The Contributions Of Human Resources Management Business Essay

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Many people start there career in Mobilink Pakistan every year and similarly many end the same. It is because staff turnover and internal growth requiring more human resources to manage the organization.

Keith (1996) recognises recruitment as the process to contact suitable candidates to fill the vacant position held with in the organization. Mobilink Pakistan's selection procedure is quite detailed to make sure that the attributes held by the suitable individual match the same required by the organization. Hence it make sure that right person has been appointed for the right job.

Selection and recruitment involves critically evaluate person's specifications, job analysis and job description. Then job is advertised to attract the most suitable candidates. The candidates are tested against various benchmarking criteria, interviewed and finally the most appropriate person is offered the position.

Mobilink Pakistan uses internal and external both methods for recruitment. Internally recruitment is done by job bidding, promotion and extending the existing employees' contracts.

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To attract the most suitable candidates as discussed above, Mobilink Pakistan adopts a number of following external recruitment procedures;

Job Referrals

Recruitment through agencies

Job seminars at prestigious universities

Overseas recruitment in collaboration with business partners

EMPLOYEE REWARD SYSTEM

Employee reward system has always been a very sensitive issue for the Human resources department of any organization. In Mobilink Pakistan a number of ways are adopted to ascertain the justifiable levels of perquisites and salaries. During the process of job appraisal it is made sure that judgments are unbiased and without discrimination.

Basic type of reward system currently in place at Mobilink Pakistan has either time or output as the variable. There are changes in remuneration over time. Different reward systems are used for different levels of employment. However recently the main consideration has been given to pay for performances.

Dianna (2005) recognises that different rewards system can be used within the same organization that may be due to change in sectors or regions. However recently 'equal pay right' is a major issue in the organizations. Similarly in the future with the growth of global conglomerates, designing equitable reward system for the employees' belongs to different countries will be another major issue. The human resources department of Mobilink Pakistan has been charged with all these responsibilities.

EMPLOYEE RELATIONS;

For the human resources management of the Mobilink, employees relationship have always been of key importance. Historically this element has been as changeable as ever. There is a deep correlation between employees' relations and other enterprise resources.

With in the Mobilink Pakistan employer-employee relationship contributes towards satisfactory productivity and to motivate the workforce. It also avoids the individuals' problems that may effect the smooth operations of the company. Professional training is provided to the departmental heads on how to improve standards of performance and correct employee misconduct. Employees are provides recurring information to elaborate management's goals and expectations. Besides that personal issues are also addressed that may effect employer-employee relationship. Employees are provided whistle blowing protections and their grievances are considered by the appropriate concerns.

P 1.2: Justify how the objectives of these were achieved by effective management of human resource.

The Mobilink Pakistan management realised that effective human resources management has key importance to influence, promote agreed goals and sharing responsibility between employees and the organization. The logic behind is that such type of positive attitude would lead to enhance employees commitment that will ultimately enhance productivity with in the organization.

Following are the key elements of Mobilink's human resources strategy;

Achieving the whole task by team work

Mutually agreeing objectives

Flatten the organizational structure by reducing supervision and trusting those charged with concerned responsibilities.

Rewards to the efficient teams and groups

Up to dated training of the workforce

Effective employee relations through joint problem solving

Ricky (2009) believes that this type of structure can be applied in every type of organizational structure to enhance standards of performance. Standards of performance can be improved in a number of following ways;

To benefit with the skills and knowledge of the employees the recruitment and selection process can be improved.

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Training and development can enhance the quality of the employees' contribution.

An effective reward system is very essential to encourage the employees to be productive. Employees will be motivated once they believe that they will be treated fairly by the management.

The mutually agreed line to action to perform any task has an impact on effectiveness.

P 1.3: Refer to at least two HRM models as Contingency Model, Harvard Model, Ten C Model, seven step model, Business process model etc--.Please choose the model which is suitable to the Organization you have chosen for the purpose.

CONTINGENCY MODEL:

Julie (1994) recognises that contingency model of human resources management describes the correlation between human resources and strategic needs of the business. Contingency approach describes two sorts of relationships that consider different causes that results predictable influence.

Contingency model of human resource model indicates that in order to speed up the implementation of strategic change, there should be coherence across all human resources policies and practices. Thomas (1992) adds that this stands true only for the corporate culture in the United States of America where as British organizations exhibit different behaviour. For the reason this model has been widely criticised.

ARGUMENTS FOR CONTINGENCY MODEL AND MOBILINK;

To match different situations management skills and styles must be selected.

People should change with the change in business needs.

Appropriate pay and appraisal system can challenge behaviours.

In the different parts of the organization contingency model helps to use various approaches for employee relations.

Contingency approach decreases the importance of culture and non economic issues.

ARGUMENTS AGAINST CONTINGENCY MODEL AND MOBILINK;

It promotes the rigidity of stereotype managers.

It expects impractical accuracy in selection systems.

Contingency model impractical requirements for flexibility.

To enhance management behaviours training and rewards can be used.

Corporate differentiation never based on situational contingencies.

HARVARD MODEL OF HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

This model recognises softer issues of strategic management. Yeung (1994) add that Harvard model stresses the 'human' aspect of the human resource management. All managerial decisions that may affect the organization and employees are important before developing human resources strategy. The model address that it is essential that management have a view how they want the employees to contribute for organizational developments to solve the problems associated with personal management. It is the responsibilities of the general management to ensure the meaningful difference between management activities and coordinated activities.

Harvard model recognises that actual role of human resources management can be elaborated by four policy areas. Every area consist a series of important tasks must to be performed by the managers.

The four attributes that the human resources management of Mobilink Pakistan must consider are;

Commitment

Congruence

Competence

Cost effectiveness

Task 2:

Examine HR Planning and developments in the Organization

(Chosen for the purpose of assignment)

P2.1 Select at least three HR planning and developments.

Human resources planning and developments refer towards the phenomenon of improving workforce attitude and behaviours to add vale to their performances. Different training and development strategies have been part and parcel of different organizations. Mobilink Pakistan developed an in-house training and development programmes to enable the workforce to perform their duties more efficiently and productively. For the purpose of this research carried out the researcher will discuss following three training and development strategies;

Sensitivity training

Survey feedback & process consultation

Inter group development

SENSITIVITY TRAINING

The basic purpose of sensitivity training is to show the workforce a reflection of their own behaviours that how it feels to the other people when they interact with them. It provides greater sensitivity to other's behaviours and better group setting. A qualified psychological trainer is the in-charge of the training process but he never adopts a directional stand. The trainer provides the workforce an atmosphere where people could express themselves, their thoughts and feelings comfortably. The outcome of this training has been very successful and the people are better to understand and correct their behaviours. They can easily communicate matters with fellow staff and management. Workforce feels less reserved and their extent of tolerance seems to be increased. The most important impact is that they can show is an ability of self correction of their behaviours. All of these elements are contributing to give rise a more sophisticated corporate culture with in the organization.

SURVEY FEEDBACK;

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Survey feedback is conducted from the number of employees belonging to the different departments of the organization to resolve a number behavioural and the issues employee satisfaction. Before preparing the questionnaire a change agent interviews employees' of the different sections to identify the actual issues of the workforce. A questionnaire is prepared by a team of organizational psychologists. This questionnaire is used to collect information from a sample of employees representing the whole company. After detailed analysis of the data collection the summary is thoroughly considered by the top management. It is further used to help the employees to understand and solve their individual and group problems. Different meeting are arranged with the employees to promote interaction through discussion on the several issues. Concluding the impact, survey feedback brings job satisfaction by better decision making of the leadership and also highlights the issues causing injury to the employee-employer relationship.

INTER GROUP DEVELOPMENT;

The aim of inter group development is that different groups or departments with in the Mobilink Pakistan could better communicate and corporate with each other. It is possible only by changing perceptions of different organizational groups about each other. If they have negative views about each other it means there is poor standard of quality and interaction between them. It adversely affects the initiatives to coordinate activities at the organizational level.

Mark (2005) states that inter group development has four steps. The first step is of 'discovery'. The idea is to investigate into what workforce things the strengths and weakness of the different groups. The second step is 'dreaming'. It is about the how the organization culture should be in the future. Third step is 'designing'. It is about how the inter group development plan should be to develop the desired culture with in the organization. The fourth and the final step try to describe the organization's destiny. In includes actions plans and development and implementation of strategies.

P 2.2: Critically evaluate their effectiveness to meet organizational objectives,

The human resources planning and development needs discussed in P2.1 are to add value to the human resource of the Mobilink Pakistan in terms of rich values and attitudes. It encompasses the range of ideas and actions as they are unbreakable in the commercial setting, and so emphasize many of the explicit issues of managing people. . It provides the social arrangement for the connection between employees and their ability to recognize transform themselves according to change process. It also provides an opportunity of self actualization to the individuals and to exercise power.

These training and developments increase the level of tolerance among the workforce and encourage them to take risk associated with the assigned tasks with brevity and confidence. Hence the people does not become panic from the ambiguous work situations and have courage to accept the challenging tasks. They have tendency to take productive initiatives beyond the rules.

These training and development activities attempts to minimize ethical ambiguity prevailing in the organization. Employees are trained to follow the ethical rules which are really effective for the organization. It provides an opportunity to the workforce to discuss ethical problems and report abusive behaviours to the appointed ethical counsellor without any reservation. Ethical counsellor of the organization can then investigate into the matter to resolve the issue.

Sensitivity training encourages self awareness and self correctness in the organization. Same is the contribution made by the inter group development technique. It emphasizes the inner life of every individual working within the corporate sector and suggests ways to enrich one-self's behaviour and attitude in way that contribute for organizational efficiency. Those who pledge themselves in this logic would like to observe organizational culture is developing and recognising the personality make-up of the people. They are also enthusiastic to seek connotation with others people who are a part of this corporate community.

One of the major benefits of these training and developments in inter-group development is that teams and their leaders jointly attempt to resolve the troubles. This practice was the best to promote better relationships. After initial discussion separately every group come forward with their perceptions about the other groups and then consider as to weather they acknowledge. In this process the role of consultant is just restricted only to the explanation of perceptions and meanings. The groups then move back to their own rooms and analyse the findings that apply to their and the other groups. This practice provides a framework to remove differences and elements causing division among the groups. It helps to identify such issues and their urgency to be resolved. Action plans are designed to address such problems and then critical evaluation for the practical implementation of the agreed plan is made by the experts.

Task 3:

Analyze ways in which performance of HR may be enhanced in the Organization

(Chosen of the purpose of assignment)

P 3.1: Review how Hr performance in the identified Organization is currently indicated and monitored.

It is a basic responsibility of the management and leadership to monitor and evaluate the performance of the HR. Mobilink Pakistan adopts different procedures to evaluate the performance of their employees, a few of them are disused below.

CHARATER REPORTS:

In this technique supervisor writes down a character report of every employee individually. It describes the employees' track record in terms of his behaviour and performance. It also highlights individual's strengths and weaknesses. Christian (2008) recognises the manager or supervisor charged with this responsibility must have true sense of judgement and writing skills to perform this task.

CRITICAL INCIDENTS;

In this approach the HR manager indicates those events representing good and bad behaviours of the workforce and their outcomes. Mark (2005) acknowledges that this practice represents the desired behaviours possessed by the workforce. It also address the signals indicating need for improvement.

GRAPHIC RATING SCALES:

This technique is connected with the detailed analysis of quantitative data. All the factors indicating the standards of performance are identified. These factors are rated according to their standards for instance rating one to five, where 5 represents the highest stand and the It represents the lowest standard. This type of monitoring requires strong observation skills and it is economical way of evaluation.

A dissimilarity of the realistic rating is the 'behaviourally affixed ranking scale'. Where every ranting scale is clearly elaborated in connection with the attach behaviours. Behaviourally anchored rating scales specify job-related behaviour associated with each performance factor along a continuum. The human resources manager of the organization selects the acceptable point of performance.

MULTI PERSON COMPARISON;

This procedure is used to access one's attributes and characteristics against the other. It is the best exercised method for performance appraisal. Jane (1998) describes that this approach has three basics of comparison;

INDIVIDUAL RANKING: It comprises comparing an individual against another individual in the same position. It is helpful to identify and evaluate the proficiencies and expertises of the employees individually.

GROUP RANKING; In this type of ranking individuals are categorised into the different groups and then each group's performance is compared with that of the other group. Group performing well will be ranked higher than the other one.

PAIRED COMPARISON: This type of comparison recognises that each employee must be compared with every other employee in the organization. Employees are harmonized and every individual employee is given ranking after comparison with the others. This ranking is based on the strengths and weakness of the individuals against the paired employees. Hence this methodology provides an evaluation of any individual employee with the rest of the workforce individually. However it some times becomes difficult in the organizations having high number of personals involved.

P 3.2: Try to suggest ways to improve this.

In the opinion of the researcher, the performance of the human resources department may be enhanced by 'Multi Rater Comparative Evaluation' with in the organization.

A very common example of this approach is assessment centre. Using multi rater, comparative evaluation approach can be adopted in an assessment centre. In the perspective of management development it is usually referred as development centre. In such a scenario just with in a few days, appraisal of attributes and abilities of the employees can be completed as the benchmarking promotional criteria. The whole process consists of interviews, test, and analysis of performance, peer and expert appraisal.

Another commonly example that Mobilink Pakistan can include into its system is of 360 degree feedback survey. It is also an example of multi rater technique. In this approach multi several people give performance related feedback, it is potentially very useful. It recognises both qualitative and quantitative issues. Feedback report published at the end of the whole process is discussed with the employees to address the highlighted areas of concern. Goffin (2007) recognises that 360 degree appraisal is widly being used all over the world these days. It also helps to develop ethical cultured organization and encourages people towards values.

Recognising the feedback from the customers' while monitoring the human resources performances has also becoming very famous these days. To complete this task the HR manager can;

Can collect customers' reviews by conducting telephonic survey or interviews.

Use surveillance technique to monitor samples of service encounter.

Mystry customers strategy can be used in which organization's spy acts like a difficult customer and then provide a report on the level of professionalism and services received in return.