teamwork, I learned that the interaction between the group members forms an integral part towards its success. Collaborative learning as a method of achieving teamwork is gradually being used by most groups nowadays. Through this approach, the group can learn from other successful organizations through the imitation of their teamwork techniques in the socialization processes. In the process, the group is able to obtain the chance to see its own ideas in a different aspect and therefore be able to take alternatives into consideration. The relative effectiveness of this approach is determined with the capability of the group to continuously challenge their pre-acquired knowledge by trying to adapt to the interpretations of other successful organizations.
Technology and innovation are two vital and salient cycles that every organization must adopt, to achieve business empowerment as well as efficiency and the whole approach is core for balancing the two cycles and have success in terms of production handling and logistics. Thus, innovation and technology cycles are interrelated not because of similar tenets but more on the functional side of the two cycles, involve a matter of effectiveness for organization efficiency and success in terms of production, the two cycles serve as a vital factor that makes production areas an award winning assumption of high quality products and services created and manufactured. Innovation is then a positive outcome of technology advancement and innovative products is not possible without conforming technology based cycles such as through information technology systems and knowledge composition having a twist of modern technological genre.
Technology then works effectively with innovative processes. For example, Dell computers production of their latest laptop models is in complete packaging meaning, the products have a strong base of technology and innovation functions such as, small parts passed control standards upon testing such technology foundation and from there, innovation comes into the picture upon the use of Dell laptop by the end user which can be manifested through OS applications and or wireless internet options and applicability.
Furthermore, the cycles of innovation and technology is key towards success of organizational efficiency in terms of production purposes, gas and oil plants can't produce enough amount of the latter without technology based tools that work well in time, embracing innovative cues directly and spontaneously. There indicates the imperative role of innovative cycles into production areas and the generating of technology bases into subsequent applications of the cycles that goes well with normal product cycles and ideas. Dell takes up innovative technology within PC products as well as services sector, describing innovation process taking place once Dell overall technology is being adopted. The interrelationship of the two cycle ideally begin with product based improvement in order to increase the efficiency of organization services, moving process innovation amiably improve production quality, leading to product innovation through technology success.
In the past several decades, management experts have undergone a revolution in how they define leadership and what their attitudes are toward it. They have gone from a very classical autocratic approach to a very creative, participative approach. Somewhere along the line, it was determined that not everything old was bad and not everything new was good. Rather, different styles were needed for different situations and each leader needed to know when to exhibit a particular approach.
Four of the most basic leadership styles are:
This article will briefly define each style and describe the situations in which each one might be used.
Autocratic Leadership Style:
This is often considered the classical approach. It is one in which the manager retains as much power and decision-making authority as possible. The manager does not consult employees, nor are they allowed to give any input. Employees are expected to obey orders without receiving any explanations. The motivation environment is produced by creating a structured set of rewards and punishments.
This leadershipHYPERLINK "http://www.essortment.com/all/leadershipstyle_rrnq.htm##" HYPERLINK "http://www.essortment.com/all/leadershipstyle_rrnq.htm##"style has been greatly criticized during the past 30 years. Some studies say that organizations with many autocratic leaders have higher turnover and absenteeism than other organizations. Certainly Gen X employees have proven to be highly resistant to this management style. These studies say that autocratic leaders:
- Rely on threats and punishment to influence employees
- Do not trust employees
- Do not allow for employee input
Yet, autocratic leadership is not all bad. Sometimes it is the most effective style to use. These situations can include:
- New, untrained employees who do not know which tasks to perform or which procedures to follow
- Effective supervision can be provided only through detailed orders and instructions
- Employees do not respond to any other leadership style
- There are high-volume production needs on a daily basis
- There is limited time in which to make a decision
- A manager's power is challenged by an employee
- The area was poorly managed
- Work needs to be coordinated with another department or organization
Bureaucratic Leadership Style:
Bureaucratic leadership is where the manager manages "by the book¨ Everything must be done according to procedure or policy. If it isn't covered by the book, the manager refers to the next level above him or her. This manager is really more of a policeHYPERLINK "http://www.essortment.com/all/leadershipstyle_rrnq.htm##" HYPERLINK "http://www.essortment.com/all/leadershipstyle_rrnq.htm##"officer than a leader. He or she enforces the rules.
This style can be effective when:
- Employees are performing routine tasks over and over.
- Employees need to understand certain standards or procedures.
- Employees are working with dangerous or delicate equipment that requires a definite set of procedures to operate.
- Safety or securityHYPERLINK "http://www.essortment.com/all/leadershipstyle_rrnq.htm##" HYPERLINK "http://www.essortment.com/all/leadershipstyle_rrnq.htm##"training is being conducted.
- Employees are performing tasks that require handling cash.
This style is ineffective when:
- Work habits form that are hard to break, especially if they are no longer useful.
- Employees lose their interest in their jobs and in their fellow workers.
- Employees do only what is expected of them and no more.
Democratic Leadership Style:
The democratic leadership style is also called the participative style as it encourages employees to be a part of the decision making. The democratic manager keeps his or her employees informed about everything that affects their work and shares decision making and problem solving responsibilities. This style requires the leader to be a coach who has the final say, but gathers information from staff members before making a decision.
Democratic leadership can produce high quality and high quantity work for long periods of time. Many employees like the trust they receive and respond with cooperation, team spirit, and high morale. Typically the democratic leader:
- Develops plans to help employees evaluate their own performance
- Allows employees to establish goals
- Encourages employees to grow on the job and be promoted
- Recognizes and encourages achievement.
Like the other styles, the democratic style is not always appropriate. It is most successful when used with highly skilled or experienced employees or when implementing operational changes or resolving individual or group problems.
The democratic leadership style is most effective when:
-The leader wants to keep employees informed about matters that affect them.
- The leader wants employees to share in decision-making and problem-solving duties.
- The leader wants to provide opportunities for employees to develop a high sense of personal growth and job satisfaction.
-There is a large or complex problem that requires lots of input to solve.
- Changes must be made or problems solved that affect employees or groups of employees.
- You want to encourage teamHYPERLINK "http://www.essortment.com/all/leadershipstyle_rrnq.htm##" HYPERLINK "http://www.essortment.com/all/leadershipstyle_rrnq.htm##"building and participation.
Laissez-Faire Leadership Style:
The laissez-faire leadership style is also known as the "hands-off¨ style. It is one in which the manager provides little or no direction and gives employees as much freedom as possible. All authority or power is given to the employees and they must determine goals, make decisions, and resolve problems on their own.
This is an effective style to use when:
- Employees are highly skilled, experienced, and educated.
- Employees have pride in their work and the drive to do it successfully on their own.
- Outside experts, such as staff specialists or consultants are being used
- Employees are trustworthy and experienced.
Theories are abstract, intellectual constructs that explain and predict phenomena in the real world. Organizational theory comprises a set of propositions that attempt to explain or predict how groups and individuals behave in different organizational structures and circumstances; it is concerned with the ways in which people form social units to achieve organizational and personal goals. The term organizational theory does not refer to a single theory of organizations. There are myriad theories about organizational phenomena, some of which are related to and build upon one another, while others are radical philosophical departures from previous work.
The earliest treatises on organizational theory emphasize hierarchy and leadership as key elements in the successful accomplishment of those purposes. Several important works from the earliest recorded history state that hierarchical organization, division of labour, and leadership are central principles of organizational theory. Organizational theory strengthens principles of organizing and management. Organizational theory studies an organization from multiple viewpoints, methods, and levels of analysis. The organizational theory makes use of various techniques to fully grasp details about the organization and determine how it is managed and organized in accordance to its goals. Organizational theory uses strategies to know the strategies set by an organization and how these strategies are used to manage and organize the firm. In some instances other fields like culture, networks and business relationships are being studied to fully know the organization.
The classical management approach put more attention to the notion that organizations can live on its own and it will not be affected by the changes in its environment while the human relations approach considered its environment and how different outside factors can create changes in the organizations. The classical management approach did not care about its employees since the belief is that the management is the one that can make the business successful. On the other hand the human relations management approach gave importance to the role and capabilities of the employees on the success of the organization. The classical management approach was a time where management had no choice but to carry out management functions by themselves.
When managers were busy doing various management functions it lead to management decisions to be accomplished in a later time. In the human relations management approach the management learned how to share management functions with the appropriate employees. The sharing of management functions made management have more time to think about the best decision that suits best the company. The classical and human relations management approach have one thing in common, they made use of strategies that are appropriate in ensuring the organization will reach its goals. Classical management approach is used usually by older businesses because it is the one they have been used to. Unless it causes problems, the older management approach is used. The human relations approach is used by upstart businesses because they believe that to perform well the company has to have a good relationship with the personnel.:
Abraham Maslow's "Need Hierarchy Theory" :
One of the most widely mentioned theories of motivation is the hierarchy of needs theory put forth by psychologist Abraham Maslow. Maslow saw human needs in the form of a hierarchy, ascending from the lowest to the highest, and he concluded that when one set of needs is satisfied, this kind of need ceases to be a motivator.
As per his theory this needs are :
(i) Physiological needs:
These are important needs for sustaining the human life. Food, water, warmth, shelter, sleep, medicine and education are the basic physiological needs which fall in the primary list of need satisfaction. Maslow was of an opinion that until these needs were satisfied to a degree to maintain life, no other motivating factors can work.
(ii) Security or Safety needs:
These are the needs to be free of physical danger and of the fear of losing a job, property, food or shelter. It also includes protection against any emotional harm.
(iii) Social needs:
Since people are social beings, they need to belong and be accepted by others. People try to satisfy their need for affection, acceptance and friendship.
(iv) Esteem needs :
According to Maslow, once people begin to satisfy their need to belong, they tend to want to be held in esteem both by themselves and by others. This kind of need produces such satisfaction as power, prestige status and self-confidence. It includes both internal esteem factors like self-respect, autonomy and achievements and external esteem factors such as states, recognition and attention.
(v) Need for self-actualization :
Maslow regards this as the highest need in his hierarchy. It is the drive to become what one is capable of becoming; it includes growth, achieving one's potential and self-fulfilment. It is to maximize one's potential and to accomplish something.
As each of these needs are substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant. From the standpoint of motivation, the theory would say that although no need is ever fully gratified, a substantially satisfied need no longer motivates. So if you want to motivate someone, you need to understand what level of the hierarchy that person is on and focus on satisfying those needs or needs above that level.
Maslow's need theory has received wide recognition, particularly among practicing managers. This can be attributed to the theory's intuitive logic and ease of understanding. However, research does not validate these theory. Maslow provided no empirical evidence and other several studies that sought to validate the theory found no support for it.