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Human resource is concerned about organization work and the creation of accepting quality jobs. The quantity and quantity of employment are two different aspects. They cannot be divorced from each other. Generally all organisations have a motive of decent work aspect, but the quality of employment reflects in many things like as reflecting to different forms of work of various conditions. They also focus feelings of value and satisfaction. Human Resource Management understands today's need to develop social and economic systems which ensure employee welfare, security and job employment. They also formulate to enhance capability of adaptation to various circumstances which are changing rapidly in highly competitive global market. (ILO: Decent work, Report of the Director-General, International Labour Conference, 87th Session, Geneva, 1999, p. 4).
The department and supporting personnel are responsible for various activities like personnel resourcing and hiring for job, tracking applicant, enhancing and developing their skills, which are beneficiary for administration and functions properly following with associated government regulations. A human resources department is a key functional factor for employee growth and development in any business. HR responsibilities include payroll, providing benefits, hiring staff as per job allocations and keeping up-to-date with state and federal tax laws. However any mix-up or mis-manipulation in these issues can cause major legal problems forÂ organisation, which might result in employee dissatisfaction. (http://www.entrepreneur.com/encyclopedia/term/82184.html)
Term that is replacing personnel management and implying that personnel managers should not merely handle recruitment, pay, and discharging, but should maximize the use of an organization's human resources.(Answers.com). Now in the modern business world seen changes especially in human resource management, there is multi changes occurring within and an around these word.
Efficient key role of HR in the Organisation
Human Resource Management function within an organization like recruitment of, management and providing the employee who work in the organization. Human Resource Management is the organizational function that deals with issue or problems related to employee such as compensation, hiring, performance management, bonus, organization development, safety, wellness, remuneration, benefits, employee motivation, communication, administration, rewards and training legal requirement. Human Resource Management is also keeping strategic and comprehensive approach to managing people and workplace cultureÂ and environment. Effective human resources management enables employees to contribute effectively and productively to the all over company direction and the accomplishment of the organization's goals.
Human Resource Management includes the development of exact blend between administrative functions and the well-being of all employees in an organization. Employee retention ratio is directly proportional to the staff handling management, in return for their skills and experience. A Human Resource Manager usually controls employee relationships within the departments and enhances scope for employee communication at various levels accordingly. Each and every organization has a unique Human Resource Management Department dealing with the representatives of all production factors. The department is responsible for the improving and application of ongoing research on strategic advances while recruiting, terminating and training employee. The Human Resource Management Department is responsible for understanding to employee's problem, thus identifying individual needs and career goals. Department is developing good relation between the staff to ensure collated and constructive productivity and taking care of a uniformÂ organisational culture, Department should identify areas that are lack of knowledge, information and insufficient training, and accordingly provide remedial measures in the form of workshops and seminars, training sessions. For achieve goal of the organisation generate a rostrum for all staff and provide required resources to accomplish agendas. Recruiting the adequate workforce and making provisions for expressed and payroll and benefits. To be implementing resources to subsequently crate and sustain competitive advantage.
Personnel management swing to Human Resource Management:
Personnel Management is basically anÂ administrative feature which looks after record keeping at theÂ operational level. Personnel Management maintain and follows appropriate terms and conditions of employment, while at the same time, personnel administrative activities are managed effectively for individual departments. The outcomes from providing justice and achieving efficiency in the management operation of personnel activities will ultimately result in achieving organisational success (iqpc.com). There many questions arise as, why change in the label from 'Personnel Management' to 'Human Resource Management' is necessary? Is there any difference in philosophy or theory or and change in mode of practice? What are various motives of practitioners in resisting the change of label?
Personnel management is a subsidiary form of human resource management. This section of management looks after the welfare of employee in an organisation. The hiring and staffing of employees is a key role of personnel management in an organization followed by suggesting job description as well as the skill evaluation required for a concerned job. The personnel management looks after proper appropriate training and development of the individual employee during his job term.
The personnel management also decides various beneficiary schemes and different norms to given to employee. It establishes various operational policies and procedures, employment requirements as per company policies, discipline procedures and regulations. In all organizations, personnel management concerned with theÂ growth, welfare and performance of people in the operation. The task of function to programs and setting policies and strategies are taken individually or in team work. This result in impact on everyone associated with the company, who are part in the process ofÂ personnelÂ management. They are sometimes referred asÂ Human ResourceÂ (HR)Â Management.
Personnel Manager is the mentor of the personnel management. The prime function of a personnel manager is concerned with the staffing process. The manager main focus is on screening and interviewing applicants, with an eye to individual placement accordingly with the right skills and experience in the right position in the company or organisation. Under personnel management supervision, the management team look after the placements as per job description followed by conducting training and development programs, they also acknowledge the existing employees with appropriate education and career opportunities.
some experts assert that there is no difference between human resourcesÂ andÂ personnel management. They state that the two terms can be used interchangeably, with no difference in meaning. In fact, the terms are often used interchangeably in help-wanted ads and job descriptions. Personnel management is more administrative in nature, dealing withÂ payroll, complying withÂ employment law, and handling related tasks. Human resources, on the other hand, is responsible for managing a workforce as one of the primary resources that contributes to the success of an organization.
due to rise in globalisation, HRM observed a rise in demand for skilled and qualifications was more looked after for managerial and professional and technical workers. Personnel management worked on limited scale of functions but due to growth in globalisations and invasion of new technological aspects, they have to imply new aspects and new strategies for efficient functions and productivity.
Globalization which requires organizations to move people, ideas, products and information around the world to meet local needs. New and important ingredients must be added to the mix when making strategy, volatile political situations, contentious global trade issues, fluctuating exchange rates and unfamiliar cultures. Technology is a factor of challenge to make it a viable, productive part of the work setting.
Torrington (1989) said personnel management has grown through accumulating numerous emphases to produce an even richer combination of experience, while HRM is no revolution but a further dimension to a multi-faceted role. By this time of mid - 1980's a full feture of HRM came into a concept which was by then implied in company with help of various efficient writers reviews and studies. One of those were Pascale and Athos (1981), Peters and Waterman (1982).and Walton(1985)
An HRM strategy states the implementation of the specific functions of Human Resource Management. An organization's HR function are enlisted as
recruitment and selection policies,
an HR plan, or learning and development policies,
However all of these functional areas of HRM need to be aligned and correlated, in order to correspond with the overall business strategy. An HRM strategy thus is an overall plan, concerning the implementation of specific HRM functional areas.
The Changing Face of Human Resource Management:
An HRM strategy consists of the following factors:-
"Best fit" and "best practice" - meaning that there is correlation between the HRM strategy and the overall corporate strategy. As HRM as a field seeks to manageÂ human resourceÂ in order to achieve properly organizational goals, an organization's HRM strategy seeks to accomplish such management by applying a firm's personnel needs with the goals/objectives of the organisation. As an example, a firm selling cars could have a corporate strategy of increasing car sales by 10% over a five year period. Accordingly, the HRM strategy would seek to facilitate how exactly to manage personnel in order to achieve the 10% figure. Specific HRM functions, such as recruitment and selection, reward/recognition, an HR plan, or learning and development policies, would be tailored to achieve the corporate objectives.
Close co-operation (at least in theory) between HR and the top/senior management, in the development of the corporate strategy. Theoretically, a senior HR representative should be present when an organization's corporate objectives are devised. This is so, since it is a firm's personnel who actually construct a good, or provide a service. The personnel's proper management is vital in the firm being successful, or even existing as a going concern. Thus, HR can be seen as one of the critical departments within the functional area of an organization.
Continual monitoring of the strategy, via employee feedback, surveys, etc.
The implementation of an HR strategy is not always required, and may depend on a number of factors, namely the size of the firm, the organizational culture within the firm or the industry that the firm operates in and also the people in the firm.
An HRM strategy can be divided, in general, into two facets - the people strategy and the HR functional strategy. The people strategy pertains to the point listed in the first paragraph, namely the careful correlation of HRM policies/actions to attain the goals laid down in the corporate strategy. The HR functional strategy relates to the policies employed within the HR functional area itself, regarding the management of persons internal to it, to ensure its own departmental goals are met.
After many case study and analysis, researchers have long discussed that HRM practices can differ according to countries and/or industries. There are many reasons which impact the occurrence like as: cultural idiosyncrasy (Salk & Brannen, 2000), governmental regulations/policies (Morishima, 1995), competitive priorities (Boxall & Steeneveld, 1999), and adoption of managerial practices, such as JIT and quality management (Snell & Dean, 1992).
Personnel management used to play a key role in an organisational operation but due to change in global trends and increase in demand of new systems of imperial and more efficiency, they had to improvise their own system and to be more efficient to uphold the further load of actions and to adapt the new variations of operative system. Thus HRM being more efficient in processing and functioning the right operation and organisational regulations to deliver the efficiency and productivity.
HRM plays a key role in a well established organization. The impact of HRM practices on performance of modern organization is been the prime subject discussion over the years. However, after long research and analysis of globalization, many writers found that validation in HRM across countries and various industries is nearly non-existent. MacDuffie (1995) confirms this statics stating that in the literature point of view, pragmatic examination of HRM practices across industries and in different countries is very limited. Recent progressive trend of globalisation, new emerging business ventures and acquisitions in the business world are on upscale. The study of HRM practices in the context of industry has become a prime necessity. (Legare, 1998).
Delery and Doty (1996) support this statics. They are also concern about the results of their study of HRM functional operations in an organisation. Ahmad and Schroeder (2003) supported with evidence to this cross cultured management variation. They discovered substantial differences in HRM practices which are implied by organisational management operating in various countries. Dissimilarly, when comparing industries, they found that the majority of HRM practices did not differ significantly across the three different industries.
Human Resource Management understands the new trend and demand of globalisation in this 21st century and makes move towards progress of organisation. They go through various sessions of strategic reviews, up scaling, improvisation in their roles and to get the best from their employee to enhance the productivity, as follows; (Oliver 1998)
Global best quality
Everything customised to their needs
The Global best price
Cross culture management
Ethnicity is replacing nationalism.
Expanded regional power bases
Employer Responses and Implications for Industrial Relations
Moving production overseas to reduce costs and to facilitate sensitivity to local and regional market requirements.
Contracting out and out-sourcing
Pushing for a more deregulated and flexible labour marketÂ
For example : For example, in the USA, outsourcing of functions in hospitals not directly related to the work of doctors and nurses (care of patients) has substantially increased the productivity of the hospitals, and provided new opportunities for service employees. "Outsourcing is needed not just because of the economics involved. It is required equally because it gives opportunities, income and dignity to service work and service workers."Â
More part-time and temporary work (especially among women, the elderly and students)
One important response has been the introduction of flexibility in the employment relationship to increase the capacity of enterprises to adapt rapidly to market changes. This has involved measures such asÂ flexible working hours.Â