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Human resource management consists of several practices. The strategies to maximize the outcome of these practices will vary depending on the companies' objectives, goals, and needs. Human resource management practices include analyzing and designing work, determining human resource needs (HR planning), attracting potential employees (recruiting), choosing employees (selection), teaching employees how to perform their jobs and preparing them for the future (training and development), rewarding employees, (compensation), evaluating their performance (performance management), and creating a positive work environment (employee relations).
Job analysis is a methodical exploration of the activities within a job. It is a procedure that is used to define the duties, responsibilities and accountabilities of a job. This analysis include the identification and description of what is happening on the job, accurately and precisely identifying the required tasks, the knowledge and the skills necessary for performing them, and the conditions under which they must be performed now and in the future. Job design is the process of deciding the contents of the job, deciding methods to carry out the job, and deciding the relationship which exists in the organization. Job analysis helps to create job design and job design matches the requirements of the job with the human qualities required to do the job.
Human Resource Planning consists of forecasting, goal setting, strategic planning, program implementation and evaluation. I feel that HR planning practices are of great importance because they are used by organizations to ensure that the right person is in the right job at the right time to fulfill their needs. HR planning is significant for an organization wishing to be successful and it is vital for attaining a competitive edge in the market.
The first step is to forecast HR needs for the future based on the strategic goals of the organization. Estimating both supply and demand will realistically forecast human resources required. Questions to be answered include: How many staff will be required to achieve the strategic goals of the organization? What jobs will need to be filled? What skill sets will people need? When forecasting demands for HR, you must also assess the challenges that you will have in meeting your staffing need based on the external environment. How will the external environment impact on our HR needs? The next step is to determine the gap between where your organization wants to be in the future and where you are now.
The gap analysis otherwise known as goal setting is the next step and it includes identifying the number of staff and the skills and abilities required in the future in comparison to the current situation. An evaluation of an organization's HR management practices could help identify practices that could be improved or new practices needed to support the organization's capacity to move forward. Questions to be answered include: What new jobs will we need? What new skills will be required? Do our present employees have the required skills? Are employees currently in positions that use their strengths? Do we have enough managers/supervisors? Are current HR management practices adequate for future needs?
The next step is strategic planning. There are five HR strategies for meeting your organization's needs in the future:
Training and development strategies
Upon developing the strategies for HR in an organization they should be documented in an HR plan. This is a short document that states the key ideas and the resulting strategies along with who has responsibility for the strategies and the timelines for implementation.
Once the HR strategic plan is complete the next step is to implement the program. Agreement with the plan ensures that the board chair, executive director and senior managers agree with the strategic HR plan. It may seem like redundant step if everyone has been involved all the way along, but it's always good to get final confirmation. The strategic HR plan needs to be communicated throughout all aspects of the organization. Your communication should include: How the plan combines to the organization's overall strategic plan what changes in HR management policies, practices, and activities will be made to support the strategic plan. How any changes in HR management will affect the staff, they should including a timeframe if it will be a factor. How each individual member of the staff could give a contribution to the plan. How the staff will be supported through any changes How the organization will be different in the future It is impossible to communicate too much (but all too easy to communicate too little), especially when changes involve people. However, depending upon the audience the amount of detail should vary. Legislation and mandate ensure that the actions you are considering are compliant with existing laws, regulations and the constitution and bylaws of your organization. To review laws relating to employment, visit the HR Toolkit section on Employment Legislation and Standards Organizational needs whether you are increasing or reducing the number of employees, there are implications for space and equipment, and on existing resources such as payroll and benefit plans.
HR plans need to be updated and evaluated on a regular basis. The information that will allow HR to evaluate the success of the new plan will need to be established. Benchmarks need to be selected and measured over time to determine if the plan is successful in achieving the desired objectives.
Recruitment is the practice or activity carried on by an organization with the primary purpose of identifying or attracting new employees. There is internal versus external recruiting which is desirable because it provides opportunity for advancement and a promotion from within the company. Direct applicants, or referrals, are people who either apply for the job vacancy without prompting from the organization or are people that are prompted to apply for the job vacancy by someone from within the company. Electronic recruiting also called e-cruiting is highly used by HR executives who indicate that electronic job boards are one of the most effective sources for recruits. Public employment agencies serve mostly the blue collared labor market; private employment agencies provide the same service for the white collared workers. A recruiter is someone engaging in recruitment, or the solicitation of individuals to fill jobs or positions within a corporation, non-for-profit organization, sports team, etc. Recruiters can be excellent passive job hunting assets. They work on commission, so it's in their best interest to find you a good job.
A candidate assessment tool works best for the selection process. If the interview process includes using a panel method, have each person grade or rank the candidates separately. This is done with an interview evaluation form. Be sure that each person interviewing keeps notes from every interview in the employee selection process so as not to confuse the strengths and weaknesses of candidates. Other Considerations if you chose to use a pre-employment assessment such as a personality test you can fold that into the overall judging of employees. There are many different pre-employment screening tests that are available. The final results can be a charted score of each candidate's grade or ranking. A final meeting of the selection team to discuss the numbers and the intangibles is often the final step in the employee selection process. With the graded or ranked criteria, minor differences in the top two candidates can often be distinguished. Ultimately, a decision has to be made. This decision falls to the hiring authority. Should you find that all the data does not agree with a gut feeling, remember that too often our gut instinct is telling us we like one person more than another but the data is telling us a different story.
Strategic training and development initiatives are learning related actions that a company should take to help achieve its business strategy. Training and development should improve productivity, effectiveness and efficiency by developing the better utilization of talents, abilities and potential of employees. Training and development will help a company and its employees in many ways. It could help employees develop their knowledge, skills and abilities so that they might become better qualified to perform the duties of their present jobs and help advance to more responsible positions. It will provide the development of managers and supervisors capable of organizing and developing effective management systems for the accomplishment of the companies' goals and objectives. It could accelerate the development of culturally disadvantaged employees whose abilities and aptitudes are underutilized because of inadequate education and training. It could alleviate labor market shortages and reduce personnel turnover.
The compensation practice set the position of the organization on the job market and defines the items in the total cash in the organization and their role. The role that different components play in a given compensation is very important as the role of the compensation components can differ. For example, the role of bonuses can be primarily in rewarding performance or the retention of the employees and the organization has to decide. The compensation practice has to reflect the reality in the industry and the surrounding job market. The compensation practice can set the wish to pay the lowest possible salaries, but the HRM Function and the organization have to respect the reality on the job market.
Performance management is the means to ensure that goals are consistently being met in an effective and efficient manner. Performance management can focus on many aspects of an organization. The organizations performance, a department, a process to build a product or service, employees, etc., can all benefit from performance management. Performance Management is not a single, annual process; rather, it is a continuous cycle of assessment and adjustment. Throughout the Performance Management process, companies organize and update data from multiple sources to provide decision makers with the best information possible that can inform future adjustment and improvement recommendations.
Employee Relations involves all that is concerned with maintaining employer-employee relationships that contribute to satisfactory productivity, motivation, and morale. Employee Relations is essentially concerned with preventing and resolving problems involving individuals who arise out of or affect work situations. Advice should be provided to supervisors on how to correct poor performance and employee misconduct. Information should also be provided to employees on how to promote a better understanding of management's goals and policies. Information provided to assist employees in correcting poor performance and to address personal issues that affect them in the workplace should be a common practice.
Human resource practices are very important to an organizations success. Human resource practices refer to the policies and procedures an organization follows for the hiring, firing and management of its personnel. Human resource practices can also be described as the initiatives that companies institute for aligning labor and capital management with operational goals and objectives.